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Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”

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2. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Health and Environment.rtf
3. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Introduction to hygine.rtf
4. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Nutrition and health. Bolonian..rtf
5. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Occupation and health Bolonian.rtf
6. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Water and health.rtf
7. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Complex microclimate assessment. doc.doc
8. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Topic 08.doc
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11. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Dust and chemic.admix/Topic 12.doc
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13. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Hygiene of children/mannual 1.doc
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18. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 04.doc
19. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 05.doc
20. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/illuminatiom artif. doc.doc
21. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Menu apportion ass/Menu-raskl. doc.doc
22. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Air movement. doc.doc
23. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Determination of atmospheric pressure.doc
24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
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26. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 07.doc
27. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 11.doc
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32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
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Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises

LECTURE “ Nutrition as a health factor”

(Лекция для англоязычных студентов 3 курса ММФ. Лектор доц. каф. гигиены и экологии Клименко А.И.)

  1. Food as the complex factor of an environment, the basic functions of food.

  2. Notion about a balanced diet, hygienic requirements to one. The basic components of food. Mediterranean medɪt(ə)'reɪnɪən] diet.

  3. Structure of the daily energy expenditure, methods of it’s investigation.

  4. Methods of investigation and assessment of population nutrition . Notion about the nutrition status.

  5. Notion about alimentary caused and alimentary mediated diseases, their classification, preventive guidelines.

  6. Notion about food poisonings, their classifications, preventive guidelines.

1. Food as the complex factor of an environment, the basic functions of food.

Social aspect of nutrition . The conditions of nutrition are determined by an economic formation. 66 % of the Earth population are in under nutrition state. Deficiency of proteins on the Earth > then 15 million tons. This state is accompanied by urbanization enlargement and areas under crops reduce. Under nutrition people have law capacity for work, immune system, they have high diseases risk thus they do not able implement social function in a proper way. Nutrition is a national health and life duration factor.

Basic nutrition effects are:

  1. Specific – nutrition is an origin of special diseases which call as alimentary caused diseases.

  2. Nonspecific – for some cases nutrition should consider as a very serious hazard factor, which decline body resistance and this state mediates non specific disturbances development. Other side adequate nutrition is the most important prevention factor of civilization diseases.

  3. Protected – this is factor which forms individual body resistance to adverse environment factors and extreme situation. This is factor which protects human organism to professional adverse factors as well as ionization radiation including.

  4. Pharmacological – for long time nutrition has been considered as a treatment factor by majority disturbances. Rehabilitation of homeostasis, structural and functional s disorders of an organism are possible using special diet. Every doctor should manage diseases using different diet.

Foods are very complex external environmental factor. It is enough to say that more then 70 essential substances are consumed by nutrition. Human organism exist in constant interaction to environment by through nutrition as a most intimate factor. All kinds of organism metabolism realize due to nutrition. As a complex factor nutrition is a chemical, physical, biological and informative environmental factor.

Functions of food.

  1. Energyy.

  2. Plastic

  3. Regulatory

  4. Rehabilitation-regulatory.

  5. Immune-regulatory.

  6. Rehabilitation

  7. Signal motivation

1. Energetic function. During study of the energy balance it is necessary to assess three basic components: food energy intake, storage in an organism one and energy expenditure.

The organism’s energy resources depends upon the level of the excess adipose and protein, adipose and carbohydrates in organism tissues. The human’s energy expenditure are related to a level of physiological functions, which caused by functioning of different organs and system and different type of activities

Energy balance – is an organism states in which the energy expenditure is made completely up компенсировать, so the producing energy amount corresponds to the energy expenditure. In case the inadequate nutrition in organism it may occur a negative energy balance and producing energy isn’t make up. An organism mobilises all resources to the maximal energy producing , that will be accompanied by an expenditure of tissue substances for a covering of energy deficiency. With the energy purpose is spent not only food but a tissue protein also. The negative energy balance is connected to an albuminous insufficiency and should be considered as a uniform complex of albuminous-energy insufficiency. A positive energy balance arises in case the caloric value of diet has been exceeding of organism’s energy expenditure. In this case are originated and made progress excess body mass , metabolic syndrome, obesity, atherosclerosis, hypertonic disease, IDH.

Thus, both negative, and positive energy balance adversely influence on a status of an organism. It is necessary to provide energy balance that is conformity of receipt and charge of energy by organism within day.

There is a necessity of determining the daily energy expenditure for everyone human being .


Nutrition should provide an organism with “building” materials for construction of cells, tissue during growth and renovation, maintenance of the structure constancy of an organism. If a nutrition insufficient in the quantitative and qualitative relation, occurs disorders of the cell structure, tissues and organism in total, disturbances of growth and development processes.


A lot of enzymes and hormones intake with foods including components with biologically active substances, exogenous hormones, vitamins, micro cells intake in an organism also.

4. REHABILITATION and REGULATORY function. Character of nutrition allows an organism to be adapted to vary environmental conditions, (carbohydrate nutrition in a hot climate, but fatty food helps in cold on the contrary, etc.).

  1. IMMUNE REGULATORY function. The condition of body resistance depends on character of nutrition, for example contain of vitamin С and essential amino acids.

  2. REHABILITATION FUNCTION (dietetic therapy) – fluorine, zinc, iron, iodine.

  3. SIGNAL-MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTION. Taste, smell and look of a dish, quality of food, conditions of a meal influence on emotional sphere. Behavior of the satisfied and hungry person is very different.

  1. Notion about a balanced diet, hygienic requirements to one. The basic components of food.

1. Rational nutrition should be considered as a most important life style component as well as the factor of the expectancy active life prolongation. Metabolism disturbances are the basis of each pathological process. Metabolism disturbances resulted partially from inadequacy nutrition in case nutrition does not correspond to physiological needs.

Rational nutrition is the organised correctly well cooked food in time provision , which supplies the organism daily energy expenditure and all optimal amount nutrients and biologic active substances contains balancing form results that in good development, high capacity for work, resistance to adverse factors etc other vital functions.

Rational nutrition provides not only the life duration but a life quality as well.

Retention сохранение of homeostasis is the most important condition for normal metabolism depending on nutrition. Violations of nutrition structure leads to many grave diseases widespread including as well.

Requirements to the nutrition ration:

  • ration of nutrition should cover daily energy expenditure;

  • It should contain all necessary in optimal amount nutrients. The notion optimal in this case is determined by age, sex, work intensity, environment quality etc. ;

  • all nutrients and biologic active substances should be balanced ;

  • nutrition should be various;

  • ration of nutrition should make sensation of a satiation , but not to overfill the gastrointeric tract ;

  • organoleptic characteristics of nutrition should contribute to good appetite;

  • Ration should be digestible and assimilated.

  • Ration should be harmless.

With the purpose a ration assimilation and good digestion one should regime of nutrition keep.

2. Physiologic valuable nutrition is provided balance by nutrients and active biologic substances . The ration balance makes for nutrients assimilation, normal metabolism and minimise their loss in human organism. Most important balanced indices in ration are proteins: fat: carbohydrates ratio. It should be 1:1:5, 8, Ca: P (1:1) and Ca: Mg (1: 0, 3 ). Normative caloric quote for proteins is - 11%; fat - 25%; carbohydrates – 64%.

3. Physiologic importance of nutrients for human organism.

3.1. Proteins:

- plastic function. They includes to all tissues and cellular of the organism;

- regulating function. They includes to all enzymes, and majority of hormones;

- transport function. They transport a blood oxygen, lipids, carbohydrates, hormones and some vitamins as well as minerals through the cellular membranes ;

- immunobiological function. They take a part in antibodies formation, increase the human body resistance to adverse factors ;

- metabolic function. They provide normal metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals;

-energetic function. They are degraded and 1 gr generate 4 kcal of energy ;

-specific functions. They take parts in hemopoiesis, reproductive and endocrine functions.

For vital processes providing the daily nutrition ration should contain 55% animal origin proteins and 45% vegetable one, for infants – 80 - 100%.

3.2. Fats:

  • energetic function. They are degraded and 1 gr generat 9 kcal of energy ;

  • plastic function. They includes to all tissue of the organism, take part in building of lipid structures, forming of cellular membranes ;

- -metabolic function. They are related to normal metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals;

  • protective function. They protect human bogy of the super cooling;

  • they are vitamin F providers ( polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA);

  • they are fatty- soluble vitamins providers ;

  • They improve the foods taste characteristics.

For vital processes providing the daily nutrition ration should contain 20-30 vegetable origin fat.

3.3. Carbohydrates:

  • energetic function. They are degraded and 1 gr generate s 4 kcal of energy ;

  • plastic function. They includes to all tissue of the organism;

  • detoxicating function. They promote to excretion not only metabolism product , but toxic and drug substances as well;

  • they are CNS provider;

  • they provide secretory and motor functions of gastrointestinal tract ;

  • they normalize of intestinal microflora ;

  • specific functions. Heteropolisaccarides determine formation of blood groups, anticoagulant system is determined by carbohydrates. C vitamin is carbohydrate by it’s nature.

The optimal ration carbohydrates amount should be 80%- polysaccharides ( 75% - starch), 3% - pectins, 2% - nutrient cellulosa) and 20%-mono-disaccharides . Pectins and nutrient cellulose are non assimilating carbohydrates but they have big importance for organism because they normalize gastrointestinal motor and secretory functions, cholesterol metabolism and intestine micro flora, assist to the organism decontamination.

Depending on cellulose amount foods are classified as “protected” ( cellulose amount more then 0,4% ) and “unprotected “ ( cellulose amount under 0,4% ) carbohydrates. “Protected” carbohydrates are not transformed to adipose.

4. Regime of nutrition it is an organization of the food consumption. It is characterized by following indices:

  • a meal number;

  • an intervals between meals;

  • a total caloric percentage to the each meal;

  • constancy of a meal time ;

  • duration of a meal time ;

  • succession последовательность of dishes intake.

Requirements to regime indices are based on physiological regularities of digestion, central and vegetative systems functioning . A meals number is physiologically based in case it is 4 number, and the time between meals at least 4 and no more 5 ours. A total caloric percentage to the each meal would be two variants. The first variant includes 2 breakfast, dinner, supper. The breakfast caloric value is – 20%, second one-15%, dinner-45%, supper –20%. Second variant includes breakfast, dinner, snack, supper. In this case the breakfast caloric value is 25%, dinner – 45%, snack – 10%, supper – 20%. The constancy time meals has importance meaning because a trace reflex making helps to food intake, gastric juice producing when one in time provides. The meal time depends on food value. This time is spent for the food intake, grinding and in gastric juice soaking. It should begin a meal by appetizers, salads using which digestive glands stimulate and to finish with dessert because sweet dishes inhibit activity one.

The correct nutrition regime helps to digestion efficacy, assimilation of ration, metabolism is regulated, necessary nutrients and energy intake in time provided. Diseases of the digestive system are prevented.

Regime structure depends on age, work, health, as well as access of weight or tendency to corpulence тучность. A meals number are made more frequent for child, elderly age, corpulent people, patients etc. Maximal caloric value in hot climate has morning and evening time meals and minimal one in hot day .part. In night shift dinner and supper caloric value are changed.

5. The physiological norms base is the physiological needs of human organism covering of energy and nutrients. Physiological needs depends on work intensity, age, sex, some specific functional states, climate conditions etc. All these factors influence on human metabolism, organs and systems functioning. According to these principles all Ukrainian population are distributed to 2 sex, children and adult, 3 adult age , 4 work intensity groups. For each group are suggested nutrients, vitamins and minerals norms. It were suggested also norms for elderly people in 60 - 75 years and older, for pregnant and nursing women as well.

  1. Structure of the daily energy expenditure, methods of investigation.

There are various methods of the human daily expenditure determining :

The most precise method is the direct calorimetric method, which consists in direct measurement thermal human energy in special calorimetric chamber. Between walls of the chamber water runs with constant temperature. On a degree water heating is determined the output heating amount. This method has limits with some kinds of activity which modelling is impossible.

For determine the daily energy expenditure of various kinds of activity and life more often the indirect calorimetric method is used. By this method is investigated human gas metabolism. With this purpose exhaled air pick out in the Duglas-Holden bag , then carbon dioxide and oxygen content are determined there. After that respiratory coefficient is calculated as exhale amount CO2 to oxygen consumption ratio. It is determined caloric value of the 1 L oxygen depends on given respiratory coefficient by proper table. Daily oxygen consumption and oxygen caloric value are multiplied. It will be the daily human energy expenditure.

  • The WHO offers to determine the daily energy expenditure on the basic metabolism and factor of physical activity. The basic metabolism is determined by the table. PhAP is calculated as average for all kinds carried out works. Thus all kinds of activity are taken into account and they take PhAP for each kind one from the table, means of the PhAP are summarized and are determined average value of it. Then the basic metabolism is multiplied to PhAP . It will be the daily energy, expenditure.

Last years has been recognize as necessary a chronometric - tabular method. The tables of human energy expenditure on various kinds of activity including for the basic metabolism, dream are worked out. Daily time-study includes all kind of the activity and time was spent on each of them in minutes. The time in total should be 1440 min. (24 ours ). After that the energy coefficient for each kind of activity in kcal/min/kg are determined from the table. The energy expenditure for each kind of the activity is calculated by time in minute to energy coefficient kcal/ min. kg are multiplied. The daily energy expenditure are sum of the each kind of activity energy expenditure to person weight and coefficient 1,1 are multiplied (1,1 it is meaning 10% unregistered energy expenditure correction factor).

  1. Methods of an assessment of the population nutrition. Notion about the nutrition status.

For the adequacy nutrition assessment are classified following methods:

4.1. Balancing method is amount of consumed foods balance for population of city, region, country are studied. Not only qualitative but quantitative nutrition side is studied also.

4. 2. Budgetary method – average family budget is estimated for nutrition using.

4 3. Questionnaire method - questioning of population is made by special questioner for assessment the quantitative nutrition side.

4. 4. Questioning – weighting method – the closed groups nutrition are assessed depending on subjective attitude to their nutrition and control of foods weight and body mass.

4. 5. Calculating by menu – apportion method/ Menu - apportion is made in medical and child establishments, military sub-units etc during 7 - 10 days fort assessment the nutrition adequacy by the caloric, nutrients, foods list and their variety value.

4. 6. Laboratory method . This is the objective method assessment by energy and nutrients value. It is accurate but difficult, labor - intensive and expensive method in comparison with the menu – apportion assessment.

4. 7. The morbidity of population assessment. Morbidity rate nonspecific diseases are increased in adequacy nutrition case.

4.8. Nutrition status assessment. It is classified following human health status depending nutrition level as:

- Normal (ordinary) status. Organism structure and functions are not impaired. Adaptation reserves are equal for adaptation to the ordinary conditions or activity.

- Optimal status is formed by special rations using for high level tolerance to adverse and stressful factors providing.

- Over nutrition status. Organism structure and functions are impaired leading to capacity for work and health level decreasing

- Insufficient status is formed by caloric and nutrients level are insufficient, leading to health level decreasing also.

5. Alimentary caused diseases are chronic diseases, etiopatogenicaly originated with violations of a nutrition or owing to insufficient or superfluous usage of energy and nutritious substances, or because of disturbances them absorption or destruction.

Hence, reason of their occurrence is eksogenic and endogenic.

Alimentary diseases are originated on eksogenic reason, considered as primary, arising on endogenic reason - secondary. Primary alimentary diseases, are resulted from an irrational or insufficient or superfluous nutrition.

Secondary alimentary diseases arise out of various diseases, which disturb of digestion process or lead to metabolism abnormality . So, the illnesses of a insufficient nutrition can arise among patients have been suffering from intestinal infections, gastrointestinal tract inflammation, postperative period, onkologycal, tuberculosis, as well as mental diseases.

The illnesses of a superfluous nutrition can have endocrinal and cerebral character.

Primary and secondary alimentary diseases are distributed into illness and syndromes of an insufficient nutrition and illnesses and syndromes of a superfluous nutrition .Experts of WHO offer to set aside alimentary diseases resulted from nutrition regime infringements.

Illnesses and syndromes of a insufficient nutrition are classified as :

А). protein-caloric deficiency (PCD) in clinical practice meets as alimentary marasmus and qwashiorkor.

Qwashiorkor are met with at 2-3 years of age children . The main reason of disease is a unbalanced nutrition, especialy with an animal origin proteins

. The energy component of a diet is provided with mono- and dioxide carbohydrates. Therefore it is possible to speak about protein insufficiency. Besides qwashiorkor practically never has had extremely alimentary etiology: frequently in its occurrence take part very very often infectious, psychological and cultural factors.

On 2 - 3-rd year of life the high-level complete proteins necessity is depends upon fast growth and development of a muscular tissue. The insufficient consumption of complete proteins lead to oedemeta onset. In this cases diarrhea syndrom originated as a result of synthesis pancreas ferments disorders is accompanied by processes of digestion and absorption disorders.

Constantly meeting symptom of qashiorkor is oedeme presence , it is excluded if absence one. To constant symptoms concern the growth and body mass weight lags behind out of age norms (weight of a body makes 68% of regional norms, growth - 91%), muscular hypotonic with preservation of under skin cellular tissue and psychometrical disorders (apathy, inertness, loss of appetite).

Alimentary marasmus may occure to all age groups, adults including , but it is more often to children of the first year of life. Occurrence of alimentary

marasmus is connected to lack simultaneously both proteins and caloric food value. The reasons are hungry, early nurse stopping without an adequate artificial feeding.

The marasmus frequently is combined with infectious ethiology diarrhea and tuberculosis.

The alimentary marasmus is accompanied by backlog of physical development (backlog of weight makes 60 % as well as the growth). Arises musculer distrophia at absence of subcutaneous fat, that causes occurrence of wrinkles (person «small oldman» or monkey).

The marasm has never led to oedemata. The mental disoders are expressed poorly, the child is active and has good appetite.

B). Hypo- and avitaminoses are connected with alimentary insufficiency, increased necessity for vitamins, vitamins assimilation disoders, normal intestinal microflora producing vitamins suppression.

Hypovitaminoses (vitanition) are met primary and secondary, avitaminoses - more often secondary.

C)Diseases of mineral insufficiency are classified as hypomacro- and microelementosis.

D)High fiber diet deficiency syndrom are resulted from purified foods consumption.the same nutrition originated civilization diseases such as heart, digestion holelitic diseases, diabetus melitas, urolithiasis , some cancers. Insufficiency consumption dietery fiber leads to diverticulosis and large intestine cancer. It is connected with intestine food tramsport duration, mass of fecas reduce, , large intestine pressure increase . Syndrom of the irritant intestine is connected with fiber diet deficiency also.

Fiber diet increase resistance to glucose therefore take place of the hyperglikemia, diabetus melitas as well as obesity prevention. Fiber diet taking part in bile acids metabolism

cholesterine level decrease , which most important for atherosclerosis and cardiac ischemia prevention. Fiber diet use succesfuly to constipation and hemorrhoid treatment, as such as gastric and duodenal ulcer prevention.

E) Polyunsaturated fatty acids diet defissiency syndrom leads to exudative diathesis development. This syndrom arises from saturated fat superflous diet nutrition. It is developed early atherosclerosis.

F) Essential amino acids diet deficiency syndrom leads to difference organ and system disodes. For example: valine deficiency leads to CNS function disoders; tryptophan deficiency leads to hemopoiesis and vitamin PP synthesis disoders ; phenylalanine deficiency to the thyreoid glsand function disoders etc.

Superflous nutrition disease are resulted from after superflous kaloric nutrition diet including carbohydrates (“unprotected” carbohydrates previously) and fat (saturated previously).

A.Unbalanced superflous by caloric value and quality structure leads to alimentary obesity . Superflous nutrition in first and years life mediates to increasing adipouse cellulars formation in subcutaneous fat and susceptebility to adipose storage has been remaing expantancy life. The hypercellular obesity form originats. Adipose tissue has large activity and even “aggressivity” property . The “aggressivity” is from adipose blood extraction manifested as such as tryglyceride formation is resulted from superflous carbohydrates with food intake.

B) Superflous nutrition protein intake leads to proper syndrom is charactarised by considerable activation of the amino acids intermediary metabolism and urea synthesis. Increasing also the putrefactive processes in bovels wich leads to the intoxication from putrefactive products and the imperfect proteolysis.

C) Superflous vitamine nutrition diseases ( hypervitaminosises ). They arise from some natural products intake, containing big amount vitamines , liposoluble are previously or vitamin preparetions overdosage, among children especially.

D)Superflous mineral nutrition diseases are characterised as hypermacro and microelementosises .

2. Alimentary mediated diseases are called because they spread by alimentary channel. The cause of these diseases is the containing different admixtures products consumption Alimentary mediated diseases are classified as:

First group –diseases for which alimentary channel is sole spread reason. To this groupe are attributed food poisons, parasitogenic diseases as such as biogelmintosises (diphylobotrium latum – broad tapeworm; trichinosis ets.)

Second groupe –diseases for which are different transmission channel and one of them is alimentary:

  • enteric infections (dysentery, typhoid fever,paratyphoid, cholera) and other infection diseases as such as brucellosis, which may spread by contact and water channels.

  • helmintosises spread not only alimentary channel but hands, soil, water polluted also.

  • xenobiotics - penetrate in organism from environment not only by foods but by inhale air, drinking water. The same channel is for radionuclides and heavy metals incorporation.

  1. Inferior and inadequate nutrition as a hazard factor.

Superfluous nutrition mediates to the different diseases spreading as such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cholelitic, hypertonic, myocardial ischemia diseases ets. It is necessary environmental and hereditary factors combinations for these diseases origin . Inadequate nutrition would be risk (hazard ) factor in this situation, accelerated this diseases development and progress.

Explorers from different country and WHO experts consider obesity as a cancer risk factor, because adipouse tissue may accumulate different damage substances (xenobiotics) .

4. Primary alimentary caused diseases prophylaxis is realized by nutrition optimization way.

Alimentary mediated diseases are called because they spread by alimentary channel. The cause of these diseases is consumption of products containing different admixtures. Alimentary mediated diseases are classified as:

First group –diseases for which alimentary channel is sole reason of spread. To this group are attributed food poisonings, parazitogenic diseases as such as biogelmintosises (diphylobotrium latum – broad tapeworm; trichinosis ets.)

Second group –diseases for which are different channels of transmission and one of them is alimentary:

-enteric infections (dysentery, typhoid fever, paratyphoid, cholera) and other infection diseases as such as brucellosis, which may spread by contact and water channels.

-helmintosises spread not only alimentary channel but hands, soil, polluted water also.

-xenobiotics - penetrate in organism from environment not only by foods but by inhale air, drinking water. The same channel is for radionuclide and heavy metals incorporation.

Alimentary mediated diseases are prevented by following measures:

  • an environmental protection;

  • exclusion of pollution of a nutrition products when they are grown, transported, kept and cooked ;

  • an exclusion of products which are made from sick animals;

  • maintenance a culinary handling technology rules, temperature processing especially ;

  • maintenance of period of realization of food nutrition and cooked meals;

  • carrying out of antiepidemic measures ;

  • a medical examination of workers of the public catering enterprises;

  • an improvement of the workers’ and population’s sanitary competence;

  • maintenance of hygiene rules of personal of public catering workers

6. Notion of food poisonings, main attributes, their classification.

Food poisoning are often acute non infected diseases originating due to bad quality product consumption which polluted by microbes, their toxins as well as animal or vegetable origin toxic admixture.

Every year approximately 300 000 000 people fall ill with these diseases and they say this number as an iceberg pile because large case number do not take medical advice depends on different reasons and majority disturbances are not registered.

Because these one are massive diseases every GP should know main food poisoning attribute as:

- as a rule is gastrointeric syndrome in some case absent ;

- it is strict relation between food intake and disease onset ;

- the diseases have mass character. All people who bad quality product intake are injured .

Very important to know food poisoning classification as a key to accurate diagnose, medical care and food poisoning prevention.


I. Microbic origin food poisonings:

  1. I. 1 Toxicoinfections

I. 2.Toxicosises:

  1. 2. 1. Bacterial toxicosises: Botulism, Staphilococcal toxicosis;

  1. 2.2 Micotoxicosises : Fusariosis, Aflotoxicosis, Ergotism

I. 3 Mixtures

II. Non microbic origin food poisonings:

II. 1. Food poisoning by products of the poisoning nature;

II. 2. Food poisoning by poisoning temporary products;

II. 3. Food poisoning by products which contains animal or vegetable origin as well as chemical admixture .

III. Unknown origin food poisonings: alimentary paroxysmal and toxic albuminuria

2. Food toxicoinfections, activators, sources and channels by their food polluted.

For bacterial food poisoning origin should be three obligatory conditions:

First condition – germs must put on products.

Second condition – it must be conditions for them multiplication or toxin origin (food structure and P H medium, temperature etc.),

Third condition – lack or inadequate thermal cooking process of food.

It is very important to notice that bacterial food poisoning origin only in case all three conditions are.

Food toxicoinfection is food poisoning which in short - term infection and toxicosis attributes characterising. This disease has two phase. First one is a bacteriemia in during which alive germs intake with food and through a gastrointeric tract penetrate to blood and dissimilate to tissues. From intake moment they are killed by natural resistance factors and due to cells destruction the endotoxin excretes. That’s why typical toxicoinfection symtoms (high temperature, gastroenterocolit, headache) muscular pains are related to dual origin. Toxicoinfections caused by Proteus mirabilis , Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium perfringens, enteropathogenic E. Coli, Bac. Cereus, Str. Faecalis, vibrio parahemolyticus, Citrobacter, Hafnia, Klebsiela, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Edvardsiela etc.

There are a lot of causative toxicoinfection agents in nature. Microbes live, multiplied and excreted to environment from people, wild and domestic animals, rodents, birds, insects etc. That’s why any polluted product is dangerous for people infection. Most responsible products fot toxicoinfection origin are meat and meat product, milk and dietary products, garnishes which infected after cooking etc. It is known two most important infected mechanisms for meat and fish.

-Intravital mechanism acts when animals have diseases and infected due to germs.

-Postmortal mechanism acts after animal (fish) slaughter and microbes pollute to a muscular carcass part during slaughters, cutting, keeping, transporting sanitary violations.

3. Food bacterial toxicosises (a botulism, staphylococcal toxicosis), sources and channels by their food pollution .

Food bacterial toxicosises origin when alive germs live and multiply on a product , excrete metabolism products (ekzotoxin) and perish погибать due to environmental condition. That is why these toxicosises source is not alive germ but it’s ekzotoksin. This is a principal difference between toxicoinfections and bacterial toxicosises.

Botulism is the food poisoning which origins due to consumption of product polluted by ekzotoxin . Cl. Botulinum is the microbe which is wide spread in wild and domestic animals, fishes, insects. It is an intestine obligatory inhabitant , which excreted to an environment , in soil previously, has long – term survival because spores forms. They become invasive in anaerobic medium ekzotoxin producing. This information necessary for comprehension of the guilty products list. Botulism mainly origins after intake products inside of them are formed anaerobic conditions. As such as smoked meat, fish, sausage, hams, animals and vegetable (especially mushrooms) canned products. This peculiarity of this poisoning makes processing of products should keep strict conditions using modern equipment (sterilization, smoking processes etc). That’s why they origin after home cooking with violations of sanitary conditions.

Botulism is most dangerous poisoning with mortality level 50% in untreated cases. That’s why very important to know their characterizing symptoms. It ‘s known triad DDD –symptoms as Diarrhea, Diplopia, Dysphagia which resulted from toxin effect and specific influence on centers of craniocerebral nerves. Sometimes diarrhea shifts to constipation due to N. Vagus damage. Temperature is not high usually because toxin hasn’t pyrogenic characteristic.

Products are by Cl. Botulinim polluted because soil polluted . Intestine contents of animal, birds, fish, insects pollutes clean products. In anaerobic condition harmonizing with favorable product medium begins ekzotoxin excretion. For germs survival promote insufficient temperature and smoke processing.

Staphylococcal toxicosis ( St. Aureus ) origins due to polluted by ekzotoxin excreted from Staphylococcus aureus or haemoliticus. This toxikosis resulted from intake products which medium is nearest to carbohydrates contents. These are milk and milk products, cakes, pastry, ice-cream etc. These products are polluted due to people who have aerogenic or skin purulent infections as such as sick from staphilococcal infections animals ( cows’ mastitis for example).

4. Mycotoxicosis and their preventive maintenance

Micotoxicosys - mainly chronic poisonings caused by toxins of microscopic mushrooms fusarim, aspergilli, penicillium, claviceps purpurea, etc.

Ergotism (ergot) cereal cultures is more often are affected by microscopic fungi as such as Clavicex purpurea (ergot). This fungi mycelium forms dark-violet spots under 4 sm. length. Vet summer promotes

to cereal lesion. The fungi toxicity depends on alcaloids presence as such as ergotamin, ergotoxin, ergometrin etc and biogenic amins (hystamin, tyronin etc ). These toxic substances are stable to heating, baking of bread including and to a preservation as well. Convulsive, hangrenosic and the mixed forms are distinguished.

Fusariousis – caused by Fusarium fungi from Sporotrichea species. They wide spread in soil, cereals and beans, vegetables. Their development promote high humidity. They development by different temperature but optimum one are from –4 0 C to + 40 0C. Fusariotoxins are stable to heating (200 0C and more) and to other physical and chemical adverse factors, keep an activity for long years preservation. Fusariosises are classified as the :

  • alimentary-toxic aleukia,

  • “drunk bread” poisoning,

  • endemic nephropathy.

Aflatoxicosis in acute form is characterized by the liver necrosis and adipose degeneration, neirotoxicosis, hemorrhage, ascites, diarrhea, kidneys necrosis. In subacut and chronic forms leads to the liver cirrosis and primary cancer.

Aflatoxin as such as B1 is most adverse among known to scientists chemical carcinogen. It is known also teratogenic and mutagenic aflatoxin effects. They upset расстраивать protein synthesis leading to molecules DNA and RNA- polymerase sites blocks. It is expressed by disorders of cellular enzymatic processes, selective changes enzymatic activity.

Aflatoxicosises are spread in Africa and South-East Asia . Importance of Aflotoxicosis in Ukraine related with import form these country products .Aflotoxins are fungi metabolism product as such as Aspergillus flavus, rear other Aspergils and Penucillinum fungi. It were detected 12 aflatoxines or furocumarins by chemical structure. Aflatoxins are termostable, have bad water-soluble, destroyed only by hard alkali щелочь.

Aflatoxins originate in products by different temperature , have maximal activity by 22-30 0 C and 83-90 % humidity. Aflatoxins detected in ground nuts, rice and other cereals, beans, oil-bearing, cacao and coffee-beans, bread and other products by mould polluted. Few amount of aflotoxins revealed in milk, meat and eggs.

5. Food poisonings, non-microbic nature, food chains importance of various objects e environmental toxic substances intake in the human’s organism.

6. Guidelines of food poisoning prevention.

-Sanitary propaganda;

- Severance разрыв of mechanisms due to products become toxic properties by continues refrigeration chain;

-Keeping rules and norms of the domestic animals, sea as well as river fishes catch and mushrooms harvest;

-A constant veterinary and sanitary control and examination making ;

-Personal hygiene rules keeping;

-State norms and rules of foods storage, cooking and trading keeping;

-State prohibition measures which exclude probability to buy bad quality products;

- Decantominating and deactivating measures;

- A custom examination development;

- A medical examination of public catering workers;

- Laboratory control of foods;

- Setting maximal tolerance level of poisons in products;

-Sanitary inspection of knew package, packing, table-ware, transports systems etc.


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