Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose icon

Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose




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16. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Natur. ill. doc.doc
17. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/SOLAR RADIATION AND ITS HYGIENIC IMPORTANCE.doc
18. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 04.doc
19. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 05.doc
20. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/illuminatiom artif. doc.doc
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23. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Determination of atmospheric pressure.doc
24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
25. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 06.doc
26. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 07.doc
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31. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 1.doc
32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
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Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
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Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises

Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises

Purpose : to know how to assess natural illumination and work –out measures by it’s optimization.

4.1. A natural illumination.

Natural illumination is characterized by solare’s rays effect. Sokar’s rays are penetrated through window’s aperture (‘epetche) making importance biological effects.

Natural illumination is characterized by underlying indices:

  1. Window’’ orientation by quarter. Prefarable orientation in Donetsk –South-East, South and South - West orientations.

  2. Insolating regime – it is a time which at least 80 % premises’ total area are illuminated by solar rays. It’s considered :

- minimum insolating regime – less the 3 hours

- middle insolating regime - 3-6 hours

- maximal insolating regime -more the 6 hours.

3 . Light factor - it is windows’ glazed part area to floor’s area ratio. It is measured by ratio unites (‘junetis): 1:4; 1;5:; etc.

4. Interior coefficient it is a height from floor to upper window’s edge (edg) to premise’s depth ratio (premise’s detph –it is a from external window to internal wall distance).

5. natural illumination – it is an inside premise’s illumination level to outside illumination level measuring under disperse firmament (‘firmement) simultaneously ratio after it is multiplied to 100 percent.

6. Incident angle should be at least 27 degrees;

7. Aperture angle (‘epetche )- should be at least 5 degrees.

Visible part of the solar’s rays:

It is an adequate irritant of the visual analyser. People have chance to see surrounding world as such as the one exists. Concerning this effect it’s known several derivative others one:

  1. It is the factor which can leads to all metabolism processes because central part of the visual analyzer is stimulated or inhibited (in’hibited) depending by intensity (in’tensiti) of the illumination.

  2. It is the factor which can leads to stimulating or inhibiting internal organs according to cortico cortical and cortico visceral relations.

  3. It is the factor which forms cyrcadic rhythm ( ‘rithem ) of physical function activity. It’s known more then 300 physical functions which change their activity according to alternation of day and night.


:

Hygienic importance of the natural illumination

Infrared wave, visible part and ultra-violet rays are included to the solar light.

Infrared wave have length of the wave –760 nm. Possess:

1. Heating effect .

2. Lead to skin’s and mucous’ of internal organ hyperemia –inflammation effect.

3. Lead to some disturbances resulting from increasing gas exchange in biological tissue .

4. May lead to specific disturbances – heatstroke and crystalline lens cataract (‘keterekt)

Ultra violet beams

  1. Sunburn effect. Synthesis ( ‘synthesis) of melanin (‘melenin) which is a pigment (‘pigment) protecting a skin out of the ultraviolet’s overirradiation

  2. Leads to biological active substances – histamine (‘histemin) and similar to histamine substances –bradycinin, which are caused by and included to allergic process.

  3. It posess antirachytis effect leads to synthesus provitamin D (‘vitemin).

  4. It influences to all types of metabolism.

  5. It may increase immunic status.

  6. It possess antimicrobic ( mikroub ) (bactericidic baktierisaidic) effect.

  7. It possess hardening effect lead to increasing of the body resistance.

Luxmeter (illuminometr)

It measures of illumination level by photocamical effect principle substantiation. Light incidents on sensing element and coming through gold, silver, platinum, nickel strata are varnished. It is originated electrons movement which are registered by ampermeter which scales are graduated by lux units. On the apparatus yuo shoud see 3 scales having 2 limits correspondingly upper scale has limit 100 lux , low one -30 lux. Apparatus is provided 3 filters for decreasing it’s sensation and illumination level measuring posibilities increasing .

All classrooms of secondary comprehensive establishment should be equipped with natural illumination. Light should illuminate working places from the left, irrespective of the location of windows ( on the side or above). The optimal level of natural illumination is provided with overhead or lateral

illumination of premises.

The natural illumination should be uniform without any brilliancy .

The uniformity of illumination at working place (minimal illumination - maximal one ratio) should be not less then 0,3.The sufficiency and uniformity of illumination may be assessed by the light coefficient – the total area of windows – floor area ratio. The most rational window’s shape is rectangular, height 2-2,5 m, wide 1,8-2m, the upper window edge should be located at the distance 0,15-0,3 m from the ceiling. The extent of the pier should not exceed 0,5 m, the height of the window – sill –0,8m, light factor 1:4-1:5. To provide the optimal natural illumination it is necessary to for see the angle under which one can see sky from the remotest working place from the window, it being not less then 5, while black-out factor – under 3. No high room flowers should be placed on a window – sill оf a classroom. The color of the surfaces of ceiling, walls, furniture is to be yellow, green, beige. The ceiling upper walls window and door frames are to be colored white, the reflection coefficient of which being 0,8 in the classrooms equipped with technical teaching aid the wall servant a back ground for screen is to be colored yellow or beige with reflection coefficient of 0,6; the black board is to have a dull surface colored dark green, brown,, with the reflection coefficient 0,1-0,2.

All polymeric materials used in building or reconstruction schools as well as for equipment of premises, floor should be supplied positive conclusion of a state sanitary hygienic expertise.

The optimal brightness ratio is for : “ an exercise book - desk ” - 4:1,

“ the blackboard –the exercise book ” - 1:5-1:6,5, “ the window – the exercise book ” - 7:1, “ the blackboard - the window ” - 1:12. Following brightness ratio for the surface are allowable: “ an exercise book - desk ” –2 : 1-3 : 1, “ the blackboard –the exercise book ” - 1:3,-1:8-1:10, “ the window – the exercise book ” – 15:1-17:1, “ the blackboard - the window ” – 1 : 5.

Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises

Purpose: to know how to assess the artificial illumination in premises and working-out measures of it’s optimization

Topicality of the theme :

Sickness rate of the organ of sight has been increasing are resulted from vision strengthening which is originated modern people’s life style. A vision activity is realized at indoors as well as industrial conditions. A system of the artificial illumination has been playing importance part for making of normal conditions for visual analyser’s work. Prevention maintenance of refraction’s disturbances, eye diseases, an optimal people’s psychological and emotional conditions in dark time and cloudy weather are provided by rational organization this sanitary and technical system.

Artificial illumination it is a factor of the environment which originated as a result of the heated metal’s incandescent (filament lamp) or special gas luminescence (luminescent lamp)

It is known artificial illumination as a total, including the uniform total artificial illumination and local artificial illumination . Total artificial illumination it is when illuminators are uniformly suspended to a ceiling . Local artificial illumination it is when illuminator are placed for local area of the room or working place illumination. It is known also combination one when total and local artificial illuminations are combined and mixed artificial illumination when it is mixed with natural illumination.

Artificial illumination in premises are characterized following hygienic indices:

  1. A type of the illumination.

  2. A type of the lamp.

  3. A type of the illuminators ( dispersing, erect and reflecting illuminators).

  4. A level of the illumination of the floor area.

  5. A level of the illumination of the working place.

  6. A calculated minimal horizontal level of the room’s illumination.

  7. An uniformity of the illumination’s level of premises and working place.

Phisiological and hygienic importance of the natural iollumination

  1. It is the factor which can leads to all metabolism processes because central part of the visual analyzer is stimulated or inhibited (in’hibited) depending by intensity (in’tensiti) of the illumination.

  2. It is the factor which can leads to stimulating or inhibiting internal

  3. It is a factor which should provide correctness of the transmission of colours.

  4. It is a factor which may possess unfavorable effects (heating, stroboscopic, noising, toxic etc

As a hygienic requirements artificial illumination should be:

  1. Sufficient by it’s level and should be at least of sanitary standards ‘ level.

  2. To be approximate to solar’s spectrum for adequate coloures ‘transmission.

  3. To be uniform in space , to be not sharp contrasting.

  4. To be uniform in time and doesn’t make stroboscopic effect (it is еру the object’s glimpses according to lamp’s flashing leading to the vision fatigue. .

  5. To be not leading to the dazzling (e) effect.


E=E1 x P1 ,where


E- A calculated minimal horizontal level of the room’s illumination.

E1 - --minimal horizontal illumination level according to electrical power of the 1 w on floor area 1 m 2.. It is a tabular value

P1 - specific electrical power – it is a total electricity power of all luminescent lamp to total floor area divide. The normative of illumination level for a scientific room is at least 500 lx.

For an uniformity illumination level assessment should be measured illumination level in 5 point, minimal to maximal illumination level divide. The uniformity coefficient should be at least 0,3.


4.2. Artificial illumination.


The artificial illumination of school premises may be provided by luminescent and incandescent lamps with corresponding armature given scattered light and should be safe and reliable. The artificial illumination

in school classrooms is provided by incandescent lamps of 150 lx and 300 lx with luminescent lamps. In drawing classrooms and workshops the artificial illumination level should be 200-400 lx, 300-500 lx respectively. All school premises should be equipped with a system of total illumination. Luminescent illuminators should give disseminated light while incandescent ones – reflected light distribution completely. In case of artificial illumination of classroom luminescent lamps should be preferably as they have positive decision of the state sanitary hygienic expertise. Of luminescent illuminators, the ones from “ЛСО-02” series ( suspended illuminator disseminated light) and those the “ЛПО-23” ones (ceiling lamps for social premises). To illuminate blackboard luminescent illuminators of “ЛПО-12” series with asymmetrical light distribution with luminescent lamps of 40 W and 80 W are to be used. In particular artificial radiators of 3500ºК are recommended for use irrespective of the principle of visible radiation generation. For classrooms luminescent lamps of “ЛН”-type (luminescent lamps of the natural color), illumination “ЛБ” (white color), “ЛХБ” (a cold white color), “ЛТПЦ” ( warm white color), “MOD” (2×40 W), “ШПД” (2×40 W) may be used.

Of incandescent lamp the most rational illuminators are preferable ones of reflected light distribution.

In classrooms illuminators should be arranged in to rows parallel to the window line at a distance of 1,5 m from external and inner walls and 1,2 m - from the blackboard and 1,6 m of posterior wall. The row distance of illuminators should be 2,5 - 2,65 m..

The illuminators should be washed at least 3 times per month while windows ones – per six month.

Hygienic requirements for the level of illumination comprehensive school’s premises are presented ( tab.1 sup. 3) .

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