Module diseases of the newborn, blood disorders, and disorders of the endocrine system in children icon

Module diseases of the newborn, blood disorders, and disorders of the endocrine system in children




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НазваModule diseases of the newborn, blood disorders, and disorders of the endocrine system in children
Дата10.09.2012
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MODULE 2. Diseases of the newborn, blood disorders,

and disorders of the endocrine system in children.


1. Classification of prematurity. Problems in extrauterine adaptation and management of the preterm infants.

2. Features of extrauterine adaptation of the pretern infants. The main mechanisms of heat loss.

3. Gestational age estimation (Ballard and Dubowitz scoring systems). Criteria of maturity, prematurity, immaturity.

4. Anatomic and physiological features of the preterm newborn. Care of the preterm infants.

5. Hypoglicemia in preterm infants. Treatment. Prevention.

6. Hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants. Treatment.

7. Apnea in preterm infants. Methods of oxygen supplementation. Complications of oxygen therapy.

8. Nursery care of preterm infants. Follow-up of the preterm newborn in out-patient department.

9. Observation of preterm infants. Prevention of anemia, rickets.

10. Nutritional goals for preterm infants. Criteria for initiation of the enteral feeding. Choice of feeding schedule. Special considerations for feeding of the preterm infants. Feeding methods. Estimation of nutritional intake.

11. Acute and chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Adaptation of fetus to hypoxia. Diagnostic approaches.

12. Asphyxia of newborn. Reasons. Estimation of severity. Neonatal resuscitation.

13. Delivery room neonatal resuscitation. Choice of oxygen supplementation method. Complications of oxygen therapy and prevention of complications.

14. Apgar Score.

15. Birth injury. Pathogenesis and classification. Approach to treatment.

16. Differential diagnosis of neonatal seizures.

17. Spinal cord trauma in neonate. Etiology. Clinical presentation depended on level of injury.

18. Intracranial hemorrage in infants.

19. Risk factors for respiratory distress syndrome. Prenatal estimation of pulmonary surfactant system maturity. Significance of surfactant in RDS. Prenatal prevention of RDS.

20. Assessing the severity of respiratory insufficiency in respiratory distress syndrome. Silverman Retraction Score.

21. Clinical presentation of respiratory distress syndrome. The pathogenesis of hyaline membrane’s formation. Chest radiographic findings in respiratory distress syndrome.

22. Treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Methods of oxygen supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome. Complications of oxygen therapy. Emergency care in respiratory distress syndrome.

23. Etiology and pathogenesis of the neonatal pneumonia.

24. Diagnosis of pneumonia in newborn.

25. Differential diagnosis of the antenatal and postnatal pneumonia.

26. Treatment of pneumonia in neonate.

27. Etiology and pathogenesis of the hemolytic disease of the newborn.

28. The clinical types of presentation of the hemolytic disease of the newborn.

29. The methods of prenatal diagnosis and prevention of the hemolytic disease of newborn.

30. Treatment of the hemolytic disease of the newborn depending from severity. Polachec score.

31. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in hemolytic disease of the newborn.

32. Indications for exchange transfusion in hemolytic disease of the newborn. Technique of exchange transfusion in hemolytic disease of the newborn.

33. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Risk factors.

34. Clinical picture of hemorrhagic disease in the newborn. Diagnosis. Treatment. Prevention of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

35. Congenital infection. The main ways on intrauterine transmission of infection.

36. Types of pathology depended of the time of transmission and pathogens.

37. Congenital infection in newborn: toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, syphilis, mycoplasmosis. Clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment.

38. Congenital viral infection (rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex). Clinical signs. Specific diagnosis and treatment in infants.

39. Approaches to treatment of congenital and perinatal bacterial and viral infection.

40. Omphalitis neonatorum. Clinical presentation, Prevention and treatment.

41. Skin infections: vesiculopustulosis, bullous impetigo, Ritter’s disease. Etiology, clinical signs, treatment and prevention.

42. Classification and clinical signs of neonatal sepsis. Features of neonatal sepsis during initial period: weight gain, skin,mucosas, gastrointestinal signs.

43. The main clinical forms of neonatal sepsis. Features of clinical course in preterm infant. Criteria for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

44. Approaches to treatment of neonatal sepsis

45. Peculiarities of antibacterial therapy in different diseases of the newborn.

46. Iron-deficiency anemia in children. Etiology. Symptoms. Signs. Diagnosis.

47. Differential diagnosis of the iron-deficiency anemia. Treatment.

48. Chronic posthemorrhagic anemia. Etiology. Treatment.

49. Normo- and hyperregenerative anemias. Treatment.

50. Leukemia in children. Etiology. The oncotic nature of leukemia. Principles of treatment. FAB (French-American-British) classification of leukemias in connection with hemogenesis.

51. Clinical forms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Chronic myelogenous leukemia. Types. Clinics. Neuroleukemia (CNS disease).

52. Peculiarities of treatment and management of acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia. Cytostatics. Classification. Application. Complications of cytostatic therapy.

53. Classification of malignant diseases of hemogenesis. Types of hemoblastosis.

54. Hodgkin disease (lymphogranulomatosis). Etiology.

55. Differential diagnosis of Hodgkin disease.

56. Hemorrhagic diathesis. Classification.

57. Hemophilia. Types and subtypes of hemophilia. Clotting factor deficiencies correlated with disease severity.

58. Emergency care in bleeding. Prognosis. Pharmacologic treatment of hemophilia. Clotting factor preparations.

59. Hemorrhagic vasculitis. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinical forms. Diagnosis of hemorrhagic vasculitis. Treatment. Prognosis.

60. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Clinics. Treatment. Emergency care.

61. Diabetes mellitus in children: etiology, pathogenesis, classification, diagnostics. Criteria of diagnostics of diabetes mellitus in children. Impaired glucose tolerance. Complications of diabetes mellitus in children.

62. Peculiarities of diabetes course in infancy and puberty.

63. Treatment of diabetes mellitus in children (diet, pharmacological).

64. Comatose conditions in diabetic children. Differential diagnosis.

65. Hyperlactacidemic coma in diabetic children. Emergency aid.

66. Ketoacidotic and hyperosmotic coma in diabetic children. Emergency aid.

67. Hypoglycemic coma in diabetic children. Differential diagnosis, treatment.

68. Diseases of hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Growth disorders. Pituitary gigantism and acromegaly: signs, diagnostics, treatment.

69. Obesity (weight excess) in children: etiology, pathogenesis of different types. Classification, signs.

70. Obesity (weight excess) in children: Diagnostics, differential diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and management, prophylaxis.

71. Autoimmune thyroiditis: etiology, pathogenesis, signs, treatment, prophylaxis.

72. Grave’s disease in children: etiology, pathogenesis, signs.

73. Endemic goiter: etiology, signs, diagnostics, differential diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis.

74. Hypothyroidism: etiology, pathogenesis, signs, classification.

75. Diagnostics of hypothyroidism in infants. Laboratory data and investigations. Treatment, prognosis.

76. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia in children: etiology, pathogenesis, signs, diagnostics, differential diagnosis. Emergency aid at salt-wasting type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

77. Ambiguous genitalia and intersexuality in children.

78. Classification of disorders of sexual development in children.

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