Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment icon

Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment




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Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises


MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF UKRAINE

GORKY’S DONETSK STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

TEACHING AND METHODICAL OFFICE


V. Ya. UMANSKIY, А.N.BESSMERTNIY

HYGIENIC REGULATION OF WATER QUALITY. BASIC METHODS OF WATER TREATMENT.


Manual for medical students









Donetsk 2004




V. Ya. UMANSKIY, А.N.BESSMERTNIY


HYGIENIC REGULATION OF WATER QUALITY. BASIC METHODS OF WATER TREATMENT: manual (Ministry of Health of Ukraine, teaching and methodical office of DSMU –Donetsk 2000).


Requirements to the quality of water (according to the sanitary standards) for different types of water usage and basic methods of water treatment are stated in the manual. Logical structure gragh of the theme, training programs, 8 tables and 3 pictures are also given in the manual.


Reviewers:

N.V.Grin, Professor of chair of hygien in DSMU.

V.D. Vanhanen,member of the Academy of high school, professor of chair of hygien in DSMU.


General purpose: To be able to estimate quality of potable water according to results of laboratory examination and to choose the appropriate methods of water treatment.


For general goal achievement following knowledge and skills are necessary:

  1. To ground physiological, hygienic and epidemiological significance of water and to analyze factors which influence water quality.

  2. To ground significance of potable water qualitative characteristic’s parameters.

  3. To evaluate water quality according to sanitary standards.

  4. To give hygienic recommendation on water usage and methods of water treatment.


On the basis of the theoretical questions below the performance of specific purpose is possible:

  1. Physiological, hygienic and epidemiological significance of water.

  2. Factors which influence water qualitative characteristic (type of water source, type of water source pollution, self-purification ability of the water source, geochemical features of area, epidemiological situation).

  3. Parameters of water qualitative characteristic.

  4. Requirements for quality of water sources of centralized public water supply (according to all-Union State Standard N 2761-84).

  5. Requirements for quality of water of centralized public water supply (according to State Sanitary Regulations and Rules N 383-96).

  6. Requirements for quality of potable water in terms of local public water supply.

  7. Classification of water treatment methods; their hygienic evaluation.

  8. Methods of water clarification and water decoloration; their hygienic evaluation.

  9. Methods of water disinfection; their hygienic evaluation.

  10. Description of basic methods of water chlorination; their hygienic evaluation.

  11. Specific methods for improving the quality of water; their hygienic evaluation.


Literature on the subject.

COMPULSORY LITERATURE:

  1. Габович Р.Д. и др. Гигиена: Учебник.- М.: Медицина, 1983.-320с.

  2. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології. Навч. посібник.-К.:Здоровя, 1999.- С.150-220.


ADDITIONAL LITERATURE:

  1. Государственные санитарные правила и нормы «Вода питьевая. Гигиенические требования к качеству воды централизованного хозяйственно-питьевого водоснабжения» (ГСАНПиН 383-96).

  2. Источники централизованного хозяйственно-питьевого водоснабжения. Гигиенические и технические требования и правила выбора (ГОСТ 2761-84).


HYGIENIC AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF WATER.


Water is necessary for private hygiene, washing, cooking, etc. Standards of water need for areas without sewerage is 30-50 liters per day; for areas with sewerage but without tubs is 125-160 liters per day; for areas with sewerage, tubs and with local heating is 160-230 liters per day; for areas with centralized water heating is 250-350 liters per day.

Water of poor quality causes different noninfectous diseases. Excessive or deficient income of certain chemicals with water can lead to metabolic disorder. Water may also contain toxic elements.

Fluorine. The concentration of fluorine in potable water more than 1,5 mg/l leads to fluorosis development. But the concentration of fluorine less than 0,7 mg/l in the potable water leads to dental caries development.

Iodine. An adult organism needs 100-200 microgram of iodine per day. The deficiency of iodine causes adenoma of thyroid (endemic goiter). More than 90% of iodine comes into human organism with product of animal or plant origin. Concentrartion of iodine in potable water plays signaling role. Lack of iodine correlates with its lack both in the ground and, therefore, in the products of animal and plant origin in the area.

Nitrates. Excessive income of nitrates into human organism causes water-nitrate methemoglobinemia (toxic cyanosis). In the human body nitrates are reduced to nitrites. Nitrites cause formation of methemoglobine by binding with hemoglobinum. Methemoglobine cannot transfer oxygen from blood to tissue so tissue hypoxia develops. This disease often occurs in rural regions; usually children (especially babies) are suffering. Infant’s organism is very sensitive to nitrites due to presence of fetal hemoglobin in blood (which is more strongly affected by nitrites) and due to the low activity of methemoglobinreducatse.

Water mineralization. Excessive water hardness, especially if associated with excessive water hardness causes diarrhea, taste impairment, increase scaling in boilers and heating systems.

Correlation between low mineralization of water and level of heart morbidity is discovered recently. Most of the minerals get to the body with food but only the minerals which get with water (especially calcium) are assimilated in human organism fully (for about 90%).


Epidemiological significans of water.


Many infectious diseases are transmitted through water e.g. abdominal tyhpus, cholera, disenteria, viral hepatits A, icteric leptospirosis, tularemia, poliomyelitis. Causative agents of infectious diseases can stay alife for a long time being in the water. A part from pathogenic microorganisms water may contain heminth eggs and protozoa’ cysts.

Under conditions of water deficiency other infectious diseases are activating (i.e. the disease which are not transmitted through water). According to WHO data, about 5 millions people die from water deficiency every year; about 500 millions cases of water transmitted infectious diseases are registered every year. The facts mentioned above allow to qualify the problem of water supply as problem N O in the world.


Water sources.


Underground ( subsoil water, middle artesian and non-artesian water), superficial water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, channels), atmospheric water (this type of water source has significant meaning in the dry areas) can be used as water sources.

Underground water collects in cavities of different rocks. Below those layers, layers of water-resistant rocks are situated (e.g. clay). They don’t permit the water to penetrate deeper (see fig.1).


fig. 1 Layout of different underground water-sources.





1- waterproof layers;

2-waterbearing level of subsoil water;

3-waterbearing level of middle non-artesian water;

4-middle artesian water;

5-well which takes non-artesian water

6-artesian well


The requirements which regulate water quality from different water source were worked out. Quality of water depends on water-source’s type and debit, its self-purification ability, season of the year, presence of pollution sources, composition of the ground and geochemical features of the area.


Hygienic requirements to the quality of potable water.


State Sanitary Regulations and Rules N 383-96 regulate requirements to the quality of potable water and it also spreads on the water supply systems. This document doesn’t regulate the quality of the bottled water and water from water sources if it is used without centralized supply system.

The document establishes the requirement which provide water safety and its good organoleptic features.

There are such hygienic requirements:

  1. Epidemiological safety;

  2. Non-toxicity;

  3. Good organoleptic features;

  4. Radiation safety;


Indices of epidemiological safety.


These indices show the absence of bacteria, viruses and other biological incorporations which are dangerous for human health . Potable water should match microbiological indices listed in the table 1.

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