Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange icon

Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange




НазваТopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
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1. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Children and adolescent hygiene.rtf
2. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Health and Environment.rtf
3. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Introduction to hygine.rtf
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5. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Lectures/Occupation and health Bolonian.rtf
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7. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Complex microclimate assessment. doc.doc
8. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Compl. infl. of microclimate/Topic 08.doc
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18. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 04.doc
19. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Illumination/Topic 05.doc
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21. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Menu apportion ass/Menu-raskl. doc.doc
22. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Air movement. doc.doc
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24. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/RESEARCH OF THE FACTOR OF INFRA-RED RADIATION.doc
25. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 06.doc
26. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 07.doc
27. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/Topic 11.doc
28. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Microclimate ass/temperature. doc.doc
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30. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Soil.ass/Topic 18.doc
31. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 1.doc
32. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Water ass/Mannual 2.doc
33. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/Work hardness/hardness and intencity 2.rtf
34. /Module1. General questions of Hygiene and Ecology/Practical studies/ultraviolate/manual.rtf
Лекция на тему: Здоровье детей и подростков как гигиеническая проблема. Физиолого-гигиенические
Лекция на тему: «Окружающая среда и здоровье»
Health (who) it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity
Lecture “ Nutrition as a health factor”
Лекция на тему «Труд и здоровье»
Вода и здоровье” ( лекция для англоязычных студентов 3- го курса ммф ) Лекцию подготовил доцент кафедры гигиены и экологии Клименко А. И
Theme Hygienic assessment of the complex microclimate influence to the human organism
Тopic 8 methods of hygienic assessment of complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange
Theme: methods of hygienic assessment of the dust and chemical admixtures level in atmospheric air
The methods of air sampling
Methods of determination and hygienic assessment of the dust content in the air
Theme: Food poisoning prevention
Theme: the complex assesment of individual health of children and adolescents
Hygienic assessment of conditions and organization of education in comprehensive school
Hygienic estimate of insolation regimen, daylight and candlelight of hospital apartments
Theme: Methods of hygienic investigations and assessment natural illumination and insolating regime in premises Purpose
Solar radiation and its hygienic importance
Topic №4 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of natural lighting in different premises
Topic №5 methods of determination and hygienic assessment of artificial illumination in different premises
Theme: Methods of the hygienic investigation and assessment of the artificial illumination in premises Purpose
The adequacy of the individual nutrition study according to the daily energy intake
Hygienic importance of the air movement in premises
Determination of atmospheric pressure
Research of the factor of infra-red radiation
Тopic №6 Method of determination of temperature and humidity conditions indoors and their hygienic assessment
Method of determination and hygienic assessment of the air movement direction and speed
Methods of determination of со
Microclimate of premises
Theme: Hygienic assessment of the noise and vibration as occupational hazards
Topic №18 method of hygienic assessment of soil according to sanitary examination of the land parcel and results of laboratory analysis of samples
The hygienic estimation of quality of potable water according to inspection and to results of the laboratory analysis
Umanskiy, А. N. Bessmertniy hygienic regulation of water quality. Basic methods of water treatment
Theme: Hygienic assessment of occupational hardness and intensity
Theme: Methods of determination of the ultraviolet radiation intensity as such as preventive dose of it’s irradiation and use it for diseases prevention and air disinfection in premises

Тopic 8


METHODS OF HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT of COMPLEX effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange


1. Learning objective


1.1. Master the methods of the hygienic assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using subjective and objective physiological parameters.

1.2. Master the objective methods of assessment of the effects of microclimate on human heat exchange using the effective (ET), the equivalent-effective (EET), resultant temperatures (RT)’ nomograms, the catathermometer method and the organism heat balance calculation.


2. Basics


2.1. You should know:

2.1.1. Main thermodynamical and physiological principles of human heat-exchange and thermoregulation (at the basic level of biophysics, biochemistry and physiology knowledge).

2.1.2. Hygienic significance of microclimate in different types of premises, its variants and characteristics.

2.1.3. Influence of comfortable and uncomfortable (hot and cold) microclimate on human body.

2.1.4. Subjective and objective characteristics of the organism heat balance.


2.2. You should have the following skills:

2.2.1. To measure and assess the microclimate characteristics (air temperature, radiant temperature, air humidity and air movement).

2.2.2. To measure and assess the influence of the microclimate on physiological parameters of the organism heat exchange and thermoregulation (respiratory rate, heartbeat rate, blood pressure, body and skin temperature, sweating intensity, skin electroconductivity), to evaluate the subjective temperature sensation of the patient, using his physiological and psychoemotional reactions.


3. Self-training questions


3.1. The microclimate and the factors defining it.

3.2. Air and radiant temperature; their hygienic significance. The main laws of thermodynamics, Stephan-Boizmann law.

3.3. Air humidity characteristics (absolute, maximum, relative, physiological humidity, humidity deficiency, physiological humidity deficiency, dew point) and their hygienic significance.

3.4. Movement speed of the atmospheric and indoor air; their hygienic significance.

3.5. Devices for measuring of microclimate characteristics, their structure and measurement procedures.

3.6. General methods of hygienic assessment of the meteorological factors and indoor microclimate.

3.7. Thermal balance and heat exchange between organism and environment. The physiologic and hygienic characteristics of heat production and heat emission. The subjective and objective parameters of organism heat exchange.

3.8. Cold microclimate and its influence on human. The physiological reactions and diseases caused by cold microclimate (overcooling, frostbite etc.).

3.9. Hot microclimate and its influence on human. The physiological and pathological indications of acute and chronic overheating. Sunstroke and heat stroke. Prevention of overheating.

3.10. Methods of assessment of the influence of indoor microclimate on human: the catathermometer method, the methods of effective, equivalent-effective, resultant temperature nomograms, their comparative hygienic characteristics.

3.11. Calculation and complex hygienic assessment of human heat balance: calculation of heat production and heat emission (by irradiation, convection, evaporation and total) depending on microclimate.


4. Self-training assignments


4.1. The catathermometer cools from 380 to 350C per 3 minutes and 15 seconds in one room, and per 1 minute and 25 seconds in another room. Catathermometer factor F = 630. Calculate the heat balance of the human body by the catathermometer method using these data.

4.2. The indoor air temperature is 250C according to dry-bulb thermometer and 190C according to wet-bulb thermometer of the Assman`s phycrometer, the indoor air movement is 2 m/sec. Determine the indoor equivalent-effective temperature and make a conclusion about the organism heat balance.

4.3. The indoor air temperature is 250C according to dry-bulb thermometer of the Assman`s phycrometer, indoor air movement is 2.5 m/sec, the absolute humidity is 10.5 Hg mm, an average radiant temperature is 180C. A man works physically hard. Determine the indoor resultant temperature and make a conclusion about the organism heat balance.

4.4. The indoor microclimate characteristics are: air temperature – 120C, average temperature of surrounding surfaces – 100C, air movement – 0.8 m/sec, relative humidity – 85%. A man (body temperature 350C) works moderately hard (power inputs are 180 kcal/hour) wearing the light clothing. Calculate and estimate heat balance of the “standard man”.


5. Structure of the lesson


This is a laboratory lesson. The topic is divided into 2 academic periods.

The students master the following skills during the first period of the lesson:

а) the clinical-physiological method of assessment of microclimate and thermoregulation process activization effects on human body (see appendix 1);

b) the catathermometer method as one of the methods of physical simulation of assessment of the effect of microclimate on human. Compliance of its results to hygienic standards (tabl. 1). The usage of catathermometer is described in appendix 1 of topic № 7.

The calculation methods of assessment of the effect of indoor microclimate on human are mastered during the second period of the lesson:

a) methods of determination of the equivalent-effective (EET) and resultant (RT) temperatures (using thermometer maps of “standard man”) and the assessment of the EET and RT compliance to hygienic standards (see table 1 and appendix 2);

b) the analysis of the heat balance by comparing heat production and heat emission from: infrared irradiation, conduction, moisture evaporation from skin surface, lungs and mucous membranes using own anthropometric data (see appendix 3).


6. Literature


6.1. Principal:

6.1.1. Общая гигиена. Пропедевтика гигиены. / Е.И.Гончарук, Ю.И.Кундиев, В.Г.Бардов и др.- 2-е изд.- К.: Вища школа, 2000.- С. 221-237.

6.1.2. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Основи загальної та тропічної гігієни. – К.: Здоров’я, 1995. – С. 22-31.

6.1.3. Габович Р.Д., Познанский С.С., Шахбазян. Гигиена. – К.: Вища школа, 1983. – С. 36-40.

6.1.4. Загальна гігієна. Посібник до практичних занять. / І.І.Даценко, О.Б.Денисюк, С.П.Долошицький. / За ред. І.І. Даценко. – Львів: Світ, 1992. – С. 41-42.

6.1.5. Lecture.


6.2. Additional:

6.2.1. Новожилов Л.А., Ломов С.Т. Гигеническая оценка микроклимата. – Л., 1986.

6.2.2. Руководство к практическим занятиям по гигиене труда / Под ред. А.М. Шевченко. – К.: Вища школа, 1986. – С. 54-67.

6.2.3. Даценко І.І., Габович Р.Д. Профілактична медицина. Загальна гігієна з основами екології. – Київ, “Здоров’я”, 1999. – С. 120-124.

6.2.4. Г.Х. Шахбазян. Гигиена производственного микроклимата. К., 1978.

6.2.5. Руководство к практическим занятиям по коммунальной гигиене / Под ред. Е.И. Гончарука. – М.: Медицина, 1990. – С. 318-327.

6.2.6. Медведев В.И. Устойчивость физиологических и психологических функций человека при действии экстремальных факторов. – Л.: «Наука», 1982. – 104 с.


7. Equipment required for the lesson


    1. Aspirating phycrometer.

    2. Ball catathermometer and thermal feeling tables under different levels of air cooling ability.

    3. Electrothermometer with skin detector.

    4. Тonometer.

    5. Galvanometer for the determination of skin electroconduction (perspiration).

    6. Tables of the equivalent-effective and resultant temperatures.

    7. Nomograms of the equivalent-effective and resultant temperatures.

    8. Formulas for the heat emission calculation by irradiation, conduction, sweat evaporation.

    9. Task for assessment of the complex effects of the microclimate on the human heat exchange to the students.


Appendix 1


Method of clinical-physiological assessment of the influence of microclimate on human body and health


The students are divided into 2 groups. One group studies the comfortable microclimate of the laboratory (control group), another group studies the uncomfortable microclimate (chamber conditions).

Uncomfortable microclimate is created artificially: cold microclimate – naturally (by opening the doors, windows, making the draughts); hot microclimate is recreated in a special box (the extra heating batteries are turned on, the air humidity is increased by water evaporation from various open surfaces).

The activization of the thermoregulation processes is evaluated twice in each group. First time - after 10-15 minutes of adaptation of students to the current microclimate in calm state, second time – immediately after some exercise (15-20 curtsies or 10-15 squeezing on hands out off the floor ect.).

The activization of thermoregulation processes is evaluated using the following clinical-physiological parameters:

  1. temperature of forehead, hand back, breast bone, foot back in °С;

  2. temperature differences of forehead, hand back, breast bone, foot back in °С;

  3. respiratory rate per minute.;

  4. heartbeat rate (pulse) per minute.;

  5. blood pressure in mm. Hg.;

  6. voluntary breath-hold duration on inhalation in seconds;

  7. the presence and intensity of sweat on the forehead skin (by description or using Mishchuk’s method – iodine-starch test, determination of skin conductivity) in standard units.

Students of both groups record the subjective parameters of heat balance using the following scale: “cool”, “fresh”, “comfortable” or “normal”, “warm”, “hot”, “very hot”.

Tables 1, 2 are filled with results of microclimate characteristics and body state parameter assessment.

The students also start learning the other methods of assessment of the effect of microclimate parameters on human heat-exchange during the first part of the lesson.

In particular, the students must learn one of the methods of physical simulation (catathermometer or frigometer method).

After finding out the cooling ability of the environment (comfortable microclimate of the laboratory or uncomfortable microclimate created artificially in special box) the students evaluate the microclimate characteristics using the catathermometer method. The students use the regulations from the table 1 below.

Table 1


Methods of the assessment of influence of the microclimate characteristics on human body

Parameters

Methods

catathermometer

equivalent-effective temperature (EET)

resultant temperature (RT)

Factors, accounted by this method.

Air temperature,

air movement.

Air temperature,

air humidity,

air movement.

Air temperature,

air humidity,

air movement,

radiant temperature.

Factors, used for evaluation of organism reactions.

Environmental cooling ability (cooling of catathermometer reservoir – Н).

Human thermal feeling.

Human thermal feeling.

Measures

mcal/cm2×s

Standard units

(degree ЕЕТ).

Standard units

(degree RТ).

Thermal comfortable zone during performance of different works:

- easy;

- moderate;

- hard.



5.5 – 7.0

8.4 – 10.0

15.4 – 18.4



17.2 – 21.7

16.2 – 20.7

14.7 – 19.2



16 – 18

13 – 16

10 – 13

Defects of the method:

1. Cooling of the device is equaled to human reaction.

2. The radiant heat isn’t accounted.

The heat loss by irradiation isn’t accounted.

The organism’s individual conditions (healthy, sick etc.) aren’t accounted.


At the end of the first period of the lesson, the conclusion on the microclimatic conditions of the indoor rooms and their effect on the human body thermoregulation is made, based on the microclimate parameters, clinical-physiological research of the thermoregulation processes, subjective feelings and the cooling ability of the environment (received using the cathathermometer).

The results of measuring of the microclimate characteristics and their effects on heat-exchange are recorded into the tables 2 and 3 for future convenience.


Table 2

Indoor microclimate characteristics


Room

(indicate the type of microclimate in brackets)

Microclimate characteristics

Environmental cooling ability (by cathathermometer), mcal/sec×cm2

Air temperature, С

Relative humidity, %

Air movement, m/sec

Average

radiant temperature, С

І ( )

ІІ ( )

















Тable 3

Clinical and physiological reactions of human organism and subjective feelings of the people depending on conditions in the room


First and last names

Observation results

Respiratory rate per minute

Pulse, beats per minute

Blood pressure, Hg mm

Body temperature, С

Temperature of forehead, hand back, С

Temperatures difference t1 – t2

t1 – forehead skin

t – hand back skin, ºС

The presence and intensity of sweat,

standard units

(-; +; + +; + + +)

Subjective heat feelings

І. Control group (comfortable microclimate)

А. In a calm state.

1.

























2.

























3.

























В. After some exercise.

1.

























2.

























3.

























ІІ. Controlled group

(Uncomfortable microclimate: hot, cold - underline)

А. In a calm state.

1.

























2.

























3.

























B. After some exercise.

1.

























2.

























3.


























Appendix 2


Methods of equivalent-effective and resultant temperatures determination


The equivalent-effective temperature (ЕЕТ) is a contingent-numeral determination of human subjective heat feeling (“comfortable”, “warm”, “cold” ect.) under different ratios of temperature, humidity, air movement, and the resultant temperature (RТ) – also the radiant temperature. These standard units of ЕЕТ and РТ correspond to temperature of still (0 m/s) 100 % water saturated air. The feeling of the heat or cold results from the different variations of these EET and RT standard units.

ЕЕТ and РТ were elaborated in special box conditions with different ratio of microclimate characteristics and drawn up in tables and nomograms.

At first, temperature, humidity, air movement are measured for EET determination in the certain room. The value of EET is determined in accordance to these data (see table 4) and an appropriate conclusion is drawn. Usage of this table is simple: ЕЕТ is determined at the intersection of air temperature value (first and last columns), air movement and humidity (at the top of the table).

The equivalent-effective temperature is determined at the intersection of dry-bulb (at the left) and wet-bulb (at the right) thermometers of the psychrometer and the air movement (m/min on the curved lines) on nomogram (see fig. 8.1).



Fig. 8.1. Nomogram of the effective temperature determination


The following actions should be performed to find out the resultant temperature from the nomogram (fig. 8.2). First, the point, where the air movement corresponds to the air temperature (by dry thermometer) is found. Then, a line starting from that point to the radiant temperature value is drawn, and from the point, where this line and the temperature scale to the right intersect, another line is drawn – to the value of the absolute air humidity (right scale). The resulting temperature value will be at the intersection of the last line and the nomogram curves.




air movement, m/s а



air movement, m/s b

Fig. 8.2. Nomogram of the resultant temperature determination

(a – during light work; b – during hard work)

The example of the RT determination is shown on the fig 8.2. with dotted lines.

Table 4

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