Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье» icon

Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»




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НазваЛекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
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ТипЛекция
1. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Children and adolescent hygiene.rtf
2. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Health and Environment.rtf
3. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Introduction to hygine.rtf
4. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Nutrition and health. Bolonian..rtf
5. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Occupation and health Bolonian.rtf
6. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Water and health.rtf
7. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Complex microclimate assessment. doc.doc
8. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Topic 08.doc
9. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/Dust. doc.doc
10. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/The methods of air sampling.doc
11. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/Topic 12.doc
12. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Food poisoning/Food pois.doc
13. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 1.doc
14. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 2.doc
15. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen.doc
16. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Natur. ill. doc.doc
17. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/SOLAR RADIATION AND ITS HYGIENIC IMPORTANCE.doc
18. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 04.doc
19. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 05.doc
20. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/illuminatiom artif. doc.doc
21. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Menu apportion ass/Menu-raskl. doc.doc
22. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Air movement. doc.doc
23. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Determination of atmospheric pressure.doc
24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
25. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 06.doc
26. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 07.doc
27. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 11.doc
28. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/temperature. doc.doc
29. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Nois ass/noise and vibration.rtf
30. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Soil.ass/Topic 18.doc
31. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 1.doc
32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
33. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Work hardness/hardness and intencity 2.rtf
34. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/ultraviolate/manual.rtf
Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises





Лекция на тему:

«Окружающая среда и здоровье»

(для англоязычных студентов 3-го курса ММФ)


Environment and health


1. Notion about environment. Classifications of environmental factors.

2. Notion about environmental contamination (pollution). Most important sources of pollution.

3. Generals regularities of how environmental factors influence on human’s health state.

4. General principles of sanitation and improvement of an environment.

5. Notion about microclimate in premises ant it’s hygienic importance.

5. Notion about soil, it’s hygienic importance.

6. Dust and it’s hygienic importance.

7. Chemical admixtures in atmospheric air and their hygienic importance.

8. Basic directions of protection and enhancement of environment.


Internal environment – it is biological liquids of an organism which contain cellular, tissues, organs localised to outside by skin and mucosae.

Our planet has heterogeneous structure it is includes concentrated external and internal strata (geosphere). Internal strata has core and mantle (e), external one has lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

Lithosphere (греч. “литос” – камень) – it is stone stratum which includes earth core which has thickness from 6 km under oceans till 80 km (mountains systems)

Hydrosphere- (греч. “гидора” – вода) –it is the water stratum of planet which divided to surface hydrosphere and underground hydrosphere.

Atmosphere (греч. “атмос” – пар) – it is gas cover of Earth which contains the composition of different gases, water fume and aerosols. There is stratum of ozone on the height from 10 till 50 km, with maximum one on the height 20-25 km, which protects the planet from extra ultraviolet irradiation which is mortal for organisms.

Biosphere it is the complex external cover of the earth which is populated by organisms, which are alive substance in total of the planet. The extension of biosphere includes 25-30 km of atmosphere, hydrosphere in total, and lithosphere approximately 3 km by depth. Peculiarity of this parts are alive organisms presence.

In 1965 famous scientist mr. Vernadsky offered new term “noosphere”. Noosphere- it is the new Earth stratum which has being formed by human being or intellectual earth cover which is highest stage of biosphere development.


Environment it is the complex of biotic and abiotic conditions of alive organisms. Environmental conditions are changeable constantly and any alive being should be adopted to this changes.

Biotic factors- these are factors of alive origins –microbes, viruses, helmints, insects, animals etc. Biotic factors includes also alive organisms which live in human organism as parasites and symbionts (for example helmint ovum).

Abiotic factors are called all total factors non organic nature which influence on alive species. These are classified as physical, physical and chemical, chemical nature.

Abiotic and biotic factors were during all period of the evolution process. There influence on alive species were constant and irreplaceable. These factors are called as essential factors.

Abiotic and biotic factors may be non essential one. Their presence in environment were not obligatory during evolution process . These factors are not irreplaceable for existence and development of the biosphere.

As a variety of biotic factors we may consider anthropogenic factors. Anthropogenic factors are factors which were origin due to human being activities and his influence on the environment as pollution, waste, soil erosion, forest destruction, bogs drainage (‘ei) etc.

Environment possible to classify as follows :

1. Not changed (natural) - the part of environment, which has по anthropogenous influence.

2. Changed (polluted) - as а result of human activity.

3. Artificial - environment specially originated by human being (а spacecraft, а submarine etc.)


2. Notion about environmental contamination (pollution). Most important anthropogenic sources of pollution.

  1. Transport which uses hard, liquid or gas fuel.

  2. Economic and household activity of human being.

  3. Enterprises which buy natural and artificial resources and due to technological imperfection they have toxic or harmful wastes which as usual put on soil, in water, in air.

  4. Energetic station.

  5. Production, packing, loading, transporting, trading, storage, and using chemical substances.

Contamination by general sense It is substance or energy on improper place or in improper (unsuitable) time.

Natural- volcanoes, earthquakes. flooding, forest fires, typhoons etc. - the natural extreme phenomena. Scales pollution of environment thus сап bе very significant, cover the big territories and levels pollution mау bе more, than anthropogenous pollution.

Anthropogenous - caused bу human activity: the industry, the atomic power station, transport, agriculture, municipal services etc. Major factors of environmental contamination:

- Chemical (pesticides, mineral oil, heavy metals etc.)

- Physical (noise, vibration, radiation, electromagnetic fields)

- Chemical and Physical –dust.

- Biological (microorganisms, biological products etc.)

- Psychogenic (informative)

- Social conditions


3. Generals regularities of how environmental factors influence on human’s health state.

CRITERIA of DANGER OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

AND VARIATIES OF ITS MONITORING

То assess danger of environmental contamination it is possible bу the following criteria:

- By degree of excess of maximum permissible concentration of pollutants in the environment - analytical monitoring,

.. By integrated parameter -state of health of the population . medical-hygienic monitoring, selection of critical group of population

- By changes in ecosystems - ecological monitoring (in regional: scales), biospheric monitoring (оп global scale).


1. DIRECT NEGATIVE INFLUENCE:

1. Sharp affect

1.1. Specific (failures) ~ at people arise sharp specific intoxications owing to action the big concentration concrete pollutant

Combined biological affects of chemical substances:

1. Antagonism (less, than additive action) - mutual easing toxic effects of poisons at. joint action оп ап organism. Has chemical (mutual destruction of poisons) or а functional nature (different inf1uence оп functions of systems).

2. Synergism.

2. 1 Summarized (additive action) - arithmetic addition separate toxic effects.

2. 2. Potentiation (more, than additive action) - mutual sharp ,

strengthening toxicity each toxins at joint action.

1.2. Nonspecific.

2. Chronic affect:

2.1. Specific - accumulation in the environment small amounts pollutants, bringing in specific ecologic pathology:

- Illness Minamata - in Japan - for the first time was described among fishermen and their families in small town Minarnata: at adults - а cerebral paralysis, at сhildгеп - а spastic paralysis, blindness, intellectual backwardness. Тhе cause - hit of methyl­mercury in the sea and than - in fish;

Endemic illnesses (fluorosis and etc.).

2.2. Chronic nonspecific action pollution biosphere оn health -deterioration аll parameters of health of the population, nonspecific diseases, their aggravations etc.


3. Remoted effects.


2, INDIRECT NEGATIVE INFLUENCE of POLLUTION ENVIRONMENT ON HEALTH of the POPULATION


Microclimate of premises –is a complex of meteorological attributes inside of premises characterizing difference combinations air’s temperature, humidity and air movement as well as temperature surrounding surfaces.

Depending the temperature surrounding surfaces it’s possible generated positive and negative infra-red radiation.

It’s known following varieties of microclimate depending combinations of it’s factors:

  1. Optimal. All factors are balancing to heating balance of the human organism.

  2. Indifferent. All factors result not from an essential strengthening of the human organism.

  3. Heating. High temperature and other gain factors lead to heating strengthening of the human organism.

  4. Cooling. Low temperature and other gain factors lead to cooling strengthening of the human organism.

  5. Intermittent. The combination of microclimates factors are cooling-heating and may lead to disadaptation’s states.

Notion about positive and negative radiation

Unfavorable microclimate leads to acute or chronic strain of the thermoregulation system including all organs and system (bracket) ( bones and crystalline lenz are excepted) as it following disturbance are resulted: (Roman numerals)

  1. Specific disturbances are resulted from only one origin that lead to aetio – pathological changes in human organism:

    1. Heatstroke

    2. Heat shock.

    3. Heat cramps.

    4. General and local frost bite.

  2. Nun specific disturbances are resulted from the strengthening of the human organism leading to exhaustion of regulation and energetic stores.

II. 1. Speedy decreasing capacity for work. Speedy development fatigue and over fatigue.

  1. II. 2. Decreas of the professional significance functions’ level.

I. 3. Decreas of the human body’s resistance.

II. 4. Development of nun specific diseases.Air humidity’s kinds:

1. Absolute humidity – it is water steam quantity in air volume by present temperature. It is measured in g per cu. M. or mm. Mercury by present temperature. It is measured in g per cu. M. or mm. mercury by present temperature.

2. Maximal humidity – it is maximal water steam quantity in air volume by present temperature. It is determined by standard scales.

3. Deficit of the saturation – it is a maximal to absolute humidity difference.

4. Physiological deficit of the saturation - it is a maximal humidity by body’s temperature and absolute humidity by present temperature difference

5. Relative air humidity -it is an absolute humidity to maximal humidity divided to 100% multiplied. It is measured in percent. It is known instrument and tabular determining methods.

6. Dew-point - it is a temperature when absolute humidity by present temperature becomes a maximal humidity which is leading to dew fallen.

Air movement in premises is characterized by speed and direction


5. Notion about soil, it’s hygienic importance.

Soil-it is a natural historian body of the Earth’s crust which is founded from mother’s rock (virgin rock)’ climatic geographic conditions, activity of microorganisms and people. Modern soil is a result of 3 billions years of life. Soil – it is a somebody’s death. If we were method of extraction microorganism out of soil it would be extracted 40 ton germs on the area 100 m 2

Soil’s indices characterizing

The basic hygienic parameters of soil:

-Mechanical characteristics:

Diameter of particles

>3 mm – stone’s fraction;

1-3 mm – large sand ;

0,25-1 mm – middle sand

0,05-0,25-mm small sand

0,005-0,01mm- midl dust

0,001-0,005 small dust


Porosity – it is quantity of pores (po:s) in soil’s mass. The more pores the more air and less water filtration ‘s capacity.

Air permeability is connected to porosity of soil. The more-air permeability is the oxygen more and the better biochemical processes of autopurification are.

Water penetrability =filtration capacity – it is a water’s filtration rate. Soil for establishment’s location should has high water penetrability.

Capillarity (cepileriti) – it is a capacity of soil for lifting atmospheric water. It is measuring as a distance from soil’s surface to water ground level. It should be at least 1,5 m. Under 1,5 is called low water ground level. Above 1,5 m is called high water ground level. When hospitals are placed on soil of low water ground level it leads to dampness in premises as well as to mosquito’s ( me’skiteu) reproduction in quantity

-Soil’s air

carbon dioxide percent 5-15%

oxygen percent

Methane (‘mi:thein) percent

Radon (‘reidon ) gas content.

Soil’s moisture (moistche)-влага

-Water may to be:

chemical fixed water ;

in steam condition;


Soil’s Self purification - it is most important function of soil. Mineralization of organic substances in soil may take place in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Processes of the rotting разложение and fermentation are accompanied by the gases discharge which have slovenly smell and contamination of atmospheric air. That is why when dirtiness are disinfected it is necessary to set up the condition with aerobic processes of mineralization prevalence which provided by sufficient amount of oxygen is admitted to polluted soil. In conditions of oxygen presence aerobic microbes degrade carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water.

In anaerobic conditions the methane and other gases are formed having slovenly smell. Cellulose of plants which comes to soil is undergone to methane fermentation with gases and water origin. From cellulose of plants humus compounds are made. After fats splitting to glycerin and fatty acids and they are split to carbon dioxide and water in aerobic condition and their splitting are accompanied by volatile fatty acids origin with slovenly smell.

Proteins splitting take place in two stages. During the first one ( ammonium formation ) they are split to amine acids which in term split to ammonia and it’s saline. Besides of ammonia acids fatty and aromatic acids are formed. In anaerobic conditions products of intermediate split are formed ( indole, violate fatty acids, hydrogen sulfides, mercaptans) which have sharp slovenly smell. In aerobic condition ammonia oxidize to nitrous acid and the last to nitric acid during second stage (nitrification). Aerobic microbes oxidize also other products of protein splitting and nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, carbonates are formed in soil which used by plants as nutrients. . In soil’s auto purification result organic substances are turned into that forms of inorganic substances which become nutrients for plants and come to biological cycle. Optimal conditions for nitrification by temperature are +25…+37 and humidity no less then 25-30%? They are full stopped by temperature lower then +3 and higher +56. In soil’s auto purification result become total pathogenic microbes death non spore forms previously. .

After all transformation humus origin which contains cellulose, fats, organic acids, mineral substances and protein complexes formed due to microbe synthesis. Humus contains also saprophyte microbes. Humus is fertilizer full of value, it’s degraded slowly and gives to plant necessary nutrients gradually. According to the sanitary point of view it is very important that humus does not decay , badly smell gases discharge, flies attract, pathogenic microbes contain, spore formed except. Promoting to microbes factors death are also bacteriophages, antibiotics, solar radiation, drying of soil, digging etc.

Bacteriological and helminthological indices are direct indications of soil’s faecal pollution. It is character for the fresh soil pollution increasing general number of microbes and non spore microbes prevalence. Prevalence of Cl. Perfringens is the attribute of old pollution. Indicator of the fresh pollution is also large number of helminthes ova.

It is become more frequently pollution of soil by industrial waste, motor car exhaustions, pesticides etc.

Chemical contamination of soil is hazard for human health because migrate by biological chins (per water, plants, animals) to human organism as such as break natural mechanisms of soil’s self cleaning. For negative affects prevention due to chemical substances on population and environment the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) are set. MPC it is the level of soil pollution in case humans contact with it directly or mediately throw ecosystems does not lead to health disorders, sanitary conditions of his life deterioration and breaks of soil’s auto purification processes, For the determine of MPC level of a chemical substance in experiment firstly it’s necessary to toxicity level detect by different channels intake in organism. Determine also changes of foods value of plants which grown on the soil containing investigated substance, fix smell changes in atmospheric air, water taste, chromaticity and smell as well as organoleptic quality of foods related with bringing in soil this substance, influence on self cleaning processes and soil’s biological activity , ability of chemical substance to migrate from soil to plants and accumulates there. Determine also maximal amount of substance in soil which in case hit in atmospheric air and water will not exceed MPC number of this substance for air and water correspondently. As the limited number selected one as lower sub threshold and threshold number which takes place as MPC number.

Chemical composition :

Chemical soil’s composition is a very irregular in a shot distance ‘even. Soil originates, developments and changes it’s chemical composition constantly. All chemical substances would to be contained in soil. It is interesting to notice when unknown dead body is founded and determining it’s placing origin to investigate it’s chemical structure and then is determined locality by one, because people body’s chemical structure close correlates to soil’s chemical structure. Never the less soil has determinate (di’teminet) chemical composition frequently of large squares in present time. Deficiency, lack or surplus of chemical substances in soil can lead to diseases which are called as a biogeochemical ‘provinces. For example:

Fluorosis –deficiency of ‘fluorine ( i:n ) in soil and water;

Endemic goiter (‘goite) –deficiency of iodine ( di:n )

Strontium (strontiem) rachitic (kai)-surplus of strontium in soil. -

Soil consists from mineral, organic, mineral-organic complexes, soil solutions, air and soil micro flora. It is the important parametres for hygienic assessment of ground – their changes can testify to pollution of ground. In ground constantly go 2 processes:

A) Desintegration organic substances up to inorganic – nitrification.

B)Synthesis new organic substances – gumus – gumification.

Sharp infringements of ratio of these processes points to pollution.

Sanitary number (Hlebnicov ’s number) –it is a total quantity of nitrogen (nai) to a nitrogen’s quantity of the humus in soil ratio (‘reishie). Humus it is a converting nitrogen resulting in nitrification process in being chemical connections with mucopolisaharids, fat and vitamins (e). Humus it is a best nutrition for plants and vegetables. The more sanitary number that cleaner soil.

Soil’s microbic composition

Soil is not good medium for microbic leaving , because they are exposed by ohygen, ultra-violet, cool or high temperature, acidity (esideti), alkalinity (lkelainiti), activity of helpful (e ) germs. Never the less nutrition presence and resistance to environment favour of some pathogenic microbs to be survived . This circumstance aloud to determine soil as a transmission factor of infection diseases and helminthic invasions ((\inveigns).

Coli titr – it is minimal soil’s measuring in gram contains one coli bacillus. The less this index the more dirty soil.

Hygienic importance of soil:

1. Place were people are located and located in, including placing factories, plants, establishments, buildings etc

2. The source of nutrition which intake by vegetables, fruit, animals.

3. The place were waste are located on.

4. The communications are lain in it.

5. The place were people’s and animal’s dead bodies are buried (berid) .

6. It is a climatic formation factor

7. The place were people’s and industrial waste are converted to safe components. It is called biodegradation process.

8. It is an nuntoxic dust’s source

9. It is a part of biosphere from where contamination intake to human organism.

10. It is a transmission factor of infection diseases.

Most importance soil’s contamination sources:

1. Practical and every day peoples activity .

2. Means of transport

3. Enterprises which produce and store ( sto:) toxic waste on soil ( nuclear waste including) .

4. Energetic stations.

Organic manure (menuje), fertilizers (fetelaizes) and pesticides (said).

Nuclear weapon tests France and China).


6. Dust and it’s hygienic importance.

Dust –it is a hard small dispertioned substance in atmospheric air. We call this substance- an aerozol (aerodisperse phase), but air which contains a dust we call airodisperse medium. A dust is a most frequently adverse factor of modern environment. It is originated by breaking-up(размельчение) , destruction (разрушения), grinding (размол), making small (размельчение) of the hard objects.. In this case it is called desintegration aerozol. Or it is originated resulting from condensation

process of liquids. .Dust classification

1.By origin:

-inorganic (mineral, metal)

-organic (vegetative, animal/ polymeric)

-mixed

2. By formation:

-aerosols of desintegrating

-aerosols of condensation (metal’s steam)

3. By dispertion:

-visible (particles’ diametr >10 microns)

- microscopic (2,5 – 10 microns)

-ultramicroscopic (<0,25 microns).

The diametr of dust particles corralates the depth of their penetration to upper respiratory tract and lungs. Ultramicroscopic particles penetrate to deep part of lungs, are not engaged their and out put without resistance. On the contrary visible particles are engaged ciliary epithelium of mucousis upper respiratory traccts and out put by mucous. Microscopic dust has most hygienic importance, because leads to specific effects.

The dust characterized following attributes:

  1. Diameter of particles.

  2. Form it would be regular and irregular.

  3. Chemical structure .

  4. Soluibility in water and fat.

  5. Origin

  6. Concentration dust quantity is mesured by gram in air volum is measured in m 3 by normal conditions 20 0 C and sea level mp. (755).

- A maximal permissible concentration it is a concentration, which may incomes during 70 years can not leads to some disturbances are registered modern explorer methods. 70 years are average expentancy life of modern people.

Higienic importance of dust.

Dust caused by direct and inderect influence.

Dust caused by specific and nunspecific disturbances . About nunspecific disturbances see microclimate.

Specific disturbances of dust:

1. Mechanical it is caused by skin and mucous tissue injury of eye and upper respiratory tracts leads to catarrhal inflammations .

2. Fibrogenic (phneumoconiotic) –Depending to chemical dust’s structure

3. Toxic – leads to acute and chronic poisonings.

4. Allergic

5. Carcinogenic.

  1. Genetic.

  2. Gonadogenic - effects to gonads.

  3. Embriogenic to embrion..

  4. Teratogenic – effect to pregnancy duration.

  5. Radioactive effect – to radiation lesions.


7. Chemical admixtures in atmospheric air and their hygienic importance.

Chemical admixture should consider as a type pollution in atmospheric air. It’s known more then 6 mln. chemical substances were synthesized by nowadays. Part of them possesses neitral other one are toxic.

Toxic chemical admixtures are characterized following indices:

1 .Chemical structure.

2 . Solubility in water and fat.

  1. Aggregate (egriget) state –hard, gas, steam, aerosol (dust), liquid, jelly etc.

  2. Volatility (voletiliti) летучесть - ability to air volume saturate from low to high rate.

  3. Intake way-per skin, per respiratory tract, per digestive tract. Most dangerous way is inhallation way.

  4. Concentration as a quantity is mesured by gram in air volum is measured in m 3 by normal conditions 20 0 C and sea level mp. (755).

.7. Toxisity it is investigated dependenses inverted comas (кавычки) quot “ dose – effect ’’ unquot and “time – effect”on laboratory animals. Then the lower doses leads to 50% animal’s death that more toxic chemical substunce is.

All toxic substances are distributed on toxicity:

1 class of danger- extremely dangerous substances (extremely toxic)

11 class of danger highly dangerous substances (highly toxic)

111 class of danger middle dangerous substances (middle toxic)

1Y class of danger small dangerous substances ( small toxic)

Toxic effect of poison depends on doze, exposition, state of organism and character action – constant, intermitting, isolated, combined, complex ( influence poison on organism by different ways of intake. As a rule, in real industrial conditions practically are not met isolated poison’s influence on organism. More frequency are met the combined influence , which change toxic effects in comparison with separate influence.

Kinds of the combined action:

  1. Antagonism ( less, than additive influence )

  2. Summation (additive influence)

  3. Potentiation (more, than additive action)

Specific disturbances of chemical admixtures:

1.. Toxic – leads to acute and chronic poisonings.

2.. Allergic

3.. Carcinogenic.

  1. Genetic.

  2. Gonadogenic - effects to gonads.

  3. Embriogenic to embrion..

  4. Teratogenic – effect to pregnancy duration.


8. BASIC DIRECTIONS of PROTECTION and ENHANCEMENT of ENVIRONMENT

1. Changes of public consciousness.

2. Ecological and hygienic direction of educational system. State propaganda.

3. Administrative - legislative measures is preservation of the 'environment in the international, national or regional scale. These measures are

" priority, as create а legal base for nature protection activity. Now there is а special direction in jurisprudence - the nature protection right.

4. Hygienic measures - realization preventive and current: sanitary inspection.

-Preventive sanitary inspection - examination projects of the enter-prises,

capable to pollute environment, normalization pollutions in objects of environment.

-Тhе current sanitary inspection - the control levels polllution of environment, revealing sources of pollution and acceptance measures to

decrease pollution

5. Architectural measures - correct accommodation pollution sources for decrease influence оп especially important objects (for example,

zones of sanitary protection of water sources, functional zones in cities, sanitary ­protective zones about the enterprises etc.).

6. Medicine measures - studying parameters of health of the population, revealing, treatment and improvement the persons having infringements of health owing to pollution of environment. These measures allow reveal the most dangerous sources and factors pollution of environment and the most sensitive to pollution parameters of health of the population

7. Ecological monitoring .. studying condition ecosystem and separate kinds of alive organisms under action of environmental contamination with the purpose prevention irreversible infringements ecosystem.

8. Technological measures: conversion the enterprises into the closed cycle (without emissions in environment), change technology for decrease emissions in environment (for example, translation motor transport into electricity), development sanitary engineering (clearing constructions for clearing emissions in atmosphere, dumps in reservoirs, construction ranges and stores of waste products etc.)

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