Ministry of Education of Ukraine LVIV National University named after I. Franko Faculty of Geology icon

Ministry of Education of Ukraine LVIV National University named after I. Franko Faculty of Geology




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Ministry of Education of Ukraine

Lviv National University named after I.Franko

Faculty of Geology

Department of General Geology


Syllabus




Subject: GENERAL GEOLOGY

Specialty: 7.070700- Geology

Form of tuition: Fulltime

First year

Semesters I, II



Semester

Hours

Lectures

Labs

Credit tests

Exams

1

90

54

36




+

2

60

30

30

+

+

total

150

84

66









Compiled by: A.O.Sivoronov, professor


Considered at the Recommended by

Faculty Meeting Methodological Council


^ 1. Goal and tasks of the course.

The goal of the course in General Geology is an introduction of students to geology as a science, to methods of geological research as well as general understanding of structure and age of the Earth, exogenous and endogenous processes, main structural elements of the Earth’s crust and laws of their development along with importance of geology for national economy.


The tasks of the course include – acquiring by students good knowledge of minerals, rocks and their formation, main laws of geological processes, main structural elements of the Earth’s crust, its construction and evolution.


Upon successful completion of the course students should know:

  • structure and material contents of Earth;

  • principles of classification and diagnostics of minerals;

  • diagnostics of most important representatives of different classes and groups of rocks;

  • whole variety of exogenous and endogenous processes;

  • constituents and faults locations in the Earth’s crust;

  • main structural elements of the Earth’s crust.



Students should acquire skills for describing minerals and rocks most widespread in the Earth’s crust, characterizing most important types of tectonic structures, conducting analysis of endogenous and exogenous processes in their dynamics.

Due to the fact that this course is being taught in the 1st year of education, the prerequisites are: knowledge of geography, physics and chemistry within the volume of the curriculum of secondary school.


^ 2. Course in general geology, topics, their contents and hourly volume.


Lectures

Тopic 1. Introduction (4 hrs)

Structure of geological sciences system. Hierarchic levels of organization of geological matter and corresponding specific geological sciences. Tasks and methods of geological research. Interconnection of geology and other natural sciences: biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, mechanics, technical sciences. Fundamental principles of geological science. Achievements of modern science and technology in the field of geology. Importance of geology for national economy and consolidation of material basis of Ukraine. Geology and Ecology. Structure of geological services in Ukraine.


^ Тopic 2. Structure of the Earth (4 hrs)

Shape of the Earth, dimensions, weight, average density. Gravitational, magnetic and heat fields of the Earth, their features and origin. Pressure and its changes in accordance with depth. Temperature of the Earth: geothermal gradient and geothermal level. Notion of heat current and its evolution. Solid covers of the Earth: crust, mantle, core. Methods of research of the structure of the Earth’s crust: results of super deep drilling of continents and ocean bottom. Distant aero-photospace shooting, geo-physical methods of studying deep zones of the Earth’s crust, mantle and core. Notion of lithosphere and its importance for understanding petrologic and geotectonic processes.


^ Тopic 3. Earth’s Crust, its Structure and Contents (4 hrs.)

Types of the Earth’s crusts. Main layers of earth’s crust ascertained from the data received from super deep drilling and seismic methods. Dislocation of Earth’s crust. Notion of isostasy.


Labs

Тopic 1. Material contents of the Earth’s crust. Minerals, their classification and genesis (2 hrs)

Тopic 2. Forms of minerals found in nature. Physical properties of minerals.

(4 hrs)

Colloquium.

Тopic 3. Main classes of minerals: class of virgin elements, class of halide complexes, class of oxides and hydroxides, class of carbonates, class of sulfates, class of phosphates. (6 hrs.)

Colloquium.

Тopic 4. Class of silicates and alumosilicates. Island, chain, line and sheet silicates. Framework aluminosilicates. (6 hrs)


Colloquium.


Lectures

Тopic 4. Geological Chronology (4 hrs.).

Importance of “geological time” for development of geological processes. Relative chronology. Methods of studying relative age (sequence of formation) of sedimentary and magmatic rocks. Stratigraphic, lithologic and paleontologic methods, their importance and restrictions. Notion of ruling fossil organisms.

Absolute geochronology. Radiological methods of determination of “absolute age” of rocks. Seasonal climatic methods. Paleo-magnetic method, its essence and possible applications.

Geochronical scale (scale of geological age) and corresponding stratigraphic table (division of rocks in accordance with age): Akron – akrotema; eon – eonotema, era – eratema, period – system, epoch – division, century – level. Absolute age of Earth and of most ancient rocks.


^ Тopic 5. Magmatism (2 hrs.).


Two main forms of magmatism.: intrusive (deep) and effusive (surface). Definition of magma. Transfusion of plasma into rock. Origin of magmas and reason for versatility of magmatic rocks.


Тopic 6. Effusive magmatism – volcanism (4 hrs).

Volcanoes and their activity. Products of volcano eruption: gas, liquid, solid, their contents and classification. Types of volcano eruptions according to quantitative correlation of different as to their aggregate contents volcano products. Hawaii types of volcanoes (namely lava), Palei type (explosive-extrusive), structure of volcanic apparatus. Ethno-Vezuvian type (explosive-effusive). Strata volcanoes. Bandansai type (explosive).

Volcanoes of central type. Maars, diatremes. Polygenetic volcanoes. Calderas and their origin.

Fractional and areal types of volcanism and their peculiarities. Syn- and post volcanic phenomena: fumaroles, solfataras, moffets, geysers, mudflows, thermal springs (hydrotherms).

Geographic spreading of active volcanoes. Volcanoes in rift zones of continents and oceans. Connection of volcanic zones with seismofocal zones. Notion of natural associations (formations) of volcanic rocks. Practical importance of volcanoes and products of their activity. Volcanism as an important ore formational process.


Labs

^ Тopic 5. Volcanic rocks and their classification (7 hrs).


Effusive rocks. Pyroclastic rocks. Ignimbrites.

Colloquium


Lectures

Тема 7. Intrusive Magmatism (4 hrs.).

Types of intrusion according to their form, dimensions, deepness of crystallization and interrelation with hosting rocks. Concordant and subconcordant intrusive contacts: lopoliths, laccoliths, phaccoliths. Unconformable intrusive contacts: dykes, sills, stocks, plugs, batholiths, bismaliths, etmolites.

Notion of natural associations (formations) of intrusive rocks.

Pegmatites and their formation. Pneumatolite and hydrothermal processes. Interaction of intrusive bodies with hosting rocks.

Minerals connected to intrusive rocks.


Labs

^ Тopic 6. Intrusive Rocks (7 hrs.).

Classification of intrusive rocks. Structure and texture. Forms of deposition of intrusive bodies.

Colloquium.


Lectures

Тема 8. Metamorphism (4 hrs.).

Factors of metamorphism: temperature, pressure (surrounding and stress), fluid regime.

Local and regional metamorphism.

Main types of metamorphism: 1) contact (thermo-contact) and contact – metasomatic; 2) regional, 3) dynamic (dynametamorphism); 4) shock (impact) metamorphism.

Ultrametamorphism, anatexis, palingenesis. Migmatites.

Progressive and regressive metamorphism.

Facies of metamorphism and its role in formation and development of the Earth’s crust. Mineral deposits connected with processes of metamorphism.


Labs

^ Тема 7. Metamorphic Rocks (5 hrs.).

Rocks of regional metamorphism. Rocks of dynamic and contact metamorphism. Metasomatic rocks. Ore surrounding metasomatites.

Colloquium.


Lectures

Тема 9. Movement, Deformation and Dislocation of the Earth’s Crust

(4 hrs.).

Types of tectonic movements of the Earth’s crust. Vertical and horizontal movements, their interconnection. Notion of the mechanism of deformation and destruction of solid geological bodies. Tense condition of the Earth’s crust and its role in development of geological processes.

Horizontal and monocline deposition of rocks.

Folded fractions in rocks. Elements of a fold. Types of folds in accordance with location of axial surface (straight, inclined, overlapping, laying, jumping). Types of folds in accordance with forms of rising and interrelation of wings – sharp, round, isocline, trunk. Forms of folds in projection (linear, brachiform, cupola and muldis). Pericline and centricline locks of folds. Drapery folds. Types of folding – complete, interrupted, intermediate.

Faults in rocks. Faults with no shift. Shift faults. Geometrical elements of faults. Geological and geophysical features of faults. Deep faults and their role in the development of the Earth’s crust.


Labs

^ Тopic 8. Folding and Faulting of rocks. (6 hrs)

Data on layers of rocks. Bedding and cover of layer, thickness of layer. Initial deposits in layers. Secondary deposits in layers: monoclines, flexures, folds. Types and elements of folds. Elements of layer deposits. Mountaineer compass.


Тopic 9. Disconcordants (4 hrs.) .

Stratigraphic, parallel, corner and asimut disconcordants.

Colloquium.


Lectures

Тема 10. Earthquakes (seismicity) (4 hrs.).

Examples of catastrophic earthquakes. Geographic spreading of earthquakes and their tectonic position. Definition of epicentre and hypocenter of earthquakes. Methods of studying earthquakes. Tense seismic waves, their types and speed of spreading. Registering seismic waves. Seismic stations and seismographs. Determination of distance to epicenter and its coordinates. Scales for earthquake intensity evaluation. Energy, magnitude and energetic class of an earthquakes. Geological conditions for origination of earthquakes. Seismofocal zones. Earthquakes forecast.

^ Тема 11. Exogenous Processes. Weathering Processes. (4 hrs.).

Essence and direction of weathering processes. Agents and types of weathering. Role of climate.

Physical weathering and factors causing it. Products of physical weathering.

Chemical weathering. Factors of chemical weathering. Types of chemical reactions providing major changes in rocks. Role of organic matter in the processes of weathering. Zones of weathering processes, definition of stages of weathering. Products of chemical weathering.

Weathering crust as a historically formed and interconnected complex – rocks, relief, climate and bios. Formation, structure and capacity of weathering crusts in different climatic zones and rocks.

Plane and linear weathering crusts. Ancient weathering crusts. Mineral deposits in weathering crusts. Types of soils and zones.


^ Тopic 12. Geological Activity of Wind (4 hrs.).

Deflation, corrasion, transportation of sand and dust materials.


Eolian accumulations. Eolian sands (contents, character of layers). Eolian forms of relief.

Deserts as regions of maximum development of eolian process. Types of deserts. World deserts and their development.

Sand accumulative eolian forms of off-desert zones (sea coasts, lakes and river terraces). Moving forms of sand relief and measures for their prevention.


^ Тopic 13. Geological Activity of Surface Running Waters (4 hrs.).

Plane slope flow. Geological activity of temporary flows. Linear erosion, transportation of debris by temporary flows, accumulation of sediments. Steep banks, their origin and stages of development. Temporary mountain flows: destructing, transporting and accumulating activity. Dry deltas of permanent water flows in arid regions, peculiarities of structure of exit cones and dry deltas. Prolluvium – genetic type of continental sediments.


^ Тopic 14. Geological Activity of Rivers (6 hrs.).

River valleys, their forms and development. Erosion, bottom and side. Interrelation of bottom and side erosion in the process of development of river valleys. Definition of bases of erosion and their role in creation of longitudinal profile of river. Transportation of debris and dissolved materials.

Accumulative activity of rivers. Formation of alluvium and coastal marshes. Types of alluvium. Peculiarities of alluvium sediments in mountain rivers. Mineral deposits in alluvium.

Elements of relief of plane rivers, coastal marshes. Development of rivers in plains. Coastal marshes terraces. Morphological elements of terraces. Types of super-terrace coastal marshes: accumulative, erosive and bottom, intermediate.

Pre-entrance parts of river valleys. Deltas and their sediments, estuaries.

Direction of water denudation of soil. Denudation and accumulative plains. Interrelation of direction and cycles in the evolution of river valleys.


^ Тopic 15. Geological Activity of Ground Waters (4 hrs.).

Types of water in rocks: vapourized, tight, loose, capillary, gravitational, solid, crystallized. Water features of rocks: definition of waterproofing.

Types of underground waters: close to surface, ground waters (their movement and regime), intralayer non-pressurized, intra layer pressurized (artesian). Downgoing and upgoing springs.

Chemical contents of underground waters, mineral waters.

Origin of underground waters. Genetic types of underground waters: infiltration, condensational, sedimentary, juvenile, and restored.


^ Тopic 16. Karst Processes (2 год. ).

Main factors of karst formation. Surface karst forms. Blind and half blind valleys, periodically disappearing lakes.

Underground karst forms. Karst caves and channels. Surface and sediments of karst caves. Main laws of karst development. Practical importance of the course.


Colloquium.


^ Тopic 17. Geological Activity of Glaciers and Water-Glacier Flows.

(4 hrs )

Formation of glaciers. General directions of the process: snow – firn – gletscher ice.

Types of glaciers. Mountain glaciers. Alpine type glaciers (simple and complex), changeable glaciers, hanging glaciers.

Continental (sheet) glaciers and their characteristic features (great strength of ice, absence of influence from glacier relief, location of source area, radical character of movement).

Intermediate glaciers: flat mountainous and premountaineous.

Regime of glaciers. Sources, movement and ablation of glaciers.

Geological relief formation activity of glaciers and water-glacier flows. Exaration, transportation and accumulative work of glaciers. Genetic types of glacier sediments: bottom, ablation and lateral, moraines. Genetic types of fluvial-glacier sediments: interglacier, off-glacier. Icing in the history of Earth. Precambrian and Paleozoic icing. Quaternary icing, reasons of icing.


^ Тема 18. Geological Processes in Freezing Zone of Lithosphere (2 hrs).

Fundamental notions of freezing rocks. Cryolite zone. Geo-Cryology.

Geographical spreading and capacity of rocks frozen for many years. Genetic types of underground ice: constitutional, repeatedly-sourceful, injection, buried, cave.

Types of underground waters of permafrost zone: superpermafrost, underpermafrost, intrapermafrost, inside permafrost.

Cryogenic (freezing-geological) processes. Frosting, cracking, thermokarst, migration mounds, injection mounds, icing (surface and underground), polygonal formations (spots – medallions, stone polygons). Cryogenic slope processes (solifluction tongues, terraces, covers). Kurums (“stone fields”, “stone rivers”, “stone flows”).


^ Тема 19. Geological Activity of Seas and Oceans (10 hrs.).

Definition of aquatorium of the world ocean. Oceans, edge and intercontinental seas.

Relief of bottoms of oceans and seas. Physico-chemical parameters of water of seas and oceans. Saltiness, chemical contents of waters, gas regime, temperature of sea water, pressure and thickness of sea water, movements of sea water.

Organic world of seas and oceans. Nekton, plankton and bentos organisms.

Destructive (abrasive) work of the sea. Wave coves, abrasive terraces, beaches, submarine accumulative terraces.

Transversal and longitudinal movements of debris and creation of coastal accumulative forms. Neutral line, shore swell, underwater sand swells, sand-bars, lagoons, spits, adjacent accumulative terraces, arc.

Sedimentation in different zones of the world ocean. Genetic classification of sea sediments. Types of zones of sediments accumulation: climatic, vertical, circumcontinental.

Coastal sediments. Sediments of shelf areas (sublitoral, organogenic). Shore, barrier riffs and atolls.

Sediments of continental slope and its foot: “blue”, “yellow”, “green” and organogenic silt. Underwater shifts, turbidity currents.

Sediments of the bottom of the world ocean: organogenic, polygenic (“red” deepwater clay), ferro- magnesium concretions.

Sediments in lagoons and salt bearing basins.

Transformation of sediments into sedimentary rocks. Processes of diagenesis and catagenesis. Diagenesis of sediments (conditions, stages, minerals formation).

Sedimentary rocks: cluster, clay, chemobiogenic.

Definition of facies and formations.


Labs

^ Тopic 10. Sedimentary Rocks (12 hrs.).

Structures and textures of sedimentary rocks.

Cluster soft and cemented rocks. Classification of cluster rocks as to the size of clusters: psephites, psammites, aleurites, pelites.

Chemogenic and organogenic rocks: carbonate, sulphate, sulphite, cremnium, ferrous, haloid, phosphate. Caustobolites.

Colloquium.


Lectures

Тopic 20. Geological Role of Lakes and Swamps (2 hrs.).

Origin of lake depressions. Lakes of endogenous and exogenous origin. Geological activity of lakes. Peculiarities of lake waters. Movement of water in lakes.

Lake abrasion. Lake sedimentation. Cluster, organogenic and gemogenic sediments.

Origin and types of swamps. Lake and forest swamps. Types: upper, intermediate, depressed, marine. Sediments in marshes: peat, gemogenic sediments.

Mineral deposits in lake sediments.


^ Topic 21. Gravitation Processes (4 hrs.).

Notion of gravitation processes .

Types of gravitation processes: namely gravitational (falls, landslides, landslips, avalanches), hydro-gravitational (shifts), hydro-gravitational, submarine-gravitational, submarine falls, underwater shifts, turbidity currents.

Practical importance of studying gravitation phenomena and preventive measures for them.


TOPICS


For course assignments, 1st year of education, specialty 7.070700 “Geology

1. earthquakes: where? When? Why?

2. volcanoes and volcanism.

3. are there enough natural resources for mankind?

4. Structure and origin of Solar System?

5. Karst Volynno-Podillia

6. Karst processes (factors, regime, dynamics).

7. geological work of wind and formation of deserts.

8. Coral riffs and their origin.

9. geological work of rivers.

10. geological work of the sea.

11. geological work of glaciers.

12. Icebergs, origin, spreading, geological work.

13. Deltas, estuaries, other coastal forms.

14. sources of energy on Earth.

15. hypothesis of continental drift and its evolution.

16. dislocation of Earth and its reasons.

17. what makes it possible to walk on a sea bottom being high up in the mountains?

18. giant plains and high mountains: geological contents.

19. the origin of Lake Baikal?

20. problem of origin of hydrosphere and atmosphere of Earth.

21. excavation of mineral deposits and ecology.

22. aerospace methods used in geology.

23.Meteorite (impact) structures of Earth.

24. Atmosphere and hydrosphere of the Earth (contents, structure, origin).

25.Magma (origin, contents and physical properties).

26. physico-chemical methods of determining age of minerals and rocks.

27. age of the Earth.

28. geological processes in Precambrian period.

29. geological processes in Paleozoic era.

30. geological processes in Mesozoic era.

31. geological processes in Cenozoic era.

32. Biosphere of the Earth (geological role and evolution).

33. evolution of climate of the Earth.

34. reasons for icing on the Earth.

35. origin of life on the Earth.

36. comparative paleontological research.

37. evolution of rotational regime of the Earth.


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