«затверджую» Голова приймальної комісії рдгу проф. Постоловський Р. М icon

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Extracts for Comprehensive Stylistic Analysis


1. As various aids to recovery were removed from him and he began to speak more, it was observed that his relationship to language was unusual. He mouthed. Not only did he clench his fists with the effort of speaking, he squinted. It seemed that a word was an object, a material object, round and smooth some­times, a golf-ball of a thing that he could just about manage to gel through his mouth, though it deformed his face in the passage. Some words were jagged and these became awful passages of pain and struggle that made the other children laugh. Patience and silence seemed the greater part of his nature. Bit by bit he learnt to control the anguish of speaking until the golf-balls and jagged stones, the toads and jewels passed through his mouth with not much more than the normal effort. (W. Golding)

2. "Is anything wrong?" asked the tall well-muscled manager with menacing inscrutability, arriving to ensure that nothing in his restaurant ever would go amiss. A second contender for the world karate championship glided noiselessly up alongside 'in formidable allegiance. (J.O’Hara)

3. As Prew listened the mobile face before him melted to a battle-blackened skull as though a flamethrower had passed over it, kissed it lightly, and moved on. The skull talked on to him about his health. (J.Jones)

4. Scobie turned up James Street past the Secretariat. With its long, balconies it has always reminded him of a hospital. For fifteen years he had watched the arrival of a succession of patients; periodically at the end of eighteen months certain patients were sent home, yellow and nervy and others took their place-Colonial Secretaries, Secretaries of Agriculture, Treasurers and Directors of Public Works. He watched their -temperature charts every one-the first outbreak of unreasonable temper, the drink too many, the sudden attack for principle after a year of acquiescence. The black clerks carried their bedside manner like doctors down the corridors; cheerful and respectful they put up with any insult. The patient was always right. (Gr. Green)

5. In a very few minutes an ambulance came, the team was told all the nothing that was known about the child and he was driven away, the ambulance bell ringing, unnecessarily. (W.Golding)

6. This area took Matty and absorbed him. He received pocket money. He slept in a long attic. He ate well. He wore a thick dark-grey suit and grey overalls. He carried things. He became the Boy. (W. Golding)

7. We have all seen those swinging gates which, when their swing is considerable, go to and fro without locking. When the swing has declined, however, the latch suddenly drops to its place, the gate is held and after a short rattle the motion is all over. We have to explain an effect something like that. When the two atoms meet, the repulsions of their electron shells usually cause them to recoil; but if the motion is small and the atoms spend a longer time in each other's neighbourhood, there is time for something to happen in the internal arrangements of both atoms, like the drop of the latch-gate into its socket, and the atoms arc held. (Br.Behan)

8. We marched on, fifteen miles a day, till we came to the maze of canals and streams which lead the Euphrates into the Babylonian cornfields. The bridges are built high for the floods of winter. Sometimes the rice fields spread their tassled lakes, off which the morning sun would glance to blind us. Then one noon, when the glare had shifted, we saw ahead the great black walls of Babylon, stretched on the low horizon against the heavy sky. Not that its walls were near; it was their height that let us sec them. When at last we passed between the wheat fields yellowing for the second harvest, which fringed the moat, and stood below, it was like being under mountain cliffs. One could see the bricks and bitumen; yet it seemed impossible this could be the work of human hands. Seventy-five feet stand the walls of Babylon; more than thirty thick; and each side of the square they form measure fifteen miles. We saw no sign of the royal army; there was room for it all to encamp within, some twenty thousand foot and fifty thousand horse.

The walls have a hundred gates of solid bronze. We went in by the Royal Way, lined with banners and standards, with Magi holding fire-altars, with trumpeters and praise-singers, with satraps and commanders. Further on was the army; the walls of Babylon enclose a whole countryside. All its parks can grow grain in case of siege; it is watered from the Euphrates. An impregnable city.

The King entered in his chariot. He made a fine figure, overtopping by half a head his charioteer, shining in white and purple. The Babylonians roared their acclamation, as he drove off with a train of lords and satraps to show himself to the army. (M. Belloc)

9. You know a lot of trouble has been caused by memoirs. Indiscreet revelations that sort of thing. People who have been close as an -oyster all their lives seem positively to relish causing (ruble when they themselves will be comfortably dead). It gives them a kind of malicious glee. (A.Christie)

10. "Call Elizabeth Cluppins," said Sergeant Buzfuz. The near­est usher called for Elizabeth Tuppins, another one, at a little distance of, demanded Elizabeth Jupkins; and a third rushed in a breathless state into Ring Street and screamed for Elizabeth Muffins till he was hoarse. (Ch.Dickens)

11. "You're the last person I wanted to see. The sight of you dries up all my plans and hopes. I wish I were back at war still, because it's easier to fight you than to live with you. War's a pleasure do you hear me?-War's a pleasure compared to what faces us how. trying to build up a peacetime with you in the middle of it."

"I'm not going to be a part of any peacetime of yours. I'm going a long way from here and make my own world (hat's fit for a man to live in. Where a man can be free, and have a chance, and do what he wants to do in his own way," Henry said.

"Henry, let's try again."

"Try what? Living here? Speaking polite down to all the old men like you? Standing like sheep at the street corner until-the red light turns to green? Being a good boy and a good sheep, like all the stinking ideas you get out your books? Oh, no! I'll make a world, and I'll show you." (Th. Dreither)

12. I began to think how little I had saved, how long a time it took to save at all, how short a time I might have at my age to live, and how she would be left to the rough mercies of the world. (Ch.Dickens)

13. She was sitting down with the "Good Earth" in front of her. She put it aside the moment she made her decision, got up and went to the closet where perched on things that looked like huge wooden collar-buttons. She took two hats, tried on both of them, and went back to the closet and took out a third, which she kept on. Gloves, purse, cigarette extinguished, and she was ready to go. (J.O'Hara)

14. "How long have you known him? What's he like?" "Since Christmas. He's from Seattle and he spent Christmas with friends of mine in Greenwich is how I happened to meet him. I sat next to him at dinner the night after Christmas, and he was (he quiet type, I thought. He looked to be the quiet type. So I found out what he did and I began talking about gastroenterostomies and stuff and he just sat there and nodded all the time I was talking. You know, when I was going to be a nurse a year before last. Finally I said something to him. I asked him if by any chance he was listening to what I was saying, or bored, or what? 'No, not bored, he said. Just cockeyed. And he was. Cockeyed. It seems so long ago and so hard to believe we were ever strangers like that, but that's how I met him, or my first conver­sation with him. Actually he's very good. His family have loads of money from the lumber business and I've never seen anything like the way he spends money. But only when it doesn't interfere with his work at P. and S. He has a Packard that he keeps in Greenwich and hardly ever uses except when he comes to sec me. He was a marvellous basket-ball player at Dartmouth and two weeks ago when he came up to our house he hadn't had a golf stick in his hands since last summer and he went out and shot an eighty-seven. He's very homely, but he has this dry sense of humor that at first you don't quite know whether he's even listening to you, but the things he says. Sometimes I think-on, not really, but u stranger overhearing him might suggest sending him to an alienist." (J. O'Hara)

15. My appointment with the Charters Electrical Company wasn't until afternoon, so I spent the morning wandering round the town. There was a lot of dirty snow and slush about, and the sky was grey and sagging with another load of the stuff, but the morning was fine enough for a walk. Gretley in daylight provided no surprise. It was one of those English towns that seem to have been built simply to make money for people who don't even condescend to live in them. (J.Joyce)

16. This constant succession of glasses produced considerable effect upon Mr. Pickwick; his countenance beamed with the most sunny smiles, laughter played around his lips, and good-humored merriment twinkled in his eyes. Yielding by degrees to the influence of the exciting liquid rendered more so by the heat, Mr. Pickwick expressed a strong desire to recollect a song which' he had heard in his infancy, and the attempt proving abortive, sought to stimulate his memory with more glasses of punch, which appeared to have quite a contrary effect; for, from forgetting the words of the song, he began to forget how to articulate any words at all; and finally, after rising to his legs to address the company in an eloquent speech, he fell into the barrow, and fast asleep, simultaneously. (Ch. Dickens)

17. Mr. Topper turned from the tree and wormed himself into the automobile. And the observer, had he been endowed with cattish curiosity would have noted by the laborings of Topper's body that he had not long been familiar with the driving seat of an automobile. Once, in, he relaxed, then, collecting his scattered members, arranged his feet and hands as Mark had patiently instructed him. (I.Shaw)

18. It was a marvellous day in late August, and Wimsey's soul purred within him as he pushed the car along. The road from Kirkcudbright to Newton-Stuart is of a varied loveliness hard to surpass, and with the sky full of bright sun and rolling cloud-banks, hedges filled with flowers, a well-made road, a lively engine and a prospect of a good corpse at the end of it, Lord Peter's cup of happiness was full. He was a man who loved simple pleasures.

He passed through Gatehouse, waving a cheerful hand to the proprietor of Antworth Hotel, climbed up beneath the grim blackness of Cardoness Castle, drank in for the thousandth time the strange Japanese beauty of Mossyard Farm, set like a red jewel under its tufted trees on the blue sea's rim, and the Italian loveliness of Kirkdale, with its fringe of thin and twisted trees and the blue coast gleaming across the way. (D.Sayers)

19. The two transports had sneaked up from the South in the first graying flush of dawn, their cumbersome mass cutting smoothly through the water whose still greater mass bore them silently, themselves as gray as the dawn which camouflaged them. Now, in the fresh early morning of a lovely tropic day they lay quietly at anchor in the channel, nearer to the one island than to the other which was only a cloud on the horizon. To their crews, this was a routine mission and one they knew well: that of delivering fresh reinforcement troops. But to the men who comprised the cargo of infantry this trip was neither routine nor known and was composed of a mixture of dense anxiety and tense excitement. (J.Jones)

20. I am always drawn back to places where I have lived, the houses and their neighbourhoods. For instance, there is a brown-stone in the East Seventies where, during the early years of the war, I had my first New York apartment. It was one room crowded with attic furniture, a sofa and fat chairs upholstered in that itchy, particular red velvet that one associates with hot days on a train. The walls were stucco, and a color rather like tobacco-spit. Everywhere, in the bathroom too, there were prints of Roman ruins freckled, brown with age. The single window looked out on the fire escape. Even so, my spirits heightened whenever I felt in my pocket the key to this apartment; with all its gloom, it was still a place of my own, the first, and my books were there, and jars of pencils to sharpen, everything I needed, so I felt, to become the writer I wanted to be. (D.Uhnak)

21. He leaned his elbows on the porch ledge and stood looking clown through the screens at the familiar scene of the barracks square laid out below with the tiers of porches dark in the faces of the three-story concrete barracks fronting on the square. He was feeling a half-sheepish affection for his vantage point that he was leaving.

Below him under the blows of the February Hawaiian sun the quadrangle gasped defencelessly, like an exhausted fighter. Through the heat haze the thin midmorning film of the parched red dust came up a muted orchestra of sounds: the clanking of steel-wheeled carts bouncing over brick, the slappings of oiled leather sling-straps, the shuffling beat of shocsoles, the hoarse expletive of irritated noncoms. (J.Jones)

22. Around noon the last shivering wedding guest arrived at the farmhouse: then for all the miles around nothing moved on the gale-haunted moors-neither carriage, wagon, nor human figure. The road wound emptily over the low hills. The gray day turned still colder, and invisible clouds of air began to stir slowly in great icy swaths, as if signalling some convulsive change beyond the sky. From across the downs came the boom of surf against the island cliffs. Within an hour the sea wind rose to a steady moan, and then within the next hour rose still more to become a screaming ocean of air.

Ribbons of shouted laughter and music-wild waltzes and reels streamed thinly from the house, but all the wedding sounds were engulfed, drowned and then lost in the steady roar of the gale. Finally, at three o'clock, spits of snow became a steady swirl of white that obscured the landscape more thoroughly than any fog that had ever rolled in from the sea. (I. Shaw)

23. There was an area east of the Isle of Dogs in London which was an unusual mixture even for those surroundings. Among the walled-off rectangles of water, the warehouses, railway lines and travelling cranes, were two streets of mean houses with two pubs and two shops among them. The bulks of tramp steamers hung over the houses where there had been as many languages spoken as families that lived there. But just now not much was being said, for the whole area had been evacuated officially and even a ship that was hit and set on fire had few spectators near it. There was a kind of tent in the sky over London, which was composed of the faint white beams of searchlights, with barnige balloons dotted here and there. The barrage balloons were all that the searchlights discovered in the sky, and the bombs came down, it seemed, mysteriously out of emptiness. They fell round the great fire.

The men at the edge of the fire could only watch it burn, out of control. The drone of the bombers was dying away. The five-mile-high tent of chalky lights had disappeared, been struck all at once, but the light of the great fire was bright as ever, brighter perhaps. Now the pink aura of it had spread. Saffron and ochre turned to blood-colour. The shivering of the white heart of the lire had quickened beyond the capacity of the eye to analyse it into an outrageous glare. High above the glare and visible now for the first time between two pillars of lighted smoke was the steely and untouched round of the full moon-lie lover's, hunter's, poet's moon; and now-an ancient and severe goddess credited with a new function and a new title - the bomber's moon. She was Artemis of the bombers, more pitiless than ever before. (W. Golding)

24. There is no month in the whole year, in which nature wears a more beautiful appearance than in the month of August; Spring has many beauties, and May is a fresh and blooming month: but the charms of this time of year are enhanced by their contrast with the winter season. August has no such advantage. It comes when we remember nothing but clear skies, green fields, and sweet-smelling flowers-when the recollection of snow, and ice, and bleak winds, has faded from our minds as completely as they have disappeared from the earth-and yet what a pleasant lime it is. Orchards and cornfields ring with the hum of labour; trees bend beneath the thick clusters of rich fruit which bow their branches to the ground; and the corn, piled in graceful sheaves, or waving in every light breath that sweeps above it, as if it wooed the sickle, tinges the landscape with a golden hue. A mellow softness appears to hang over the whole earth; the influence of the season seems to extend itself to the very wagon, whose slow motion across the wellcuped field is percep­tible only to the eye, but strikes with no harsh sound upon the car. (Ch.Dickens)

25. They say you never hear the one that hits you. That is true of bullets because if you hear them they arc already past. I heard the last shell that hit this hotel. Heard it start from the battery, then come with a whistling incoming roar like a subway train, to crash against a cornice and shower the room with broken glass and plaster. And while the glass still tinkled down and you listened for the next one to start, you realized that now finally you were back in Madrid.

Madrid is quiet now. Aragon is the active front. There is little fighting around Madrid except mining and countermining, trench raiding, trench mortar strafing and sniping in the stalemate of constant siege warfare going on in Carabarichel, Usera and University City.

The cities are shelled very little. Some days there is no shelling and the weather is beautiful and the streets crowded. Shops full of clothing, jewelry stores, camera shops, picture dealers, antiquarians are all open and cafes and bars are crowded. Beer is scarce and whisky is almost unobtainable. The store windows are full of Spanish imitations of all cordials, whiskys, vermouths. These are not recommended for internal use though I am employing something called Milords Ecosses Whisky on my face after shaving. It swarls a little but feels very hygienic. I believe it would be a possible cure for athlete's fool, but one must be very careful not to spill it on one's clothes because it eats wool.

The crowds are cheerful and the sandbagged-fronted cinemas are crowded every afternoon. The nearer one gets to the front, the more cheerful and optimistic the people arc. At the front itself optimism reaches such a point that, very much against my good judgement, I was induced to go swimming in a small river forming No Man's Land on the Gucnca. The river was a fast flowing stream, very chilly and completely dominated by the Fascist positions, which made me even chiller. I became so chilly at the idea of swimming in the river at all under the circum­stances that when F actually entered the water it felt rather pleasant. But it felt even pleasanter to get out of the water and behind a tree. At this moment a Government officer, who was a member of the optimistic swimming party shot a watersnaks with his pistol, hitting it on the third shot. This brought a reprimand from another not so completely optimistic officer member who asked what he wanted to do with that shooting, get the machine-guns turned on us? We shot no more snakes that day but 1 saw three trout in the stream which would weigh over four pound apiece. Heavy old deep-sided ones that rolled up to take the grasshoppers I threw them, making swirls in the water as deep as though you had dropped a paving, stone into the stream. All along the stream where no road ever led until the war you could see trout, small ones in the shallows and the bigger kind in the pools and in the shadows of the bank. It is a river worth fighting for, but just, a litlle cold for swimming.

At this moment a shell has just alighted on a house up the street from the hotel where I am typing this. A little boy is crying in the street. A Militiaman has picked him and is comforting him. There is no one killed in our street and the people who started to run slowed down and grin nervously. The one who never started to run at all looks at the others in a very superior way, and the town we arc living in now is called Madrid. (E.Hemingway)


Stilistische Аnalyse des Аuszuges

^ I. DAS THEMA

1. Der Autor behandelt folgende Thema :

• das alltägliche Leben der einfachen (armen, reichen, bekannten) Menschen;

• der Kampf gegen den Faschismus, für die Freiheit, Unabhängigkeit;

• unsere Heimat vor dem Krieg, nach dem Krieg, während des Krieges;

• die Gegenwart, unsere Zukunft, die Vergangenheit unserer Heimat.

2. Der Autor stellt das Leben, die Ereignisse lebenswahr, wahrheitsgetreu, meisterhaft, talentvoll, kritisch dar.

^ II. DAS PROBLEM

1. Der Autor versucht, ein wichtiges (aktuelles, akutes, lebenswichtiges) Problem zu lösen:

• das Problem der Beziehungen zwischen den Menschen: zwischen den Kindern und ihren Eltern;

zwischen den Jungen und Mädchen;

• das Problem der Beziehungen der Jugendlichen; das Problem der heranwachsenden Generation;

• das Problem der Beziehungen in der Familie, im Betrieb, in der Schule;

• das Problem der Erziehung der Jugendlichen in der Schule, in der Familie.

2. Die Hauptidee (der Grundgedanke). .. ist. ..

^ III. DAS HAUPTGESCHEHEN

• Die Handlung dieser Erzählung spielt in ... (Ort der Handlung), vor, während, nach (Zeit der Handlung, z.B. in den dreißiger Jahren, vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, während des Großen Vaterländischen Krieges, in den Nachkriegsjahren, nach der Revolution).

• Hier handelt es sich um ... .Es geht um .... Die Rede ist von.... . Es geschah folgendes :

• Der Autor beschreibt..., erzählt..., zeigt....

• Die Idee des Buches ist... .

• Es kam so, daß :...

• Es stellte sich heraus, daß ....

• Das hängt damit zusammen, daß ....

^ IV. DIE HAUPTPERSON

• Die Hauptperson dieser Erzählung (dieses Buches, dieser Novelle, dieses Textes... ) ist....

• Die handelnden Personen sind ...

• Im Mittelpunkt dieser Erzählung ist die Gestalt eines Jungen (eines Mädchens) namens...

• Der Autor zeigt einen mutigen Kämpfer gegen .... für...

• Der Autor zeigt eine Episode aus dem Leben von.....

• Der Autor beschreibt das Schicksal von ...

• Das Leben dieses Menschen (des Haupthelden) ist ein krasses, gutes Beispiel für... (ist ein Vorbild).

• Das war ein Mensch von starkem Willen, Charakter.

• Er (die Hauptperson) erwies sich als ein Mensch von starkem Charakter.


^ V. CHARAKTERISTIKEN

POSITIVE CHARAKTERZÜGE

1. Ein kluger, gescheiter, begabter, talentvoller, allseitig gebildeter, findiger, geistreicher Mensch.

2. heiter, lebendig, freundlich, lebhaft, gesellig, offen, aufrichtig, lebensfroh, witzig, humorvoll, redselig, gesprächig, liebenswürdig, rücksichtsvoll.

3. tapfer, mutig, stark, kräftig, ehrlich, energisch, charakterfest, willensstark, zielbewußt, unermüdlich, leidenschaftlich, arbeitsam, wißbegierig, selbstlos, selbstkritisch, gewissenhaft, ernst, beharrlich, streng. sicher, diszipliniert, pünktlich, tüchtig, artig, gehorsam, anständig, zurückhaltend.

4. gutherzig, gutmütig, hilfsbereit, sorgsam.

5. mitfühlend, großherzig, höflich, bescheiden, nett, zärtlich, feinfühlig.

6. Er war treu in Freundschaft und Liebe.

7. Im Umgang mit den Menschen ist (war) er immer schlicht

8. Er steht (stand) immer mit Rat und Tat zur Seite.

9. Er ist immer guter Laune.

10.Er hat Sinn für Humor.

^ NEGATIVE CHARAKTERZÜGE

1. Ein dummer, primitiver Mensch.

2. schwach, wülensschwach, egoistisch, schlau, feige, grob, leichtsinnig, undiszipliniert, faul, hochmütig, hochnäsig, frech, trotzig, lügnerisch, eigensinnig, aufdringlich, nachlässig.

3. verwöhnt, hilflos, kränklich, empfindlich, unschlüssig, eingebildet

4. schüchtern, schweigsam, verschlossen, mürrisch, düster, wortkarg.

5. gierig, neugierig, ehrgeizig, reizbar, hitzig, geschwätzig, ungehalten, unanständig, zerstreut,

ZUSTAND

gesund, krank, aufmerksam, arm, reich, ledig, verheiratet, müde, fertig, bereit, aufgeregt, verlegen,

nachdenklich, böse, stolz, besorgt, zufrieden, vernünftig, froh, fröhlich, glücklich, empört, traurig, erstaunt,

nervös, begeistert, zornig, überrascht, bestürzt, verzweifelt, verwundert, verblüfft, aufgebracht, erschrocken,

ängstlich, enttäuscht.

VI.HANDELN.

Sein Benehmen war auffällig (fiel allen auf),

war komisch (seltsam)

-“--“- ärgerte alle (ihn, sie)

-“--“- war ihm (ihr) unangenehm

Er benahm sich wie ...

Das wunderte alle (ihm, sie)

Er tat sein Bestes = Er tat, was er konnte.

Er hat sein Ziel erreicht.

Er hielt es nicht aus.

Er ließ sich das nicht gefallen.

Er hat damit nicht einverstanden.

Er war nicht dafür = Er war dagegen

Er protestierte dagegen (gegen + Akk)

Er hatte nichts dagegen.

Er bestand auf seinen Worten (darauf).

Er äußerte seine Meinung.

Er ging seinen (anderen) Weg.

Er handelte unüberlegt.

Er verlor das Gleichgewicht.

Er benahm sich wie ein Kind.

Er wußte sich keinen Rat.

Er hatte keine Vorstellung davon.

Er glaubte seinen Augen nicht.

Er sprach kein Wort.

Er nahm alles ernst; das war sein Ernst.

^ VII. DER EINDRUCK VOM GELESENEN UND SEINE BEGRÜNDUNG.

a) l. Ich finde dieses Buch (diese Erzählung, diese Novelle, dieses Kapitel, diesen Text, diesen Auszug) spannend (interessant, inhaltsreich, klug, lehrreich).

2. Dieses Kapitel (diese Erzählung, dieser Auszug, dieser Abschnitt, dieser Text) hat auf mich einen guten ( tiefen, unbeschreiblichen, unvergeßlichen, starken) Eindruck gemacht, weil _es (er, sie) interessant (spannend, usw.) ist.

3. Ich habe diese Erzählung mit großem Interesse gelesen.

4. Diese. Erzählung hat mich hingerissen, als ich sie las.

5. Ich bin von dieser Erzählung tiefbeeindrückt.

6. Diese Erzählung hat mir gut gefallen, weil... . Sie ist nämlich lehrreich.

b) l. Ich teile die Meinung des Autors.

2. Ich bin mit der Auffassung (Charakteristik, Meinung, Stellungnahme) des Autors einverstanden.

3. Was mich betrifft, so bin ich ganz anderer Meinung.

4. Ich bezweifle diesen Gedanken (Diesen Gedanken möchte ich bezweifeln).

5. Diese Tat zeugt von ... (Diese Episode zeugt davon, daß ...)

6. Vor allem muß ich sagen, daß es ...

7. Das kann ich an folgendem Beispiel beweisen,

8. Die Hauptperson gefällt (imponiert) mir.

9. Ich zweifle nicht daran, daß dieser Junge (die Hauptperson) ein guter Mensch werden wird.

l0.Ich möchte wissen, wie (ob usw.)...

11. Mich. interessiert, wie (ob usw.) ...

12. Ich fühle Mitleid mit diesem Menschen.

13. Ich bedauere sein Schicksal.

14. Ich mißbillige sein Benehmen.

15. Ich kann die Hauptperson rechtfertigen.

16. Es freut mich sehr, daß ...

17. Sein Benehmen (seine Tat, sein Leben) charakterisiert ihn als einen .... Menschen.

18. Zum Schluß (Anschließend) möchte ich sagen (betonen, unterstreichen, hinzufügen), daß ...

Grammatisch - lexikalische Аnalyse des Аuszuges

  1. Die Arten der Sätze nach dem Ziel der Aussage:

  1. Aussagesatz;

  2. Fragesatz;

  3. Aufforderungssatz.




  1. Der einfache Satz:

  1. der reine einfache Satz;

  2. der einfache erweiterte Satz;

  3. zweigliedrige oder eingliedrige;

  4. volle oder elliptische (z.B.: Wohin gehst du? – Ins Kino).




  1. Satzarten nach dem Typ des Subjekts:

  1. persönliche (Die Kinder lesen ein Buch);

  2. unbestimmt – persönliche Sätze (Man liest täglich Zeitungen);

  3. unpersönliche Sätze (Es regnet).




  1. Arten des Prädikats:

  1. einfaches verbales Prädikat (Das Kind lernt gut)

  2. zusammengesetztes verbales Prädikat (Ich muß hier umsteigen)

  3. zusammengesetztes nominales Prädikat. (Er ist Lehrer).

  4. verbal-nominales Prädikat (Der Junge will Flieger werden).

  5. besondere Art des Prädikats (Er treibt täglich Sport).

  1. Die Wortfolge.

  2. Der zusammengesetzte Satze:

  1. Satzreihe;

  2. Satzgefüge.




  1. Der Satzreihe:

  1. Satzreihe ohne Konjunktion;

  2. Satzreihe mit Konjunktionen oder, und, aber, sondern, denn, also, doch, jedoch; oder Konjunktionaladverbien dann, sonst, darum, deshalb, deswegen.




  1. Der Satzgefüge:

  1. Subjektsatz (Wer wagt, gewinnt).

  2. Prädikativsatz (Sie heisst, wie ihre Mutter heisst).

  3. Objektsatz (Ich weiss, dass er in seiner Jungend Sport getrieben hat).

  4. Attributsatz (Gestern habe ich das Werk besucht, in dem mein Vater arbeitet)-

  5. Adverbialsatz (Sie ist sehr froh, weil sie eine neue Wohnung mit allem Komfort bekommen hat).

  6. Arten des Adverbialsatzes:

  1. Adverbialsätze des Ortes (Lokalsätze)

  2. Adverbialsätze der Zeit (Temporalsätze): wenn, als, während…

  3. Adverbialsätze der Art und Weise (Modalsätze): indem, wobei…

  4. Vergleichsätze (Konsekutivsätze): wie, sowie.

  5. Folgesätze (Komparativsätze): so dass, dass.

  6. Adverbialsätze des Grundes (Kausalsätze): weil, da, denn, nähmlich.

  7. Adverbialsätze des Zieles (Finalsätze): damit, daß…

  8. Bedingungssätze (Konditionalsätze): wenn, falls, im Falle, dass…

  9. Einräumungssätze (Konzessivsätze): obwohl, obgleich.

  10. Restriktivsätze: insofern, soweit, soviel, nur dass…




  1. Antonyme, Synonyme.

  2. Grammatisch – lexikalische Mittel für Kopplung der Sätze im Text.



ІІ завдання передбачає організацію бесіди з актуальних проблем сучасного життя України та країн, мова яких вивчається, на основі заданої мовленнєвої ситуації та конкретного комунікативного завдання.

^ Орієнтовна тематика для бесіди

  1. Проблема навчання та виховання молодого покоління в Україні та країнах, мова яких вивчається, (система освіти; система освіти в країнах, мова яких вивчається; проблема середньої та вищої школи у вихованні дітей; стан освіти в Україні; педагогічна практика).

  2. Вчитель і суспільство (вимоги до особистості учня, роль та місце вчителя у вихованні молодого покоління).

  3. Молодь у сучасному світі (молодіжна організації в Україні та країнах, мова яких вивчається; ставлення молоді до проблем суспільства; проблеми молоді: безробіття, наркотики; молодь та майбутнє України).

  4. Сім’я та шлюб (сім’я та суспільство, роль сім’ї у вихованні дітей; проблема батьків та дітей в сучасному суспільстві).

  5. Людина й закон (права та обов’язки громадян в Україні відповідно до Конституції; закон на захисті людини; взаємозв’язок людини та права; правопорушення).

  6. Традиції та звичаї України та країн, мова яких вивчається (старі та нові традиції України; нові свята України; офіційні та релігійні світа країн, мова яких вивчається).

  7. Мистецтво в житті сучасної людини (живопис, архітектура; сучасні художники України та країн, мова яких вивчається; класична та сучасна музика в житті людини; видатні українські композитори та композитори країн, мова яких вивчається; театр; кіно).

  8. Географія, історія і державний устрій країн, мова яких вивчається.

  9. Становлення України як держави. Духовне відродження України (Конституція – основний закон України; українська мова як важливий чинник духовного відродження; національна політика; роль жінки в суспільстві).

  10. Міжнародні організації та їх роль у сучасному світі (ООН, ЮНЕСКО, Європейський Союз, прогресивні молодіжні організації в Україні та країнах мова яких вивчається).

  11. Проблеми екології.

  12. Проблеми студентства та молоді у сучасному світі (роль студентства у суспільно-політичному житті України та країнах, мова яких вивчається).

  13. Література України та країн, мова яких вивчається.

  14. Особистість і суспільство (роль особистості в суспільстві; видатні особистості України: визначні письменники, поети, політики, діячі культури та науки України; визначні поети, письменники, актори, вчені, державні діячі країн, мова яких вивчається).

  15. Засоби масової інформації в Україні та країнах, мова яких вивчається (роль та функції засобі масової інформації у суспільстві; телебачення і суспільство).
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