31. 01. 2012 Task: Read the information materials and answer the questions in written form icon

31. 01. 2012 Task: Read the information materials and answer the questions in written form




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Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів 1 курсу напряму підготовки Міжнародна економіка, програми УАП та КРОК ексклюзив на 31.01. – 3.02.2012 року

Викладач – Карпова Т.В.

31.01.2012

Task: Read the information materials and answer the questions in written form:

  1. What is a paragraph?

  2. What are the elements of a paragraph?

  3. What is a topic sentence?

What is a paragraph?

A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Learning to write good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on track during your drafting and revision stages. Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing. You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing).
^

The Basic Rule: Keep One Idea to One Paragraph


The basic rule of thumb with paragraphing is to keep one idea to one paragraph. If you begin to transition into a new idea, it belongs in a new paragraph. There are some simple ways to tell if you are on the same topic or a new one. You can have one idea and several bits of supporting evidence within a single paragraph. You can also have several points in a single paragraph as long as they relate to the overall topic of the paragraph. If the single points start to get long, then perhaps elaborating on each of them and placing them in their own paragraphs is the route to go.
^

Elements of a Paragraph


To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity, Coherence, A Topic Sentence, and Adequate Development. As you will see, all of these traits overlap. Using and adapting them to your individual purposes will help you construct effective paragraphs.

Unity


The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.

Coherence


Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges.
^

Logical bridges


  • The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence

  • Successive sentences can be constructed in parallel form

Verbal bridges


  • Key words can be repeated in several sentences

  • Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences

  • Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences

  • Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences
^

A topic sentence


A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with. Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, and despite the fact that topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (as the first sentence, the last sentence, or somewhere in the middle), an easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (This is a good general rule for less experienced writers, although it is not the only way to do it). Regardless of whether you include an explicit topic sentence or not, you should be able to easily summarize what the paragraph is about.
^

Adequate development


The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short.

Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed:

  • Use examples and illustrations

  • Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and others)

  • Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases)

  • Use an anecdote or story

  • Define terms in the paragraph

  • Compare and contrast

  • Evaluate causes and reasons

  • Examine effects and consequences

  • Analyze the topic

  • Describe the topic

  • Offer a chronology of an event (time segments)
^

How do I know when to start a new paragraph?


You should start a new paragraph when:

  • When you begin a new idea or point. New ideas should always start in new paragraphs. If you have an extended idea that spans multiple paragraphs, each new point within that idea should have its own paragraph.

  • To contrast information or ideas. Separate paragraphs can serve to contrast sides in a debate, different points in an argument, or any other difference.

  • When your readers need a pause. Breaks in paragraphs function as a short "break" for your readers—adding these in will help your writing more readable. You would create a break if the paragraph becomes too long or the material is complex.

  • When you are ending your introduction or starting your conclusion. Your introductory and concluding material should always be in a new paragraph. Many introductions and conclusions have multiple paragraphs depending on their content, length, and the writer's purpose.
^

Transitions and Signposts


Two very important elements of paragraphing are signposts and transitions. Signposts are internal aids to assist readers; they usually consist of several sentences or a paragraph outlining what the article has covered and where the article will be going.

Transitions are usually one or several sentences that "transition" from one idea to the next. Transitions can be used at the end of most paragraphs to help the paragraphs flow one into the next
^

Paragraphing (Length Consistency)


Paragraphs are units of thought with one idea developed adequately. Listed here are some rules of thumb to use when paragraphing. As your writing improves, you'll be able to break these "rules" to meet your own needs. Until then, these suggestions can be helpful:

  • Put only one main idea per paragraph.

  • Aim for three to five or more sentences per paragraph.

  • Include on each page about two handwritten or three typed paragraphs.

  • Make your paragraphs proportional to your paper. Since paragraphs do less work in short papers, have short paragraphs for short papers and longer paragraphs for longer papers.

  • If you have a few very short paragraphs, think about whether they are really parts of a larger paragraph—and can be combined—or whether you can add details to support each point and thus make each into a more fully developed paragraph.

You can check on whether your paragraphs are balanced by looking at your paper.


1.02.2012

Task: Read the information materials and answer the questions in written form:

  1. What types of paragraphs are usually used in essays?

  2. What expressions are used in each type of paragraph?

  3. How to make a paragraph consistent?



Types of paragraphs

Definition Paragraph


When writing a definition paragraph, you take a thing or an idea and explain what it is.

Example:

Write a paragraph giving the definition of a pest.

The following words can help you to write a good definition paragraph:

^ 1. "is defined as"

Example:

A pest is defined as any animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property.

2. "is a kind of"

Example:

A pest is a kind of animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property.


Classification Paragraph


When writing a classification paragraph, you group things or ideas into specific categories.

Example:     Write a paragraph discussing two types of energy resources.

^ The following words can help you to write a good classification paragraph:

Helper Words:




is a kind of

Coal is a kind of non-renewable resource.

can be divided into

Energy resources can be divided into two types.

is a type of

Coal is a type of non-renewable resource.

falls under

Coal falls under the category of non-renewable resources.

belongs to

Coal belongs to the category of non-renewable resources.

is a part of

Coal is a part of the category of non-renewable resources.

fits into

Coal fits into the category of non-renewable resources.

is grouped with

Coal is grouped with non-renewable resources.

is related to

Coal is related to other non-renewable resources.

is associated with

Coal is associated with other non-renewable resources.




Description Paragraph


In a description paragraph, you are writing about what a person, place, or thing is like. Sometimes, you may describe where a place is located.

Examples:

Write a paragraph describing what a polar bear looks like.

Describe where Canada's industry is located.

The following words can help you to write a good description paragraph:

^ Helper Words:

Properties

Measurement

Analogy

Location

size

length

is like

in

colour

width

resembles

above

shape

mass/weight

 

below

purpose

speed

 

beside

 

 

 

near

 

 

 

north/east/south/west


Properties

size Example:     Polar bears are big in size.

colour Example:     Polar bears are usually white in colour.

shape Example:     Polar bears have a special shape.

purpose Example:     The purpose of the polar bear's fur is to keep it warm.

Measurement

length Example:     The length of a polar bear's claws is 20 cm.

width Example:     The width of a polar bear's head is about 50 cm.

mass / weight Example:     Polar bears weigh up to 650 kg.

speed Example:     Polar bears can swim at a speed of 40 km per hour.

Analogy

Іs like Example:     A polar bear is like other bears in shape.

Resembles Example:     A polar bear resembles other bears in shape.

Location

In Example:     Most of Canada's manufacturing is located in Ontario and Quebec.

Above Example:     The ceiling is above us.

Below Example:     Most of Ontario is below Hudson Bay.

Beside Example:     Quebec is located beside Ontario.

Near Example:     Many companies are located near Toronto.

north / east / south / west Example:     Ontario is west of Quebec


Compare and Contrast Paragraph


In a compare and contrast paragraph, you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people, places, things, or ideas.

Example:  Write a paragraph comparing the weather in Vancouver and Halifax.

The following words can help you to write a good compare and contrast paragraph:

^ Helper Words:

Similarities

Differences

is similar to

the other hand

both

however

also

but

too

in contrast

as well

differs from

 

while

 

unlike



Similarities

Іs similar to Example:   Spring weather in Vancouver is similar to spring weather in Halifax.

Both Example:   Both Vancouver and Halifax have rain in the spring.

Also Example:   Halifax also has a rainy spring season.

Too Example:   Halifax has a rainy spring season, too.

as well Example:   As well, Halifax has rainy spring season.

Differences

on the other hand Example:   On the other hand, winter is much colder in Halifax.

However Example:   However, winter is much colder in Halifax.

But Example:   Vancouver has a mild winter, but Halifax has a cold one.

in contrast to Example:   In contrast to Vancouver, Halifax has a cold winter.

differs from Example:   Halifax differs from Vancouver by having a cold winter.

While Example:   While Vancouver has a mild winter, Halifax has a cold winter.


Sequence Paragraph


In a sequencing paragraph, you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. Usually, this order is based on time.

Example:   Write a paragraph outlining how a person becomes the prime minister.

The following words can help you to write a good sequence paragraph.

^ Helper Words:

Order

Time

first, second, third, etc.

recently

in the beginning

previously

before

afterwards

then

when

after

after

finally

 

at last

 

subsequently

 



Order

first, second, third, etc.
Example:   First, you need to become a leader of a political party. Second, you need to win a seat in the House of Commons. Third, your party must have a majority of seats.

in the beginning Example:   In the beginning, you need to become a leader of a political party.

Before Example:   Before becoming the prime minister, you need to become the leader of a political party.

^ Then Example:   Then, you must win a seat in the House of Commons.

After Example:   After winning a seat in the House of Commons, you must make sure you have a majority of seats.

Finally Example:   Finally, after all these steps, you can call yourself the prime minister.

at last Example:   At last, you can call yourself the prime minister.

Subsequently Example:   Subsequently, you must make sure you have a majority of seats in the House of Commons.

Time

Recently Example:   She was recently elected prime minister.

Previously Example:   She is the new prime minister. Previously, she worked as a lawyer in Toronto.

Afterwards Example:   She won the party leadership last year. Afterwards, she won the election.

When Example:   When she won the party leadership, she was still working as a lawyer.

After Example:   After winning a seat in the House of Commons, you must make sure you have a majority of seats.

Choice Paragraph


In a paragraph where you have to make a choice, you need to choose which object, idea, or action that you prefer. Often, you will need to give your opinion on a choice of actions or events.

Example:    Write a paragraph stating whether you would prefer to play hockey or lacrosse.

The following words can help you to write a good choice paragraph:

^ Helper Words:

Point of View

Personal Opinion

in my opinion

like/dislike

belief

hope

idea

feel

understanding

 

I think that

 

^ I consider

 

I believe

 

it seems to me

 

I prefer

 


Point of View

Іn my opinion Example:     In my opinion, hockey is more fun than lacrosse.

Belief Example:     My belief is that hockey is more fun than lacrosse.

Idea Example:     My idea is that hockey is more fun than lacrosse.

Understanding Example:     My understanding is that hockey is more fun than lacrosse.

I think that Example:     I think that I would prefer to play hockey and not lacrosse.

I consider Example:     I consider hockey to be more exciting than lacrosse.

I believe Example:     I believe hockey is more exciting than lacrosse.

it seems to me Example: It seems to me that hockey is more exciting than lacrosse.

I prefer Example: I prefer hockey over lacrosse.

Personal Opinions

like/dislike Example: I like the sport of hockey because it is fast and exciting.

Hope Example: I hope that I can play hockey in the future.

Feel Example: I feel that hockey is my favorite sport.
^

Explanation Paragraph



In an explanation paragraph, you need to explain how or why something happens. Very often in social studies class, you will be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events.

Example:     Write a paragraph explaining why so many Europeans moved to Canada during the nineteenth century.

The following words can help you to write a good explanation paragraph:

^ Helper Words:

Cause

Effect

because

therefore

since

thus

as a result of

consequently

is due to

hence

 

it follows that

 

if . . . then



Cause

because
Example:   People moved to Canada from Europe during the nineteenth century because they had poor living conditions in Europe.

Since Example:   Since living conditions in Europe were terrible, many people moved to Canada.

as a result of Example:   People moved to Canada from Europe as a result of poor living conditions in Europe.

is due to / was due to Example:   The large influx of people to Canada was due to economic pressures in Europe.

Effect therefore Example:   Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Therefore, many people moved to Canada for a better life.

^ Thus Example:   Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Thus, many people moved to Canada for a better life.

Consequently Example:   Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Consequently, many people moved to Canada.

Hence Example:   Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Hence, many people moved to Canada.

it follows that Example:   Living conditions were terrible in Europe. It follows that many people moved to Canada.

if ... then Example:   If living conditions were better in Europe, then fewer people would have moved to Canada.

Evaluation Paragraph


In an evaluation paragraph, you make judgments about people, ideas, and possible actions. You need to make your evaluation based on certain criteria that you develop. In the paragraph, you will state your evaluation or recommendation and then support it by referring to your criteria.

Example:   Write a paragraph evaluating whether pesticides should be used on farms.

The following words can help you to write a good evaluation paragraph:

^ Helper Words

Criteria for Evaluation

Recommendation

good / bad

suggest

correct / incorrect

recommend

moral / immoral

advise

right / wrong

argue

important / trivial

 



Criteria

good / bad Example:   The use of pesticides such as DDT is bad for the environment.

correct / incorrect Example:   The belief that pesticides must be used is incorrect.

moral / immoral Example:   The use of pesticides to control pests is immoral because it harms the environment.

right / wrong Example:   It is wrong to use pesticides because they harm the environment.

important / trivial Example:   The issue of pesticides is an important one because it affects the environment.

Recommendation

Suggest Example:   I suggest that pesticides should not be used to control pests.

Recommend Example:   I recommend that pesticides should not be used because they are harmful to the environment.

Advise Example:   I would advise farmers not to use pesticides if possible.

Argue Example:   I would argue that pesticides should not be used because they harm the environment.

Using link words effectively
^

"See that sentence by sentence the meaning is carried forward through the paragraph."

Wheeler and Walshe Mastering English. We do this by signalling our direction to the reader by using link words.

 




2.02.2012

Task 1: Insert your selections from the following list of linking words:




^

but, although, though, even though, however, nonetheless, on the one hand ... on the other, and yet, therefore, firstly .. secondly ..., so, then, furthermore.


 

1. We went shopping in the sales ...................... we knew we needed very little.

 

2. The Indians pounced upon the wagon train ......... the cavalry were close behind.

 

3. The sun rises every day .... I expect it will tomorrow too.

 

4. Even at Toastmasters he was nervous ........................... he had prepared his speech well in advance.

 

5. The alibi sticks ...................... we have to let him go free.

 

6. ................... let me welcome you all here tonight, and ................. allow me to introduce our guest speaker for the evening.

 

7. The thief entered the flat ........... he proceeded to ransack it.

 

8. Storm clouds gathered, ...................... we were able to have one last swim before leaving the Coast.

 

9. Dangers abound around us on the road, ........................ we continue to build more cars at alarming rates.

 

10. He filled the public gallery, stacked the party, bought votes, made wild promises, pork-barrelled widely ........................ went on to do good things for his electorate. It was an amazing rise to fame.





Task 2. Read the information materials and answer the questions:


  1. What are the five paragraphs of an essay?

  2. What should be included in each paragraph?



Tips and Techniques for Learning to Write the Five Paragraph Essay

Writing a good five-paragraph essay requires that one master the format. What is required for writing a good five-paragraph essay is the same as for any good writing, but that the five-paragraph format needs to be exact. Through practice, proficiency is achieved. Through practice using a good planning pattern, the process becomes a second nature thinking skill. Remember that the practice is not drill as the product is ever changing. Mistakes will be made, but good evaluation, especially self-evaluation will see that the mistakes are not repeated. Since writing is communication, always remember that the goal is to become clear, concise, and unified so that the reader can follow along and appreciate the writer's point of view and train of thought. The five-paragraph essay is a great tool for learning and communicating at all levels.

Here are some ideas you might find useful.
^ The Introductory Paragraph

Before you begin to use the suggestions here, I assume that you have read through and understand the full essay process. If not, take the time now to do so. Be sure and look up some of the the links presented as they present core knowledge. When you are finish, come back and begin to look through these suggestions. Only when you have an understanding of the process and product, will this section make sense.

First and foremost, do not try to write a whole five-paragraph essay the first time you try. Divide the learning experience into sections and practice each section individually until you feel you are successful. Build gradually adding a section at a time. Go step-by-step through the introduction, supporting paragraphs, and conclusion until the process becomes second nature. After a while, you will recognize what is good and what is not. I learned that most pointedly while teaching fifth and sixth grade students.

Start with learning to write the introductory paragraph. It is the most important as you are grabbing the reader's attention by informing him or her of the main points of your essay. Spend a lot of time learning to write this well. A poor impression often "turns off" the reader and/or evaluator. That leads to a less than appropriately appreciated essay or a lesser grade. You have to grab the reader's attention with interest and clarity. That is not an easy task.

When you are learning to write the essay, think small. Practice writing just introductory paragraphs. Choose a topic about which you know quite a bit. Jot it down. Do some brainstorming to determine which are the three best supporting ideas. Write them down too. Now go back and think about the point that you are trying to make. How can you word the first sentence to clearly and concisely tell that to the reader? Try to do that in the active voice as it is much stronger that way. Jot down the new sentence. Now do the same thing for each of the three supporting ideas. Be sure that they are well written and explain a facet of the topic that you want to develop. Once you have that, there is just one more thing to write. It is the transition sentence that will connect these thoughts to your supporting paragraphs. Remember that you are developing one sentence at a time.

When you are finished, take a second to look back over that paragraph. Be sure that you have made it exciting to the reader. Usually, if you are honest, if it is not exciting or interesting to you, it will not be so to the reader. Be sure that you are not using dull similar sentence structure. Be sure that the ideas flow easily one from the other. The reader needs to see that there is connection. Unless you are writing a personal narrative, try not to use the pronoun "I." Most people do not know you so there is little authority given to your opinions. Make any corrections. When you are please, share it with someone whose writing you respect. Get their impressions. They are important. Writing is communication with an audience. Once that audience is defined, you need to learn what is important to that audience, not just to yourself. Then and only then will you be successful.

Do not give up with just one try. Write on many topics, just writing the introductory paragraph. You will find that the process of following the format and thinking through and good introduction becomes easier with practice. That is only true if you go through some good pre-thinking, and evaluation so do not skip that part.

Put the introductory paragraphs that you have written aside and perhaps they can be developed later. Even if you do not later use them, they can be looked at in the future and compared with the type of writing you are doing now. It is nice to see a pattern of progress.


^ Supporting Paragraphs

Use this technique of writing one paragraph at a time for writing supporting paragraphs. You can use some of the practice introductions that have been written earlier as "starters" if you wish.

Remember, that in writing a supporting paragraph that you are using the three supporting ideas from the introductory paragraph as the topics of each of your supporting paragraphs. Do not change the idea or the order. The reader is expecting you to follow the road map that you presented in the first paragraph.

Once again, practice developing just one of those supporting ideas. Be sure that you brainstorm to find the best facts and examples to support and explain your topic sentence. Be sure not to put in just anything about the general topic. Put in only those details that really enhance and develop the idea you presented. Then, when you are finished brainstorming and have written down your ideas, you can go back and think about the best structure for each of those sentences. Be sure that the first sentence is to the point and concise Think about each and write them down in paragraph form. When finished, go back and make sure that they are really explaining and giving examples specifically about the topic sentence. The tendency is to wander a bit off topic. Be careful not to let that happen to you.

As you end each supporting paragraph, the writer needs to think about how to make a good transition between this paragraph and the next. Will it best be done at the end of the paragraph or at the beginning of the next. You must provide a transition from one paragraph to the other so that the reader sees that there is closure and can anticipate what is coming next. It can be simply done or can be more elaborate. It is up to you. If you are not sure how to accomplish this, go back to the previous pages and check out some of the suggestions. I would run off one page and keep it with you when you are learning to write until you get the "hang" of transitioning.

Practice writing one supporting paragraph and evaluating, revising, and editing it. As with the introductory paragraph, this process and format becomes easier to follow as you practice. Do it many times remembering that pre-thinking and planning do not just apply to the paragraph, but to structuring each and every sentence. If you feel comfortable, have someone else look over the paragraph and critique it for you. It can be a valuable tool in evaluation.

Do that for many of the introductory paragraphs that you wrote and saved earlier. Note the development and the increasing completeness of thought. It is great to view your own successful development. You will be surprised how success breeds more and greater success in writing practice.You will come to appreciate the fact that the process becomes easier and faster when you put lots of effort into pre-thinking both the topic and the sentence structure.Good jobs do not have to take a long time to complete.

When you feel confident, develop two supporting paragraphs in a row. See how they fit together. When you are successful, then try developing all three at the same time. Be careful to include those important transitions from one supporting topic to the next. Be sure that the ideas flow easily from one paragraph to the next. Check to see that the writing does not appear choppy by using dull and similar sentence structure.

Double check to see that you are using active voice for strength. If you do all of those things, you will be amazed at how good and closely unified and developed your ideas can be. Remember, it does not happen over night. Practice and evaluate. Revise and reread. Progress is your most important product. It usually does not come without a lot of effort.

^ The Ending or Summary Paragraph

This is a difficult paragraph to write effectively. It sounds easy. All you have to do for most essays is to restate the opening paragraph. That often becomes the difficulty. The writer tends to use the same words and almost just rewrite the first paragraph with a transition that goes something like "Now you can see ...".

The introductory paragraph becomes a strong guide for writing the conclusion or summary paragraph. It is in conclusion paragraph that you, the writer, must remind the reader of the most important ideas that you have presented. If you just restated them as you did in the introduction, they may lack the strength to refocus the reader. You need to restate those ideas in a somewhat original manner. Why? You do that because you cannot assume that the reader logically followed your logic or even agrees with it. You cannot assume that they even accepted your thesis, especially in a persuasive essay. You must summarize effectively and with some degree of authority and originally as the last effort to convince them that this is well written and has value. Remember that these are the last thoughts that you will leave with the reader. Make them the best that you can.

Once again, use those introductory paragraphs that you wrote earlier as tools for writing practice. You want to say just about the same thing in a forceful way. Practice writing a summary for each one. Both of the paragraphs must be good. They both must grab and hod the reader's attention. But the last paragraph must convince the reader that you did the job well. You are reminding them of that.

After you have practice writing conclusions for a while, sometimes you find that you develop a style that is good and can be repeated. You may find different types of writing (expository, persuasive, and narrative) often have different good patterns for ending them. It is not necessary, but it can happen. After you have written three or four of each, see if that might not be true. It might just make future writing a little easier if it happens.


3.02.2012


Task : Write about the following topic:


A great many countries around the world are losing their cultural identity

because of the Internet.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?


Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own

knowledge or experience.


You should write at least 250 words.

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