Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples icon

Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples




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2. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Health and Environment.rtf
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30. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Soil.ass/Topic 18.doc
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32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
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Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises

Topic № 18


METHOD OF HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF SOIL ACCORDING TO SANITARY EXAMINATION OF THE LAND PARCEL AND RESULTS OF LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES


  1. Learning objective




    1. Understand hygienic, epidemic and endemic importance of soil.

    2. Master the methods of sanitary examination of the territory and soil sampling for laboratory analysis.

    3. Master the method of assessment of the soil pollution level and degree of its danger for people’s health on the basis of the sanitary examination of the land parcel, and the results of soil samples’ laboratory analysis.




  1. Basics




    1. You should know:

      1. Hygienic, epidemic and endemic importance of soil.

      2. Indices and the scale for assessment of sanitary condition of soil.

      3. Importance of soil as the medium for domestic and industrial waste treatment.




    1. You should have the following skills:

      1. To carry out the sanitary examination of the land parcel considering its function (territory of child institution, hospital, sewage treatment plant etc.).

      2. To determine sampling points and to take soil samples for sanitary-hygienic, bacteriological and helminthological analyses.

      3. To state a hygienic value of sanitary condition of soil on the basis of sanitary examination of land parcel and results of laboratory analysis.

      4. To forecast approximate the population health level according to degree of soil contamination by exogenous chemical substances (ЕCS).




  1. Self-training questions




    1. Soil, its definition. Hygienic, epidemic and endemic importance of soil.

    2. Main physical properties of soil (texture compound, humidity, porosity, permeability, filtration ability, air permeability, capillarity, moisture) and their hygienic importance.

    3. Main abiotic components of soil (solid substance, soil moisture, soil air), their natural chemical compound and hygienic characteristic.

    4. Soil biocenoses, their classification and hygienic characteristic.

    5. Soil as a factor in transmission of infectious pathogens.

    6. Soil pollution sources, their classification and hygienic characteristic.

    7. Factors and mechanisms that take part in the natural purification of soil.

    8. Usage of soil for treatment of domestic and industrial waste.

    9. Hygienic characteristic of waste collection procedures (door-to-door-based, neighbourhood-based), removal and processing of solid domestic, industrial and building waste.

    10. “Pickup” system of collection, removal and processing of liquid waste (cesspool fields, sewage irrigation fields).

    11. The land parcel sanitary examination procedure considering its functionality.

    12. Rules, methods and devices for soil sampling and preparation for laboratory analysis.

    13. Criteria of soil sanitary condition, their classification and hygienic importance.

    14. Procedure of determination of soil physical and mechanical indices.

    15. Functional diagram for determination of chemical criteria of soil sanitary state.

    16. Procedure of detecting eggs of geohelminthes in soil.

    17. Functional diagram for determination of bacteriological criteria of soil sanitary condition and its pollution.

    18. Approximate assessment scale of soil pollution level and degree of its danger for people’s health.

    19. Hygienic assessment procedure of soil sanitary condition based on the results of sanitary examination of the land parcel and laboratory analysis of the samples.


4. Self-training assignments


In the outskirts of a settlement a parcel of 3 ha of former cultivation area is assigned for construction of a new boarding school. During the sanitary examination of the parcel no sources of pollution were discovered. However, the ground could be contaminated by chemical fertilizers and pesticides when it was used for agricultural needs. The relief has a slope in the southern direction. At the distance of 20 m from the northern border of the parcel an unequipped dump of domestic waste was found, which is at the distance of 100-130 m from the people houses. In the center of the parcel soil sample of 40×20 m2 size was taken by “envelope” technique. 1 kg of soil was taken at each sampling point.

Laboratory analysis data:

Soil physical properties: physical sand (particles of the size bigger than 0.01 mm) – 85%, foreign impurities – up to 9%.

Pollution indices of exogenic chemical substances: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (amount of isomers) – 0.05 mg/kg (MAC – 0.1 mg/kg), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – 0.01 mg/kg (MAC – 0.1 mg/kg).

Sanitary-chemical criteria of epidemic safety: ammonia nitrogen – 45 mg/100 g, organic nitrogen – 0.6 mg/100 g, nitrites – 0.5 mg/100 g, nitrates – 3.3 mg/100 g, chlorides – 75 mg/100 g, Khlebnikoff’s sanitary number – 0.78.

Sanitary microbiological criteria of epidemic safety: microbial number – 5 х 105, when titer is 0.01, titer of anaerobes is 0.001, eggs of helminthes – 7 in 1 kg of soil, number of larvae and chrysalides of flies – 5 on 0.25 m2.

Draw up a valid report about sanitary condition of soil and make recommendations concerning the assignment of the parcel for school building

When solving a situational task one should use norms and standards given in Appendices 3 and 5 and recommended literature.


5. Structure of the lesson


This is seminar and laboratory lesson. The first part of the lesson is devoted to theory (Appendices 1-6) and analysis of a situational task solution. The first part of the lesson is concluded with demonstration of the equipment for soil sampling and the equipment, which is used for laboratory analysis of soil samples (earth drilling machines, kit of Knoppf sieves, Schuttel apparatus, centrifuge, diaphragm-type filter, Zeits filter holder, Goldman watering-can), object-plates with samples of eggs of helminthes. At the second part of the lesson students are introduced into the procedure of soil hygienic assessment on the bases of data of sanitary examination of the land parcel and laboratory analysis of soil samples (Appendix 7). Example of a situational task for its active discussion by students during the study is given in the Appendix 8.


6. Literature

6.1. Principal:

6.1.1. Загальна гігієна:пропедевтики гігієни/Є.Г. Гончарук, Ю.І. Кундієв, В.Г. Бардов та ін./ За ред. Є.Г. Гончарука. – К.: Вища школа, 1995. – С. 129-130; 316-324.

6.1.2. Общая гигиена: пропедевтика гигиены/ Е.И. Гончарук, Ю.И. Кундиев, В.Г. Бардов и др. – К.: Вища школа, 2000. – С. 144-145; 382-391.

6.2.3. Гончарук Є.Г., Бардов В.Г., Гаркавий С.І., Яворовський О.П. та ін. Комунальна гігієна/За ред. Є.Г. Гончарука. – К.: „Здоров’я”, 2003. – С. 327-419.

6.1.4. Гигиена. Габович Р.Д., Познанский С.С., Шахбазян Г.Х. – 3-е изд. перераб. и доп. - К.: Вища школа, 1983. – С. 86-97, 98-100.

6.1.5. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології. Навч. посібник. – К.: Здоров’я, 1999. – С. 220-236.

6.1.6. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології. Друге видання. – К.: Здоровя, 2004. – С. 205-230.

6.1.7. Загальна гігієна. Посібник до практичних занять/ І.І. Даценко, О.Б. Денисюк, С.Л. Долошицький та ін. /За ред. І.І. Даценко. – Львів.: “Світ”, 1992. – С. 79-89.

6.1.8. Загальна гігієна. Посібник для практичних занять. Друге видання /І.І. Даценко, О.Б. Денисюк, С.Л. Долошицький та ін./За ред. І.І. Даценко:– Львів: „Світ”. - 2001.– С. 104-128.


    1. . Additional:

6.2.1. Минх А.А. Методы гигиенических исследований – М.: Медицина, 1990. – С. 203-215.

6.2.2. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Основи загальної та тропічної гігієни. – К.: Здоров’я, 1995. – С. 176-207.

6.2.3. Руководство к лабораторным заняттям по коммунальной гигиене: Учеб. пособие / Е.И. Гончарук, Р.Д. Габович, С.И. Гаркавый и др.; Под ред. Е.И. Гончарука. – М.: Медицина, 1990. – С. 218, 229-261.

6.2.4. Гончарук Є.Г., Бардов В.Г., Гаркавий С.І., Яворовський О.П. та ін. Коммунальная гигиена/За ред. Є.Г. Гончарука. – К.: „Здоров’я”, 2006. – С. 45-351


7. Equipment required for the lesson


  1. Equipment for soil sampling (scoop, wand).

  2. Knopf sieves (7 numbers).

  3. Graduated cylinder for 100 ml.

  4. Tables: - Soil classification by texture of soil;

  • Soil sanitary state criteria;

  • Soil condition according to Khlebnikoff’s sanitary number.

  1. Situational tasks based on the results of soil laboratory analysis.



Appendix 1


Basic physical properties and texture of soil


Lithosphere (the earth's crust) – mineral and organic covering of the Earth, which extends from its surface to magma. It consists of lithosphere itself, which is formed from magma rocks destroyed by physical, physicochemical and chemical processes before beginnings of life on Earth, and soil.

Soil is a surface layer of lithosphere (from few millimeters in mountains and up to 10 kilometers in lowlands), which was formed after beginnings of life on Earth as the result of climate, flora and life (microorganisms and roots of higher plants) influence. Soil consists of the surface or fertile layer (0-25 cm) or humus layer, which is characterized by fertility and which is cultivated at growing plants, and of soil itself.

Soils are very different depending on conditions of their formation, first of all on climate and flora. In Ukraine most common are chernozem (black earth soils) (54.0% of territory), then –– grey forest soils (18.2% of territory) and sod-podsol soils (7.8% of territory).


Basic physical properties of soil:

- texture – percentage of soil particles according to their sizes. It is determined by screening through Knopf sieves. There are 7 types (called “numbers”) of such sieves with apertures of different diameters from 0.25 to 10.0 mm (fig. 18.1). Soil texture consists of the following elements: stones and gravel (size > 3 mm); coarse sand (3-1 mm), medium (1-0.25 mm), fine (0.25-0.05 mm); coarse dust (0.05-0.01 mm), medium (0.01-0.005 mm), fine (0.005-0.001 mm); silt (< 0.001 mm). According to texture, soils are classified based on specific weight of physical sand (particles of size > 0.01 mm) and of physical clays (particles of size < 0.01 mm). (Appendix 3);

- porosity – total volume of pores in the unit of soil volume, which is expressed in percents. The bigger is the size of some elements of soil tissue, i.e. its granularity, the bigger is the size of pores in homogeneous soil. The biggest pores are in rocky soil, smaller ones are in sandy soil, very small pores are in clay soil, and the smallest ones – in peat soil. At that total volume of pores, expressed in percents, increases, i.e. soil porosity is as higher as smaller is the size of some elements of soil tissue. Thus, porosity of sandy soil is 40%, and peat soil - 82%;



Fig. 18.1 Knopf sieves for soil texture analysis


- air permeability – soil ability to let air through its thickness. It increases when size of pores is bigger and doesn’t depend on their total volume (porosity);

- water permeability – soil ability to absorb surface water and to let it pass through. Permeability consists of two stages: imbibition, when free pores gradually get filled with water till total saturation of soil and filtration, when, in the result of total water saturation of soil, water starts moving in soil pores because of gravity;

- moisture capacity – amount of moisture, which soil is capable to retain due to sorptive and capillar powers. The smaller is the size of pores and the bigger is their total volume, i. e. porosity – the bigger is the moisture capacity. The finer is soil texture, the higher is its moisture capacity;

- soil capillarity – soil ability to lift water via capillaries from the bottom layers up. The smaller is the size of soil texture particles - the bigger is soil capillarity, but in such soil water goes up higher and slower.

In soils of light texture (sandy, clay sandy, light loamy) compared to heavy soils (clays, heavy loams) physical sand prevails, pores are of the larger size, porosity isn’t high, air and water permeability, filtration capacity are considerable, capillarity and moisture capacity are low. On the one hand, processes of soil bio-decontamination run rather quickly in such soils, on the other hand, migration of chemical substances from soil into ground and surface water reservoirs, ambient air and plants is more considerable.

Soil consists of biotic (soil microorganisms) and abiotic components. Abiotic components include hard substance of soil (mineral and organic compounds and organomineral complexes), soil moisture and soil air.

60––80% of mineral (non-organic) substances of soil are represented by crystalline silica or quartz. The important place among mineral compounds is occupied by alumina-silicates, i.e. feldspar and mica. Also to alumina-silicates belong secondary clayey minerals, i.e. of montmorilonite group (montmorilonite, notronite, beidelite, saconite, hectorite, stevensite). Their hygienic importance is them being the cause of absorbing capacity and volume of cations’ absorption (i.e. heavy metals) by soil.

Beside silica and alumina-silicates, almost all elements of Mendeleyev’s table appear in mineral compound of soil.

Organic substances of soil are represented both by soil organic (humic acids, fulvic acids etc.) compounds, which are created by soil microorganisms and which are called humus, and by strange for soil organic substances, which came into the soil from outside in the result of natural processes and technogenic (anthropogenic) pollution.

Soil moisture can be both in solid and liquid forms, and in the form of vapour. From hygienic point of view of the most interesting is liquid moisture, which can be in forms of: 1) hygroscopic water, which is condensed on the surface of the soil particles; 2) membranous water, which remains on the surface of soil particles; 3) capillary water, which is kept by capillary forces in thin pores of soil; 4) gravity free water, which is influenced by gravity or hydraulic head and fills in soil big pores.

Soil air is a mixture of gases and vapour, which fills in soil pores. According to its composition it differs from atmosphere air and constantly interacts with it by diffusion and concentration gradient. Soil air and water oppose to each other in respect of space in pores. Natural compound of soil air is controlled by oxygen utilization rate and carbon dioxide generation as the result of microbiological processes of mineralization of organic substances. With growth of depth content of carbon dioxide in soil air increases and oxygen content - decreases.


Hygienic significance of soil


Soil is:

- the medium, where processes of transformation and soil energy accumulation take place;

- leading member of turnover in nature, the medium, in which different complicated processes of destruction and synthesis of organic substances take place continuously;

- main element of biosphere, where processes of migration, transformation and metabolism of all chemical substances both of natural and anthropogenic (technogenic) origin take place. Migration takes place both in short (soil –– plant –– soil, soil –– water –– soil, soil –– air –– soil) and long (soil –– plant –– animal –– soil, soil –– water –– plant –– soil, soil –– water –– plant –– animal –– soil, soil –– air –– water –– plant –– animal –– soil etc.) migration chains;

- forms the chemical structure of foodstuffs of vegetable and animal origin;

- plays an important role in formation of water quality of surface and ground sources of domestic and drinking water-supply;

- affects qualitative structure of contemporary atmosphere;

- of endemic importance – anomalous natural chemical structure of soil in endemic provinces is a reason of rise and local spreading of endemic diseases (geochemical endemic diseases): endemic fluorosis and caries, endemic goiter, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), molybdenum gout, endemic osteoarthritis or Kashin-Beck disease, endemic cardiomyopathy (Keshan's disease), selenosis, boric enteritis, endemic nephropathy etc.;

- of epidemic importance – it can be a transmission factor of pathogens of infection diseases and invasions to people: enteric infections of bacterial (typhoid, paratyphoids А and В, bacillary dysentery, cholera, coli-entheritis), viral (virus A hepatitis, enterovirus infections: poliomyelitis, Coxsackie virus infection, ЕСНО) and protozoa ethiology (amebiasis, lambliosis); zooanthroponosis (types of leptospirosis: infectious jaundice or Vasyl’yev – Vail disease, anicteric leptospirosis, brucellosis, tularemia, anthrax); mycobacteria of tuberculosis; spore-forming clostridia – pathogens of tetanus, gas gangrene, botulism; geohelminthosis – ascaridiasis, trichocephalosis, ankylostomiasis.

- the place for liquid and soil domestic and industrial waste disposal due to natural purification processes (soil sanitary significance). Soil natural purification is characterized by presence of saprophytic decomposers, nitrifying and nitrofying bacteria, elemental organisms, larvae, worms, fungi, viruses, coliphages and by its physical-and-chemical properties. It consists in soil capability to transform organic compounds into mineral substances good for plants’ assimilation: carbohydrates – into water and carbon dioxide; fats– into glycerin and fatty acids and then – also into water and carbon dioxide; proteins – into amino acids with ammonia and ammonia salts evolvement and their further oxidation to nitrites and nitrates; protein sulfur – into hydrogen sulfide etc.


Sanitary purification of settlements


It is a set of measures that provide for the fulfillment of hygienic requirements during arrangement and exploitation of equipment and facilities that are meant for collecting, temporary keeping, transportation, destruction and utilization of solid and liquid domestic and industrial waste.

Waste – these are remains of substances and articles that have been created as the result of domestic, economic and industrial human activity, and cannot be used at the scene of their creation so that their accumulation and keeping make the sanitary condition of the environment worse. They are divided into liquid: 1) sewage from cesspool toilets; 2) slops (from cooking and dish and floor washing etc.) and 3) waste waters: domestic, industrial, runoffs, municipal waste water and solid: 1) garbage (domestic refuse); 2) rubbish (kitchen waste products); 3) waste from patient care and prophylaxis institutions (including specific ones –– used dressing, used disposable autotransfusers and syringes, remains of medicines, remains of organs and tissues after surgical operations, dead bodies of laboratory animals etc.); 4) institutional waste (schools, preschool institutions, high schools and academies, offices, etc; 5) waste of public catering establishments; 6) waste of animal origin (dead bodies of animals, pus, forfeit foodstuff); 7) waste of commercial facilities; 8) industrial waste; 9) slags from boiler houses; 10) construction waste, urban soil; 11) street sweepings.

There are three different systems of waste disposal: “flushing” removal, “pick-up” removal and combined removal.

Flushing system is used in the settlements, which are provided with sewerage (pipe) system through which liquid and partially fine solid waste float to waste disposal plants; the rest of solid waste is removed by special motor transport.

Pick-up system is used in the settlements without sewerage systems. At that both liquid and solid domestic waste (SDW) is removed to areas of disposal and utilization by special motor transport. Such method of disposal of solid waste is called purification, and of liquid wastes – sanitation.

Combined system is used in the settlements that are partially provided with sewerage system. According to combined system liquid waste from the part of settlement, provided with sewerage system, is removed through this system, and from the part of the settlement where there is no sewerage system – with the help of cesspoolage transport. All solid waste is removed by sanitary purification transport.

Sanitary purification of settlement must be systematic (to be performed according to agreed plan and schedule), regular (waste removal in warm season – daily, in cold season – once per 1-3 days), utility (to be performed by utilities and community services, or trusts) and to be independent from wishes of some officials or institutions. It consists of three stages: I –– collection and temporary keeping of solid domestic waste; II –– removal; III –– disposal and treatment.

Collection, removal (transportation) of solid domestic wastes. In case of neighbourhood-based system SDW is collected into special dustbins that are located at specially arranged plots on the territory near the houses and later on, according to the schedule, it is removed by special motor transport to the place of disposal. In case of door-to-door-based system waste is collected in apartments. At the certain time inhabitants take it out to a dust-cart. There are two different methods used in case of neighbourhood-based system - method of "fixed" container (waste from dustbins is emptied into dust-carts and dustbins are placed back) and method of "disposeable" container (dustbins together with solid waste are removed by dust-carts to waste disposal places, while empty and clean dustbins are left instead of the used ones).

For garbage and other solid waste removal special motor cars – dust-carts   are used. For method of "fixed" container they use dust-carts 93/М, 53/М, КО-404, КО-413 etc., for method of " disposeable " container – dust-carts М-30. They are mounted on the chassis of the trucks GAZ-93а, GAZ -53, MAZ -500А.

Solid domestic waste disposal. All methods of SDW disposal have to meet the following basic hygienic requirements:

- they must provide reliable disposal, transformation of waste into harmless from epidemic and sanitary point of view substrate. From epidemic point of view solid domestic waste is very dangerous: when titer is 10-6-10-7, titer of anaerobes is - 10-5-10-6, microbial number achieves tens and hundreds of billions, contains pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, viruses, eggs of helminthes. Especially dangerous is waste from patient care and prophylaxis institutions, which is approximately 10-100 times more contaminated by microorganisms than domestic waste;

- quickness – ideal method is the one that makes possible effective waste disposal during the same period of time in which the waste is formed;

- they must prevent laying eggs and larvae and chrysalides development of flies (Musca domestica) both in waste during its disposal and in substrate, which was obtained in the result of the disposal;

- they must prevent access of rodents during waste disposal and to convert waste into unfavourable for their life and development substrate;

- they must prevent air pollution by volatile products of demolition of organic substances (SDW contain up to 80 % of organic substances, 20-30 % of which easily rot in summer and at the same time evolve stinking gases: hydrogen sulphide, indole, skatole and mercaptans);

- in the process of waste disposal neither surface nor ground waters may be polluted;

- they must provide the best and safe for people’s health use of SDW properties, because they contain up to 6% of utilizable waste; by its burn one can receive heat energy, by biothermal treatment –– organic fertilizers, and food waste may be used for cattle feeding.

According to the final result methods of SDW disposal are divided into: utilizing (waste processing into organic fertilizers, biological fuel, separation of secondary raw materials, e. g. scrap metal, for industry, use as a power-plant fuel) and liquidation (land disposal, sea disposal, incineration without help of heat). According to technological principle methods of disposal are divided into: 1) biothermal (plough-lands, improved dumps, waste store grounds, waste composting fields, bio-chambers, plants for biothermal treatment; in rural area in farms –– compost heaps, hotbeds); 2) thermal (combustion plants without or with utilization of heat energy, which is created in the result of this process; pyrolysis leading to formation of fuel gas and similar to mineral oil - lubricating oil); 3) chemical (hydrolysis); 4) mechanical (waste separation with further utilization, pressing into construction blocks); 5) combined.

Most widely used are biothermal methods. They are based on the complicated processes of soil natural organic purification from pollutants that may be represented in diagram:


Organic

substances

(proteins, fats, carbohydrates)

+

Microorganisms

(bacteria, fungi, actinomycete, algae, protozoa)

+

Oxygen of the air






















Humus

(newly synthesized by microorganisms organic matter)

+

Carbonates, phosphates, nitrates, sulphtes

+

Energy





Biothermal disposal makes it possible to solve two tasks: 1) to decompose complex organic matters of waste and its metabolism products (urea, uric acid etc.) into simpler compounds in order to synthesize by special microorganisms in presence of ambient air a new, stable, safe from sanitary point of view substance, called humus; 2) to destroy vegetative forms of pathogen and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, eggs of helminthes, eggs and larvae of flies, seeds of weeds.

Efficiency of biothermal method of waste disposal depends on:

- aeration of waste (it is necessary to fan 25 air volumes for 1 volume of SDW);

- waste moisture (if moisture < 30 %, SDW must be moistened artificially; if > 70 %, it is necessary to install devices for its lessening);

- content of organic substances in waste that are capable to rot easily (mustn’t be < 30 %, in the ration of carbon to nitrogen 30:1), and inorganic compounds (less than 25 %);

- waste particles’ size (optimal size is 25-35 mm);

- waste active reaction (рН) (optimal рН is 6.5-7.6);

- degree of output contamination by mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms (artificial inoculation is carried out for stimulation of purification);

- thermal conditions (more quickly temperature will rise in the thickness of waste, better and more reliable biochemical destruction of organic substances and pathogenic microflora will be).

Sanitary inspection of systems of waste collection, transportation and disposal requires objective assessment of their efficiency, which is impossible without territory sanitary survey, soil sampling and its laboratory analysis.


Appendix 2


Methods of land parcel sanitary inspection and soil sampling


Sanitary inspection of the land parcel includes:

- definition of ground assignment (territory of a hospital, preschool institutions, schools, industrial enterprises, objects of waste disposal of domestic, industrial, construction origin, etc);

- visual inspection of the parcel, determination of character and location of sources of soil pollution (distance), relief, drain direction of precipitation waters, flow direction of ground waters;

- determination of soil texture (sand , clay sand, loamy soil, chernozem);

- determination of points for soil sampling for analysis: places near the source of pollution and near test area of known clean soil (at a distance of this source).

Samples are taken by “envelope” technique on rectangular or square areas of 10×20 meters or more. In each of five sampling points of the “envelope” 1 kg of soil is taken from the depth of 20 cm for samples. An average sample of 1 kg mass is prepared from taken samples.

Each taken sample is accompanied by a covering letter, which includes information about place, address and assignment of the parcel, soil type, relief, ditch level of subterranean waters, goal and volume of the analysis, inspection results received at the place, date and time of sampling, weather of previous 4-5 days, who took a sample, his signature. Samples are packed into closed glassware and polyethylene bags.


Criteria of soil sanitary state

Group of indices

Indices

Sanitary-and-physical

Texture of soil, filtration coefficient, air and water permeability, capillarity, moisture capacity, total hygroscopic moisture

Physical-and-chemical

Active reaction (рН), absorption capacity, total absorbed bases

Chemical safety criteria:

- chemical agents of natural origin

Background content of total and movable forms of macro- and microelements of non-contaminated soil

- chemical agents of anthropogenic origin (soil pollution indices, ЕCS)

Amount of pesticide residues, total content of heavy metals and arsenic, content of movable forms of heavy metals, oil and oil products’ content, content of sulphides, content of carcinogens (benzpyrene) etc.

Epidemic safety criteria:

- sanitary-chemical

Total organic nitrogen, Khlebnikoff’s sanitary number, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, organic carbon, chlorides, soil oxidation

- sanitary-microbiological

Total number of soil microorganisms, , microbial number, titer of bacteria of colibacillus group (coli-titer), titer of anaerobes (perfingens-titer), pathogenic bacteria and viruses

- sanitary-helminthological

Number of eggs of helminthes

- sanitary-enthomological

Number of larvae and chrysalides of flies

Radiation safety indices

Soil activity

Soil natural purification indices

Titer and index of thermophile bacteria


All indices are divided into direct (allow to assess the level of soil contamination and level of danger for population health directly from the results of laboratory analysis of taken samples /Appendix 3/) and indirect (allow to draw a conclusion of the existence of soil contamination, its prescription and duration by comparison of the results of soil laboratory analysis with test clean soil of the same type, which was taken as a sample from non-contaminated areas).

Sanitary number of Khlebnikoff – is a ratio of humus nitrogen (pure soil organic substance) to total organic nitrogen (consists of humus nitrogen and nitrogen of strange for soil organic substances that contaminate it). If soil is pure, sanitary number of Khlebnikoff equals to 0.98-1.

Soil coli-titer – is a minimal amount of soil in grammas, in which one bacteria of colibacillus group is found.

Soil anaerobe titer (perfingens-titer) – is a minimal amount of wastes in grammas, in which an anaerobic clostridia is found.

Soil microbial number – is a number of microorganisms in one gram of soil that grew up on 1.5% beef-extract agar at temperature 370С during 24 hours.


Appendix 3


Soil classification according to texture (according to N.А. Kachinskiy)


Names of soils according to texture

Content of particles, %

Clay particles of a diameter smaller than 0.01 mm

Sand particles of a diameter larger than 0.01 mm

Heavy clay soils

larger than 80

smaller than 20

Clay soils

from 80 to 50

from 20 to 50

Heavy loamy soil

from 50 to 40

from 50 to 60

Medium loamy soil

from 40 to 30

from 60 to 70

Light loamy soil

from 30 to 20

from 70 to 80

Clay sands

from 20 to 10

from 80 to 90

Sandy

from 10 to 5

from 90 to 95

Light sandy

smaller than 5

larger than 95



Filtration capability of soils of different texture


Filtration capability

Time of absorption, s*

Type of soil

Large

<18

coarse-grained – and medium size - grained sand

Medium

18––30

fine-grained sand,

light clay sand

Small, but sufficient for active realization of processes of organic decontaminations

30––180

Light adobe

Small and insufficient for realization of processes of organic decontaminations

>180

Heavy and medium clay sands and loamy soil, clays


A hole of 0.3×0.3 m in diameter and 0.15 m in depth is dug and quickly filled up with water (12.5 dm3). With the help of chronometer the period of absorption is timed.


Appendix 4


Scale for assessment of sanitary state of soil*


Danger level

Level of pollution

Criteria of epidemic safety

Pollutional index ЕCS –– exceeding factor of MAC

Radiation safety index ––

soil activity

Natural purification index

Coli titer

Anaerobe titer

Number of eggs of helminthes in 1 kg of soil

Number of larvae and chrysalides of flies on 0.25 m2

Sanitary number of Khlebnikoff'

–– thermophile titer

Safe

Pure

1.0

and more

0.1

and more

0

0

0.98-1.0

<1

Natural level

0.01-

0.001

Relatively safe

Slightly polluted

1.0-0.01

0.1-0.01

less than 10

single

specimen

0.86-0.98

1-10

Exceeding natural level by 1.5 times and more

0.001-0.00002

Dangerous

Polluted

0.01-0.001

0.01-0.0001

11-100

10-25

0.70-0.86

11-100

Exceeding natural level by 2 times and more

0.00002 -0.00001

Very dangerous

Heavily polluted

0.001

and less

0.0001

and less

more than

100

25

and more

<0.70

>100

Exceeding of natural level by 3 times and more

<0.00001

*Under condition of soil sampling in the depth of 0-20 cm.


Appendix 5


Assessment of soil sanitary state according to chemical analysis of soil air

Soil sanitary state

О2 and СО2 content in soil air. %

О2

СО2

Pure

19.75-20.3

0.38-0.8

Slightly polluted

17.7-19.9

1.2-2.8

Averagely polluted

14.2-16.5

4.1-6.5

Heavily polluted

1.7-5.5

14.5-18


Appendix 6


Assessment guide scale of the population health state in dependence on soil contamination levels by exogenic chemical substances (ЕCS)

Changes in the state of population health

Exceeding factor of MAC of ECS in soil

Minimal physiological disorders

< 4

Significant physiological disorders

4––10

Frequency of morbidity rise by separate nosologic forms and groups of diseases


11––119

Chronic poisonings

120––199

Acute poisonings

200––999

Mortal poisonings

> 1000


Appendix 7


Technique of hygienic assessment of sanitary state of soil


When drawing a report on hygienic assessment of sanitary condition of soil it is reasonable to use a scheme (algorithm) that provides for the following 6 stages:

І – goal and task are determined. Thus it is necessary to state a hygienic value of sanitary condition of natural soil at the time of the assignment of the parcel for new settlement construction. During the regular sanitary inspection it is necessary to assess the sanitary condition of artificially created soil on the ground areas for residential and public building, playgrounds for children and sport grounds. When the epidemic situation is unfavorable, it is necessary to find out if soil is a factor in spreading pathogenic microorganisms. Sometimes, when investigating cases of acute and chronic poisonings it’s necessary to determine the level of soil contamination by toxic chemical substances (pesticides, heavy metals etc.). Sanitary condition of soil may be studied in order to assess the efficiency of sanitary purification of the settlement territory, during the regular sanitary inspection of sewage disposal plant and facilities of utilization and extermination of SDW in order of assessment of their work efficiency.

II – according to set tasks a required extent of examinations is set. Thus, during the hygienic assessment of natural soil of the ground areas assigned for new settlement construction, complete sanitary analysis of every index of sanitary condition is required. During the hygienic assessment of artificially created soil of settlements, in case of favorable epidemic situation, it is reasonable to carry out examinations by sanitary analysis reduced scheme: determination of total and hygroscopic moisture, Khlebnikoff’s sanitary number, chlorides, soil oxidation, microbial number, titer of coli-group bacteria, anaerobe titer, number of eggs of helminthes, number of larvae and chrysalides of flies. In case of unfavorable epidemic situation it is important to include tests on presence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses into reduced sanitary analysis. When investigating cases of acute and chronic poisonings for the assessment of the level of soil contamination by chemical poisonous substances it is sufficient to determine texture of soil, total and hygroscopic moisture and content of hazardous substances: pesticides, heavy metals, arsenic etc. (Appendices 4, 5).

III – completeness of presented materials and availability of sanitary examination data are controlled, soil sampling schemes, methods of their preliminary analysis, time constraints of analysis, soil samples’ keeping are assessed, availability of soil laboratory analysis results in accordance to the required research program are controlled.

IV – sanitary examination results are analyzed: а) sanitary-topographical characteristic of the area; b) sanitary-technical characteristic of the objects that influence condition of the area; c) sanitary-epidemic situation. Preliminary conclusion concerning grounds for suspicion that soil can be contaminated by exogenic chemical substances or being a factor of spreading infections is drawn.

V – laboratory results of soil analysis are assessed according to all data, that are required by examination program. According to indirect indices based on comparing the examined and test (“pure”) soil one, conclusion about the fact of existence, prescription and durability of contamination is drawn. According to direct indices, based on sanitary assessment of the condition of soil (Appendices 4, 5), level of soil contamination and stage of its danger for the population health is assessed.

VI – general conclusion about sanitary condition of soil, stage of its contamination and danger for the population health is drawn, future soil pollution effect on population health depending on its levels is forecasted (Appendix 6), preventive measures of further deterioration of sanitary state of soil and ways of its improvement are offered.


Appendix 8


Example of a situational task for training of method of hygienic assessment of soil sanitary state

For making a decision concerning an opportunity of assignment of the land parcel for construction of multifield hospital in the town N. sanitary analysis was made and soil samples were taken.

Sanitary analysis data: Parcel of the total area of 5 hectares is located to the north of the outskirts of the town. This territory formerly belonged to the collective farm “Prometheus” and was used for growing crops and later as a pasture. During last two years this territory was passed to town N. Relief of the area is flat, level of subterranian waters is 2.5 m. At the northern side the parcel borders with forest shelter belt, which separates agricultural areas, at the eastern side – highway, at the southern side – local park, at the western side – residential area. At the distance of 1.5 km to the West from the parcel industrial enterprises are located. Prevailing wind direction is South-Western. According to the information from local hospital during last 10 years there were no sufficient changes in the general morbidity. Morbidity of first year life infants has slightly increased.

Sampling report: Samples have been taken by “envelope” technique from 2 test areas of 5×5 m2 each, which are arranged on the analyzed land parcel and on the territory of the local park. Samples for chemical and bacteriological analyses were taken layer-by-layer from the depth of 0-5 and 5-20 cm, for helminthological analysis – 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Compound samples for chemical (1.5 kg weight) and helminthological (1.0 kg weight) analyses are put into paper bags, samples for bacteriological analysis are taken with sterility requirements adherence and are placed into sterile glassware. Sampling took place in August 17, 2003, from 10 a. m. till 11 a. m. At the same day at 12 a. m. the samples were delivered to the laboratory.


Laboratory analysis results:

Indices

Analyzed area

Test area

0-5 cm

5-20 cm

0-5 cm

5-10 cm

Indices that specify physical properties

Physical clay content, %

Physical sand content, %

15

85

17

83

20

80

18

82

Indices of contamination by exogenic chemical substances

Lead (bulk forms), mg/kg

HCB, mg/kg

DDT, mg/kg

30.0

0.04

0.1

27.0

0.05

0.08

28.0

0.03

0.08

26.0

0.04

0.09

Epidemic safety criteria

Sanitary-chemical

Sanitary number of Khlebnikoff

Chlorides, mg/100 g

Ammonia nitrogen, mg/100 g

Nitrites nitrogen, mg/100 g

Nitrates nitrogen, mg/100 g

0.99

57

3.7

0.2

1.9

0.98

53

3.5

0.1

1.7

0.98

54

3.4

0.1

1.8

0.99

51

3.5

0.2

1.6

Sanitary-microbiological

Coli-titer

Titer of anaerobes

1.0

0.1

1.0

0.1

1.0

0.1

1.0

0.1

Sanitary-helminthological

Number of eggs of helminthes in 1 kg of soil

0

0

0

0

Sanitary-entomological

Number of larvae and chrysalides of flies on 0.25 m2

0

0

0

0

MAC in soil (mg/kg): lead (bulk forms) – 30.0, HCB – 0.1, DDT – 0.1.

It is necessary to assess the sanitary state of the soil at the land parcel to forecast its possible influence on the population health and to make a decision on possible assignment of the territory for multifield hospital construction.

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