Research of the factor of infra-red radiation icon

Research of the factor of infra-red radiation




НазваResearch of the factor of infra-red radiation
Дата10.09.2012
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24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
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Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises

RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION

The invisible infra-red radiation represents function of any heated up body, on which absolute temperature the spectral structure (on length of waves in limits from 343 up to 0,76 mkm) and capacity of this radiation depends, which is measured in small calories on sm2 of a surface located perpendicularly to beams in unit of time (cal/sm2/min).

The infra-red radiation with reference to the absolutely black body absorbing all beams, directed on it, submits to a number of the laws, to take into account which it is necessary and in the attitude not of absolutely black ph. So, under the law Prevo-Kirhgof, the radiation is caused only by condition of a radiating body and does not depend on an environment. Is established also, that with increase of temperature of a radiating body the capacity of radiation is increased proportionally of fourth degree of its absolute temperature - law Stefan-Bolcman:

E = K - T4,

where E - capacity of radiation; T - absolute temperature of a surface of a body in Kelvin degrees; K - const. = 1,38-1012 cal/sm2/sec.

According to the Vins law, the product of absolute temperature of a radiating body on length of a wave of radiation with the maximal energy X is size constant (X x T = K), equal 2960 under condition of, if X is expressed in microns.

The meaning of the listed laws for hygiene concludes that they allow receiving representation about a radiating exchange of heat, which occurs between human organism and subjects, environmental it.

The man can be in different conditions of a radiating exchange of heat. In that case, when temperature of environmental subjects is higher than temperature of a surface of a body of the man, there is a perception penetrating in a fabric of organism of infra-red beams and absorption of electromagnetic energy accompanying with effect of heating. Then, when the surfaces of subjects, environmental the man, have temperature below temperatures of a surface of a body of the man, there is an infra-red radiation by fabrics and the feedback of electromagnetic energy accompanying by effect cooling of organism - is observed so-called radiating cooling (A.A.Letavet and A.E.Malisheva, 1941).

At a radiating irradiation of the man the increase of temperature of a skin, deep fabrics and internal bodies, easy, head brain, kidneys, glands etc., and also formation in a skin, blood and liquid of a back brain of specific, biologically active substances (such as histamine, cholin, adenosine), increase of secretion activity of a stomach, pancreas, increase of activity cholinesterase and many other phenomena can be observed. At intensive influence of infra-red radiation there is a unpleasant sensation on a skin; the heads, penetrating through a skin, and bones of cranium short-wave infra-red beams can be by the reason of solar impact; the long infra-red short-wave irradiation can cause development infra-red cataract of an eye.

As against convectional, at radiating cooling of the man organism does not react by reaction, narrowing vessels, is absent as well increase of production of heat. At the same time, sharper and proof fall of temperature of a skin and body is observed in comparison with convectional by cooling. Human organism appears under the attitude to radiating cooling to some extent physiologically defenseless. Thus it is necessary to pay attention to that fact, that with cooling, both local, and general, the development of a lot of diseases is connected.

All mentioned above testifies to necessity of hygienic norm of infra-red radiation and its measurement with the purposes of sanitary examination.

The brief description of the device of devices

Measurement of intensity of infra-red radiation named actinometria (from greek aktis - the beam), provides measurement of thermal action of electromagnetic energy of infra-red beams in small calories on sm2 of a surface in unit of time (for example, in cal/sm2/min).

The devices intended for measurement to intensity of infra-red radiation, have the different names: actinometers, pyranometers, radiometers, but the principle of their device in the most part is same. It is based on absorption by a black body of beam energy, the transformation it by such way in energy thermal and measurement of allocating heat or is direct in small calories, or in relative units, which are translated in thermal units with the help of translation factors.

Pyranometres from Noskov and Yapshevskiy etc., actinometers from Kalitin, thermoelectroactinometr, and universal heliograph are applied to measurement of solar radiation.

The perceiving part of the device is served by the thermal battery consisting from Cu-constantan of thermal elements, connected consistently, to which the black and brilliant strips of an aluminum plate are attached through isolator. The different degree of absorption by black and brilliant strips of infra-red beams causes different temperature of the thermal battery and formation of an electrical current, which force is proportional to intensity of infra-red radiation.

Recording part of the device serves galvanometer, located on the back perceiving parts of the device, which scale is divided in small calories on sm2 one minute (from 0 up to 20 cal/sm2/min and by division 0,5 cal).

Radiometers are applied to measurement of small sizes of infra-red radiation, including for measurement of losses of heat of the man. In many researches has received approval developed A.N.Sizyakov differential radiometer, having high enough sensitivity and rather simple device. Its perceiving part is the thermal pole consisting of three blocks (till 30-40 Cu-constantans of pairs in each block). The thermal pole is built in an aluminum ring supplied too with aluminum cones and the handle, through which the wire from a thermal pole to galvanometer is missed. The device allows differentiating a direction of infra-red radiation and one measurement to define size of radiating heat exchange between two surfaces of the bodies which have entered thermal interrelation, for example, forehead - window, breast - outside wall etc. To receive required size of radiating heat exchange, which is measured in small calories on sm2 at one o'clock, indication galvanometer, thermal electro current, recording force, is multiplied on constant factor - module of the given device, which is established experimentally, by graduation.

Technique of measurement

The choice of the device is determined by a nature and intensity of energy of infra-red radiation.

The measurement of solar radiation will regularly be carried out at meteorological stations and the items of information on it are available in the meteorological directories.

The measurement of infra-red radiation from industrial sources will be spent by actinometers.

For measurement of radiation by inspection actinometer the pointer of galvanometer is established in the beginning on a zero rule at the closed protective cover of the receiver of radiation; then the cover opens also receiver of radiation is directed to the party of an origin of beams, in 2-3 seconds the indications of galvanometer are counted, and roofs of the receiver is closed.

It is necessary to protect a working rule of the device vertical, the device from concussions and long irradiation.

The measurement of beam heat exchange the man - protection of differential radiometer of Sizyakov is made in this or that point of a premise depending on the purpose of research. Before measurement of the indication of galvanometer are resulted in a zero rule. One of conic branch pipes of radiometer is put to a surface of a body of the man (forehead, breast, back), second - in a direction of a protecting surface; positive cone - in the party of heated more up surface, negative - in the party of a cold surface; in 3-4 seconds the indications of galvanometer are removed. After 2-3 repeated measurements is calculated average, which is multiplied on a constant multiplier (factor of the device); the required size of radiating feedback of heat (or perception of heat turns out, if the protecting surface has temperature exceeding temperature of a surface of a body).

In inhabited premises and educational rooms, in industrial premises office serving and other premises at normal parameters of a microclimate (temperature, humidity and mobility of air) size of radiating feedback of heat the man - the protection within the limits of 1 -1,5 cal/sm2/час defines a condition of thermal comfort of the man.

RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF SEEN RADIATION (NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION)

The illumination adequate the hygienic requirements, provides the best conditions for visual work and optimum general serviceability, favours to health and good state of health of the man.

The harmful influence on the man insufficient both natural, and artificial illumination is conventional. It can be shown in negative shifts of many physiological functions and biochemical processes: is worsened, for example, the function of sight, lowers an exchange of gases, nitric, mineral exchange of substances; the creation of blood changes; healing wounds is slowed down etc. At insufficiency of natural light children more often are sick, especially easily are sick by rachit. The mental hygienic importance of light owing to influence on an emotional condition, state of health and mood of the man is known also. All this defines necessity of the sanitary control behind a condition of the factor of natural and artificial illumination.

The sanitary control and estimation of illumination are based on the hygienic requirements formulated in the sanitary legislation. In the same cases, when, using only by sanitary legislation to estimate illumination it is difficult, the research and estimation of reaction of organism on influence of the given illumination will be carried out; carry out hygienic norms and the measures on improvement of illumination are developed.

The illumination adequate the hygienic requirements, should provide:

- Quantitatively sufficient degree of light exposure, optimum for work and state of health of the man;

- Qualitatively constant in time, uniform in space light exposure and absence of shadows;

- Absence of excessive brightness within the limits of a working zone;

- Absence of shine direct and reflected;

- Absence of pollution and heating of air in a working zone;

- Better day time light or close on spectral structure to day time artificial illumination;

- Absence of stroboscopic effect at luminescent illumination - sensation of double driven subjects.

For a sanitary estimation of the factor of illumination the knowledge of basic technical sizes (light flow, force of light, light exposure, brightness, factor of reflection) is necessary for the sanitary doctor; skill to give the sanitary characteristic to the lighting device and premise, workplace and activity of the man at investigated illumination. The doctor should have practical skill of tool measurement of some sizes, quantitatively and qualitatively estimating illumination. Or else, the doctor should own a technique of research of the factor of illumination.

The researches of natural and artificial illumination differ owing to their distinction and unequal hygienic requirements a little. But practically both that, and another basically is reduced to definition of a degree of light exposure as most important criterion of illumination.

Research of natural illumination

The natural illumination indoors develops of direct, absent-minded and reflected light penetrating through window glasses. It is defined by a light climate of the given district, condition of weather, time of day and season of year, on the one hand; on the other hand, the natural illumination depends on orientation of window apertures, number, size and design of windows, dirty window glass; shadow influence of resisting buildings, internal lay-out, colour of colouring of a premise etc.

The sanitary estimation of light exposure created by natural illumination, is made by two ways: or by direct measurement of absolute and relative light exposure with the help of luxmeter, or by the indirect route with the help of factors.

The absolute light exposure in the given point (on a workplace of the student) is measured by objective luxmeter, consisting from photo cell - perceiving part of the device and galvanometer - registrar of size of an electrical current arising at illumination of a photo cell. The size of light exposure is defined or on galvanometer, which scale in terms of light exposure (luxes), or under the passport - diagram given by luxmeter, intended for recalculation of the indications of galvanometer in units of light exposure.

Exist luxmeters of a different design. Therefore, before to spend measurement, it is necessary to study the instruction, in which describe the device of the device, instructions for use by it, possible malfunctions and their elimination. The indications of luxmeter periodically should be verified, as the photo cell in due course grows old.

Before measurement of light exposure a surface of a photo cell of the device, prepared for work, close by a paper, which after inclusion of the device gradually move together. If at opening a small part of a surface of a photo cell the pointer of galvanometer rejects more than on half of scale, the device switch off, on a photo cell put on a cover, absorbing light, atop of it the paper imposes, the device again is included also measurement of light exposure repeats. In this case indications registered by a pointer of galvanometer, are increased according to factor of a cover, absorbing light.

The absolute light exposure measured on a workplace, gives representation about light exposure only at the moment of measurement. The natural illumination of a workplace is more exact the relative light exposure characterizes.

The relative light exposure in the given point (on a workplace of the student) is measured in factor of natural illumination, which represents percentage of light exposure to the given point of a premise (e) to the simultaneously measured outside light exposure of a horizontal plane protected from direct solar

Factor of natural illumination serves the basic size of technical norm of natural illumination.

Factor of natural illumination in each point of a premise - size constant, as under any conditions light exposure indoors is in direct and constant dependence on outside light exposure. The outside light exposure - directly proportionally changes the light exposure indoors changes also.

For various premises depending on character of visual work the norm of minimally allowable factors of natural illumination is established which provide necessary according to activity of the man a degree of light exposure of a premise. So, is for example established, that the satisfactory illumination with day time light of class rooms, laboratories and medical studies provides minimal factor of natural light exposure equal 1,25 %.

The long-term supervision over outside light exposure in various climatic zones have allowed to make the tables of a light climate, employees for account of size of natural light exposure of projected buildings in any point of a premise, irrespective of time of light day. So, for example, in March the outside light exposure in midday is equal 7500 lk. FNL for the given premise is equal 1 %. Required light exposure - 75 lk. Such account executed for various time of light day, allows, for example to establish, from what moment it is necessary to include artificial illumination to ensure light exposure appropriate to activity of the man in the given premise etc.

The definition FNL is made by the researcher and assistant, one of which measures by luxmeter light exposure on a workplace, another on the verified hours simultaneously with first measures light exposure open-air on a horizontal platform protected by the fabric or plywood screen from direct solar beams. According to the measured sizes of light exposure expect under the table of a light climate the average degree of light exposure in luxes on a workplace of the student in current of all day is defined.

The indirect estimation of light exposure with the help of factors carries out though and with smaller accuracy, but is fast enough. To these purposes some factors serve. Light factor takes into account dependence of light exposure on the area of a surface of a glass of windows and size of the area of a premise. It is defined by the attitude of the area of a surface of a glass of windows (without frames and bindings) to the area of a premise. This factor by an indirect image characterizes natural light exposure. The satisfactory light exposure is provided with day time light in light factor equal for class rooms and laboratories up to 1/5, for hospital chambers - up to 1/7, for inhabited rooms - up to 1/10.

However light factor does not take into account many moments capable to influence on a level of light exposure of a premise, for example, lay-out of a premise is not taken into account. And between that at identical windows the natural illumination of a square room and rectangular room, equal on the area, will be not equivalent. Therefore along with light factor factor of laing is measured.

Factor of laing represents the attitude of depth of a premise (distance from a window up to an opposite wall) to distance measured from the top edge of a window up to a floor. On the data S.I.Vetoshkin, the good illumination is provided with factor of laing, not exceeding 2,5.

The criterion of allowable depth of a premise is served also by a corner of fall.

The corner of fall allows to judge size of a corner of a light flow, which will penetrate into a premise, on a workplace. It is formed (as shown in two lines outgoing from a researched point: one (BA) - to the top outside edge of a window, another (BC) - horizontal line in a direction to a window.

For definition of size of a corner of fall on a workplace in a researched room with the help of roulette the distances BC and AC are measured:

BC - distance from a researched point (B) up to a window;

AC - distance from a level of an arrangement of a researched point (B) up to the top edge of a window.

According to the measured sizes BC and AC the triangle ABC is under construction on scale, at which with the help of natural importance tg the corner of fall is defined ABC.

The removal of a workplace in depth of a room conducts to reduction of a corner of fall and light exposure. The satisfactory natural illumination on a workplace observes then, when a corner of fall not less than 27°.

The blacking out influence of resisting buildings is taken into account by a corner of an aperture.

The corner of an aperture allows to judge size penetrating in a premise direct and absent-minded from the sky of solar beams. It forms (as shown in two lines outgoing from a researched point: one (BA) - to the top outside edge of a window, another (BD) - to the best edge of a resisting building seen through a window.

For definition of size of a corner of an aperture on a workplace in a researched room with the help of roulette the distances BC, CD and AC are measured:

BC - distance from a researched point up to a window;

CD - distance from a level of an arrangement of a researched point up to a point of crossing at a window of the line which has been mentally carried out from a researched point, to the top edge of a resisting building;

AC - distance from a level of an arrangement of a researched point up to the top edge(territory) of a window. According to the measured sizes BC, CD and AC the triangles ABC and DBC are under construction on scale, then on importance natural tg the corner of an aperture is defined ABD.

Than more corner of an aperture, the more probability of insolation of a premise. As have shown supervision, the satisfactory natural illumination takes place at a corner of an aperture equal not less 5.

At a sanitary estimation of natural illumination alongside with the listed above parameters of illumination it are taken into account also cleanliness of glasses and the form of windows (most rational is the rectangular form), the flow of reflected light is taken into account, which size depends on colouring buildings, facing to windows, colouring of walls, of a ceiling and subjects indoors (the colouring in light tone provides the best light exposure).

Research of artificial illumination

Artificial illumination, its quantitative size and the qualitative features are defined:

- System of artificial illumination: general, local, combined;

- Kind of a light source: kerosene lamps, electrical lamps, luminescent lamps;

- Type of lighting devices of general and local illumination: fixtures of direct, absent-minded and reflected light;

- Quantity of fixtures of general illumination, character of their accommodation;

- Capacity of separate lamps and their general capacity in Vat;

- Protective fixture causing shine of a light source, opportunity of its clearing from pollution and conformity to an art furnish of a premise.

The sanitary estimation of the quantitative party of artificial illumination is based on results of comparison of the light exposure, measured in lux - meter, of a premise with the appropriate norms of artificial illumination for inhabited, public buildings and industrial premises. The insufficient light exposure causes by low power of lamps and quantity of fixtures.

The qualitative party of artificial illumination (uniformity of light exposure and degree of brightness of seen parts of fixtures) norm too.

The satisfactory artificial illumination takes place then, when the light exposure of the most light place in a premise does not exceed more than in 3 times light exposure of the most dark place. Therefore fixtures of general illumination should in a premise settle down in regular intervals.

For creation of uniform light exposure in industrial premises at the device of the combined system of illumination the light exposure on a working surface from fixtures of general illumination should make not less than 10 % from norm of the combined illumination, but not less than 100 lk at luminescent lamps and 30 lk at lamps. Fast exhaustion of sight owing to necessity constantly otherwise is observed to adapt to too sharply differing light exposure on a working surface and outside of it.

The brightness of seen parts of fixtures of local illumination, and also of fixtures of general illumination at schools and hospitals should not exceed 2000 nit; in other cases no more than 5000 nit (for unit of brightness nit) the brightness extreme small is accepted, it is identical in all points of a luminous flat surface, for which the attitude of force of light in candles to its area in square centimeters is equal to unit).

By norm of brightness of artificial illumination are defined height of a suspension bracket and place of accommodation of a source of general illumination, kind of its protective fixture, and also type of the fixture.

The sanitary estimation of some other moments describing the qualitative party of artificial illumination (stroboscopic effect and noise created luminescent lamps, presence of shadows, patches of light and reflected from the polished surfaces of shine, fluctuation of a level of light exposure, pollution and heating of air, danger in the fire attitude and other) is given describely.

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