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Theme: Food poisoning prevention




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1. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Children and adolescent hygiene.rtf
2. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Health and Environment.rtf
3. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Introduction to hygine.rtf
4. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Nutrition and health. Bolonian..rtf
5. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Occupation and health Bolonian.rtf
6. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Water and health.rtf
7. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Complex microclimate assessment. doc.doc
8. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Topic 08.doc
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10. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/The methods of air sampling.doc
11. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/Topic 12.doc
12. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Food poisoning/Food pois.doc
13. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 1.doc
14. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 2.doc
15. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen.doc
16. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Natur. ill. doc.doc
17. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/SOLAR RADIATION AND ITS HYGIENIC IMPORTANCE.doc
18. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 04.doc
19. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 05.doc
20. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/illuminatiom artif. doc.doc
21. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Menu apportion ass/Menu-raskl. doc.doc
22. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Air movement. doc.doc
23. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Determination of atmospheric pressure.doc
24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
25. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 06.doc
26. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 07.doc
27. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 11.doc
28. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/temperature. doc.doc
29. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Nois ass/noise and vibration.rtf
30. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Soil.ass/Topic 18.doc
31. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 1.doc
32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
33. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Work hardness/hardness and intencity 2.rtf
34. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/ultraviolate/manual.rtf
Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
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Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
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Theme: Food poisoning prevention

Topicality of the theme:

Food poisonings are considered in medicine as a mass health disorders. Rendering the first medical aid by the suffered people, he is obliged by the emergency notice to inform about it to sanitary and epidemiological establishments, to withdraw from the use the suspected products and to collect allocation of patients, the rest of the suspected product for laboratory researches. Investigation of cases of food poisonings is examined by the initial stage of preventive maintenance. For the doctor of the medical structure are necessary knowledge and skills in investigation of food poisonings to that the given training is devoted.

The purpose (general): - to be able to interpret causes and conditions leading to food poisonings for prevention measures substantiation.

Specific goals:

To know how:

  1. To classify food poisonings case.

  2. To explain why a bad quality product was a bad quality cause.

  3. To explain why a product has become the toxicity properties.

  4. To select priority preventive measures leading to food poisoning declination.

ACADEMIC CONTENT.

Theoretical questions underlining the implementation of purpose full activities.

  1. Food poisonings notion, main attributes, their classification.

  2. Food poisonings of the bacterial nature - toxicoinfections and toxicosis, a basic difference between them, conditions are necessary for their origin.

  3. Food toxicoinfections, activators, sources and channels by their food polluted.

  4. Food bacterial toxicosises (a botulism, staphylococcal toxicosis), sources and channels by their food polluted .

  5. Role of acrogenic and pustules diseases of public catering workers in food staphylococcal poisonings origin.

  6. Preventive maintenance of bacterial nature food poisonings.

  7. Mycitoxicosis and their preventive maintenance.


Basically.

  1. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д.Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології: Навчальний посібник. K.: Здоровя, 1999.-С. 393-423.

  2. Даценко І.І., Денисюк О.Б., Долошицький С.Л. Загальна гігієна, посібник для практичних занять.-Львів: Світ, 2001.- С. 181-186.

  3. Лекція по теме.

  4. Граф логической структуры темы (Приложение 1).


Supplementary:

  1. Габович Р.Д., Познанский С.С., Шахбазян Г.Х. Гигиена. - К.: Вища школа, 1983.- С. 169-180.

  2. Румянцев Г.И., Вишневская Е.П., Козлова Т.А. Общая гигиена.- М.: Медицина 1985.-С.81-95.

  3. Пивоваров Ю.П., Гоева О.Э., Величко А.А. Руководство к лабораторным занятиям по гигиене. – М.: Медицина, 1983.- С. 35-41.

Oriented bases for activities.

After mastering the above problems acquaint yourself with algorithms, which will allow you to muster professional skills in more successful.

To check knowledge of the given material do the following tasks.

Teaching type tasks:

The task 1.

There was a disease in a 3 person’s family. The nausea, vomiting, a sharp tachycardia, intimate weakness have appeared in 2 hours after the food intake . The body temperature is normal. It is established that there was summer sausage, firm cheese, fried meat with macaroni, and the cottage cheese, which was bought from private person in the diet. The food poisoning has been put as the preliminary diagnosis. What food could cause this disease?

  1. Sausage.

  2. Fried meat.

  3. Cheese.

  4. Cottage cheese.

  5. Macaroni.

The task 2.

In the children’s diet there was perishable food-cooked sausage, cottage cheese. Vomiting, a repeated liquid chair has appeared in 10 hours after the reception of food. The body’s temperature increased up to 38,5˚C. A food poisoning is suspect to be. Determine the character of laboratory researches and a material for the analysis.

  1. The chemical analysis of products.

  2. The virological analysis of excretions of fallen ill.

  3. Bacteriological researches of the rest of the products and excretions of patients.

  4. The helminthological analysis of the patient’s chair.

  5. Toxicological research of products.

The task 3.

At the investigation of food poisoning the rest of the suspected product, the patient’s excrements are directed on bacteriological research. The colibacillus is seen in all tests. Use the results of the analysis for the definition of the disease’s character.

  1. Staphylococcal toxicoses.

  2. Food toxic infection.

  3. Intestinal infection.

  4. Mycitoxicoses.

  5. Botulism.

The task 4.

During the investigation of the food poisoning the diagnosis proteus toxic infection has been put. Determine the reason of the occurrence of the food poisoning.

  1. The use of food, containing toxins of microbes.

  2. The use of food, massively semimnated alive microorganisms.

  3. The use of food, containing organic poison.

  4. The use of food, containing vegetative poison.

  5. The use of food, containing chemical substance.

The task 5.

The pasteurized milk was given to the children for the breakfast at school. There was a disease with attributes of food poisoning among children who received milk (a nausea, vomiting, a diarrhea, increase in temperature). Develop the operative actions on preventive maintenance:

  1. To withdraw the milk.

  2. To render the medical aid.

  3. To carry out the disinfection at school.

  4. To carry out the sanitary-educational work among the teachers.

  5. To carry out the conversationwith pupils.

Keys: 1-4; 2-3.

Concise methodical recommendations for a study .

The students’ independent work includes the determining of the food poisoning character, basing and selection preventive maintenance measures according to the individual teaching task. Each student on the basis of the data of the situational task makes out as the report results of the work, reflecting in them performance of the tasks. Works of 2-3 students are analyzed and generalized at final work part discussion. The final test control over the theme is carried out.


Technological chart of the practical study.





Stages

Time,

Min.

Teaching aids used at classes , location and characteristic of study

A site and character of occupation

1.


2.


3.


4.


Checking and correction base line level.


Independent work. Doing situational models to assess professional problems of determining food poisoning character and their preventive measures.

Analysis and correction of conclusions

The final test control and determining the assessment of study outcome

30


170


40


30

Test tasks, educational tables, graph of logical structure, algorithmes, situational tasks.

Laboratory of the department, seminar-pract.



Sup.1

Graph of logical structure of the theme

Food poisoning prevention


Food poisoning notion


Main attributes


Mass cases

Relation to food intake

Gastrointeritis syndrom previously


Classification


Unknown origin

Non-microbic nature

Microbic nature


Causes and conditions leading to bad quality product


Prevention principles measures interrupting the food poisoning origin mechanisms


Sup. 2

The brief contents of theoretical questions

1. Food poisonings notion, main attributes, their classification.

Food poisoning are often acute noninfected diseases originating due to bad quality product consumption which polluted by microbes, their toxins as well as animal or vegetable origin toxic admixture.

Every year approximately 300 000 000 people fall ill with these diseases and they say this number as an iceberg pile because large case number do not take medical advice depends on different reasons and majority disturbances are not registered.

Because these one are massive diseases every GP should know main food poisoning attribute as:

- as a rule is gastrointeric syndrom in some case absent ;

- it is strict relation between food intake and disease onset ;

- the diseases have mass character. All people who bad quality product intake are injured .

Very important to know food poisoning classification as a key to accurate diagnostic, medical care and food poisoning prevention.

FOOD POISONING CLASSIFICATION

I. Microbic origin food poisonings:

  1. I. 1 Toxicoinfections

I. 2.Toxicosises:

  1. 2. 1. Bacterial toxicosises: Botulism, Staphilococcal toxicosis;

  1. 2.2 Micotoxicosises : Fusariosis, Aflotoxicosis, Ergotism

I. 3 Mixters

II. Nonmicrobic origin food poisonings:

II. 1. Food poisoning by products of the poisoning nature;

II. 2. Food poisoning by poisoning temporary products;

II. 3. Food poisoning by products which contains animal or vegetable origin as well as chemical admixture .

III. Unknown origin food poisonings: alimentary paraxismal and toxic albuminuria

2. Food toxicoinfections, activators, sources and channels by their food polluted.

For bacterial origin food poisoning beginnings should be three obligatory conditions:

First condition – germs must put on products.

Second condition – it must be conditions for them multiply or toxin originating (food structure and P H medium, temperature etc.),

Third condition – lack or inadequate food thermal cooking process.

It is very important to notice that bacterial food poisoning origin in three conditions presence case.

Food toxicoinfection is food poisoning which in short - term infection and toxicosis attributes characterising. This disease has two phase. First one is a bacteriemia in during which alive germs intake with food and through a gastrointeric tract penetrate to blood and dissiminate to tissuess. From imtake moment they are killed by natural resistance factors and due to cells destruction the endotoxin excrete. That’s why typical toxicoinfection symtoms (high temperature, gastroenterocolit, headache) muscular pains are related to dual origin. Toxicoinfections caused by Proteus mirabilis , Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium perfringens, enteropathogenic E. Coli, Bac. Cereus, Str. Faecalis, vibrio parahemolyticus, Citrobacter, Hafnia, Klebsiela, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Edvardsiela etc.

There are a lot of causative toxicoinfection agents in nature. Microbes live, multiplied and excreted to environment from people, wild and domestic animals, rodents, birds, insects etc. That’s why any product polluted is dangerous for people infection. Most responsible toxicoinfection products are meat and meat product, milk and dietary products, garnishes which infected after cookin etc. It is known two most important infected mechanism for a meat and fish.

-Intravital mechanism origin acts when animals have diseases and infected by germs.

-Postmortal mechanism origin acts after animal (fish) slaughter and microbs polluted to a muscular carcass part by slaughters, cutting, keeping, transporting sanitary infringements.

3. Food bacterial toxicosises (a botulism, staphylococcal toxicosis), sources and channels by their food polluted .

Food bacterial toxicosises origin when alive germs lives and multiplyes on a product , excrete metabolism products (ekzotoxin) and perish under environmental condition. That is why these toxicosises sause is not alive germ but it’s ekzotoksin. This is a principal difference between toxicoinfections and bacterial toxicosises.

Botulism is the food poisoning which origins due to product consumption ekzotoxin polluted . Cl. Botulinum is the microb which wide spread in wild and domestic animals, fishes, insects. It is an intestine obligatory inhabitant, which excreted to an environment , in soil previously, has long – term survival because spores forms. They become invasive in anaerobic medium ekzotoxin producing. This information necessary for comprehension of the guilty products list. Botulism mainly origins after intake products inside of them are formed anaerobic conditions. As such as smoked meat, fish, sausage, hams, animals and vegetable (especially mushrooms) canned products. This poisoning peculiarity makes for products processing should keep strict conditions using modern equipment (sterilization, smoking processes etc). That’s why they origin after home cooking with sanitary infringement conditions.

Botulism is most dangerous poisoning with mortality level 50% in untreated cases. That’s why very important to know their characterizing symptoms. It ‘s known triad DDD –symptoms as Diarrhea, Diplopia, Dysphagia which resulted from toxin effect and specific influence on centers of craniocerebral nerves. Sometimes diarrhea shifts to constipation due to N. Vagus damage. Temperature is not high usually because toxin hasn’t pyrogenic characteristic.

Products are Cl. Botulinim polluted because soil polluted . Animal, birds, fish, insects intestine contents pollute clean products. In anaerobic condition harmonizing with favorable product medium begins ekzotoxin excretion. For germs survival promotes insufficient temperature and smoke processing.

Staphylococcal toxicosis ( St. Aureus ) origins due to polluted by ekzotoxin excreted from Staphylococcus aureus or haemoliticus. This toxikosis resulted from intake products which medium is nearest to carbohydrates contents. These are milk and milk products, cakes, pastry, ice-cream etc. These products are polluted due to people who have aerogenic or skin purulent infections as such as sick from staphilococcal infections animals ( cows’ mastitis for example).


  1. System of nonmicrobic nature food poisonings preventive maintenance measures

4. Mycotoxicosis and their preventive maintenance

Micotoxicosys - mainly chronic poisonings caused by toxins of microscopic mushrooms fusarim, aspergilli, penicillium, claviceps purpurea, etc.

Ergotism (ergot) cereal cultures is more often are affected by microscopic fungi as such as Clavicex purpurea (ergot). This fungi mycelium forms dark-violet spots under 4 sm. length. Vet summer promotes

to cereal lesion. The fungi toxicity depends on alcaloids presence as such as ergotamin, ergotoxin, ergometrin etc and biogenic amins (hystamin, tyronin etc ). These toxic substances are stable to heating, baking of bread including and to a preservation as well. Distinguish convulsive, hangrenosic and the mixed forms.

Fusarious – caused by Fusarium fungi from Sporotrichea species. They wide spread in soil, cereals and beans, vegetables. Their development promote high humidity. They development by different temperature but optimum one are from –4 0 C to + 0 C. Fusariotoxins are stable to heating (200 0C and more) and to other physical and chamical adverse factors, keep e an activity for long years preservation. Fusariosises are classified as the :

  • alimentary-toxic aleukia,

  • “drunk bread” poisoning,

  • endemic nephropathy.

Aflatoxicosis in acute form is characterized by the liver necrosis and adipose degeneration, neirotoxicosis, hemorrhage, ascites, diarrhea, kidneys necrosis. In subacut and chronic forms leads to the liver cirrosis and primary cancer.

Aflatoxin as such as B1 is most adverse among known to scientists chemical carcinogen. It is known also teratogenic and mutagenic aflatoxin effects. They upset protein synthesis leading to molecules DNA and RNA- polymerase sites blocks. It is expressed by cellulars enzymatic processes disorders, selective changes enzymatic activity.

Aflatoxicosises are spread in Africa and South-East Asia . Importance of Aflotoxicosis in Ukraine related with import form these country products .Aflotoxins are fungi metabolism product as such as Aspergillus flavus, rear other Aspergils and Penucillinum fungi. It were detected 12 aflatoxines or furocumarins by chemical nstructure. Aflatoxins are termostable, have bad water-soluble, destroyed only by hard alcali.

Aflatoxins originate in products by different temperature , have maximal activity by 22-30 0 C and 83-90 % humidity. Aflatoxins detected in ground nuts, rice and other cereals, beans, oil-bearing, cacao and coffee-beans, bread and other products by mould polluted. Few amount of aflotoxins revealed in milk, meat and eggs.

5. Food poisonings, non-microbic nature, food chains importance of various objects e environmental toxic substances intake in the human’s organism.

Non-microbic food poisoning importance increase with a scientific and technical progress, agriculture chemicalization, environment pollution enlargement, food and fodder additives in large amount using producing and using synthetic, polymeric and other packaging materials as well as food packages.

From 30 to 80% xenobiotics intake to organism by food in presence time. Influencing on intermal organism medium they lead to metabolism disorders, adaptation reserves declines, originate different pathology.

Xenobiotics cause not only chemical ethiology intoxication but may influence on immunologic status, cause gonadotoxic,, embriotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, cancerogenic effects, decline body resistance level, originate different pathology.

Toxic substances food poisoning originate from intake foods containing substances :

-natural origin

-artificial origin

Natural origin substances may intake with poisoning mushrooms, plants and animal origin products.

A toadstool contains thermostable poisons-amanitotoxin and amanitolisin . In 100 gr mushrooms poisons content are 20 – 30 mg, half of this dose is lethal for human being. That is why the toadstool 50 gr leads to mortal poisoning.

Fly-agarics ( red, pantheric etc) contain alcoloids similar substances as muscarine, atropine etc. (neurotropic poisons).

Conditionally edible mushrooms contain gelvelic acid (hepatotropic poison ) and gyrometrin (neurotropic poison). They detect veru difficult with thus latter consider as conditionally edible also.

When mushrooms food poisoning acute gastritis, gastrointeritis as well as characterizing for each mushroom type symptoms are fallen. For example: cholera similar clinical course, cardiovascular system and parenchymatous organs due to adipose degeneration disturbances when when the toadstool is. Vegetative and central nervous system lesions when fly-agaric is. Jaundice , hemoglobinuria when food poisoning happen.

A lot of poisoning species among wild plants are met ( black henbane, thorn apple, spotted hemlock, banewort etc) Poisoning plants contain alkaloids, dlucosides, peptides, essential oils, anhydryds and others. 1300 of different plants have hepatotoxisity property resulted from pyrolisidin alkaloid contents.

Food poisoning causes may be toxic food components. These are greened and sprouted potatoes salonin, haricot phazine. These alkaloids originate to gastritis as such as hemolytic effects.

In some cases cyanogenic glucosides are met in products which are transformed to cyanic acid. Most frequently the amigdalin glucosid is formed in stone fruits like as apricot, peach, cherry, plum etc.

Most dangerous intake animal endocrine glands which are enriched biology active toxic substances. (Bear’s livers for example which retinol enriched).

May be poisoning aquatic residents as mollusks, sea and river fishes (hystamin in tunas for example, some fish’s spawn ).

Some fishes become poisoning in spawning period.

Very vary food poisoning resulted from intake foods by chemical substances artificial origin polluted:

  • food poisoning from food addition;

  • food poisoning from pesticides admixtures

  • food poisoning from products making by infringement of microbic and chemical synthesis;

  • food poisoning from xenobiotics which contaminated from package, packing, table-ware , transports polluted etc;

  • food poisoning from vegetable products by industrial sewage polluted;

  • food poisoning from polluted environment contaminated.

It is should know about nutrition chains importance by chemical substances contamination, heavy metals, radioactive substances previously. Vegetables products accumulate poisons from soil, air, water. After that contaminated products intake by animals or people, later contaminated meat or fish intake by people etc. Nutrition chains have a big importance in food poisoning origin from pesticides, xenobiotics which widely distributed in environment.

6. Food poisoning prevention principles

-Sanitary propaganda;

-Interrupted refrigeration chain;

Rules and norms of the domestic animals, sea as well as river fishes and harvest –legislation;

A constant veterinary and sanitary control and examination making ;

-Personal hygiene rules keeping;

-State norms and rules of foods storage, cooking and trading keeping;

-State prohibition measures which decline probability to buy bad quality products;

-Decantominating and deactivating measures;

A custom examination development;

----- A medical examination public catering workers;

- Foods laboratory control;

- An elaboration food poisons maximal tolerance level;

-Sanitary inspection of knew package, packing, table-ware , transports systems etc.

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