General circulatory disorder Relevance of the topic icon

General circulatory disorder Relevance of the topic




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General circulatory disorder

Relevance of the topic: The circulatory system coordinates and connects functionally different organs and systems for survival of the organism as a whole. This coordination of the circulatory system performs closely the same function as the lymphatic system. Both systems provide transport and exchange functions, and serve as a common goal-ensuring level, for microvasculature trans capillary exchange in all organs and tissues. Ensuring adequate blood flow complex process that depends on the adequate operation of the heart, notch, rib cage, pleura, integrity of a unified system and precise balance between coagulation and anticoagulation systems of blood. There is no single general pathological process, which would not have been, or consequence, or outcome, or to support and ensure the process. Virtually all known diseases are accompanied by disorders of blood circulation of a different nature and severity. To obtain Knowledge and skills in this lesson, you need multidisciplinary (medicine, surgery, oncology, infectious diseases and others) to understand the disease and early diagnosis of them. Explain the clinical manifestations, treatment, and uses:

Aim (total): to be able to determine the macro-and microscopic manifestation of the general blood circulation disorders, explain their causes and mechanism of development, to assess their potential complications and importance to the organism.

^ Specific objectives initial state objective

To know how to

| 1. Determine the macro-and microscopic manifestation of a common blood plethora, explains the mechanism of development, complications, and assess its values


| 1. Identify the factors that ensure normal blood circulation
 
(Department of Normal Anatomy, Department
 normal physiology)


2. Determine the macro-and microscopic
manifestations of the general venous plethora,
explains the mechanism of development.
complications and to assess its values


Recognize the anatomy of the cardiovascular system and liver (Department of normal anatomy), factors enabling the movement of blood in the veins (Department of normal physiology).


3. Determine the macro-and microscopic manifestation of general acute and chronic anemia, explain the causes, development mechanisms, complications, and assess its values.


3. Evaluate the microscopic structure, especially the hepatic circulation; slices (Histology Department)


4. Determine the macro-and microscopic manifestation of thickening and thinning of blood, explain its mechanism of development, complications, and assess its values.







Below are some questions to test yourself  Q 1. Venous engorgement of this body led to the emergence of different colors of small plots of it, due to the separation of inflow and outflow of blood. Name this body.

1.Spleen. 2. Liver
3. Kidney
4. Stomach
5. Pancreas

Q 2. TB patient ruptured lung tissue led to the accumulation of air in the pleura, which led to the development of a common venous plethora. What mechanism played a role in this circulatory disorder?


1. Air pressure in hollow veins.

2. Violation of the role of the suction of the chest in the venous blood flow.
3. Violation of the heart
4. Shortness of blood flow in the pulmonary circulation


Q 3. Microscopic examination of liver slices in the center of the vessel revealed a wide lumen wall of the race, which is formed by the endothelium, located at the basement membrane. What vessel was found in the liver? 1. Sinusoid capillaries
2 Interlobular veins
3. Central venous
4. Hepatic artery

Answers for self tests 1. - 2: 2. - 2: 3. - 3:

Information necessary for updating your knowledge, skills can be found in the following literary sources: 1. Gain, MG Lysenko II.P.. Bushkovich VI / / Human Anatomy. - M.. Medicine. 2001 - S.375-432. 2. Afanasiev K). P. Yurina PA / / Histology, cytology and embryology. - M.. Medicine. -1099. - With. 597-60 3. Filimonov VI "Normal physiology. - Kyiv. Zdorov'ya. 1004. - S.350-364.

The content of education should provide learning objectives, which contributes to the graph of the logical structure of the topic "general circulatory disorders" (Supplement № 1)

Theoretical issues, on which is possible to perform targeted activities:

1. Which impaired circulations are called general and local? Their relationship and examples.

2. General arterial hyperemia, the Latin name, the essence, causes, morphological manifestations, outcomes and examples. 3. General venous engorgement, the Latin name and reasons. 4. Pathogenesis of the total venous plethora in diseases of the heart, lungs, pleura and chest. Morphological manifestations, outcomes and values.

5. General acute anemia - the Latin name, the essence, causes, mechanisms of development, morphological manifestations, outcomes and values. 6. Chronic general anemia - the Latin name, the essence, causes, mechanisms of development, morphological manifestations, outcomes and values. 7. Blood clots - the Latin name, the essence, causes, mechanisms of development, morphological manifestations, outcomes and values. 8. Blood thinners - the Latin name, the essence, causes, and mechanisms of development, morphological manifestations, outcomes and values: Literature for the development of knowledge and skill for the topic:

1. Strukov AI. Serov VV / / Pathological anatomy. - Kharkov "fact". "999. p.127-137. 2. Lectures of the Department on the topic: ‘General circulation disorders. ‘3. Count the logical structure of the theme (Supplement № 1)

4. User study of macro-and micro preparations (Supplement № 2.3) Further reading: 1. Shlopov VG / / Basic pathological anatomy Lyudin. - Kyiv. 1999. - p.92-97. 2. Serov VV. Yarygin II.E.. Spiders, BC / / Pathological anatomy. Atlas. - M.. Medicine, 1986. - P.66-70. Answer these targeted questions

Q 1. Autopsy of 65 years old patient showed acute myocardial infarction of the left ventricle. What circulatory disorder is usually occurring in patients because of local circulatory disorder? 1. Blood thinners

2. Blood clots

3. General arterial hyperemia

4. General venous engorgement.

5. General chronic anemia


Q 2. People in mountainous villages where survey. Peripheral blood showed that total number of red blood cells exceed 6.0 million in 1 ml. reddening of the skin and mucous membranes. What kind of circulatory problems arose in them?

1. General venous engorgement.

2. General arterial hyperemia

3. General acute anemia

4. Blood clots

5. Blood thinners.

Q 3. Miners with dust-lung disease (pneumoconiosis) in the baseline medical examination: peripheral blood erythrocytes number increased to 6, 5 million in a MSW. Attention was drawn to increase in blood pressure, reddening of the skin and mucous membranes. Determine what kind of circulatory disorders has evolved in the miners?

1. General venous engorgement.

2. General arterial hyperemia.

3. General acute anemia

4. Blood clots

5. Blood thinners

Q 4. Autopsy of 30 years old male who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis revealed: cyanosis of the skin, serous, mucous membranes. Edema of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. as cites, hydrothorax and hydro pericardium. In Internal organs, cyanotic and edema tic liver ‘nutmeg fibrosis’. As evidenced by morphological changes in the data?

1 General venous congestion

2. General arterial hyperemia

3. General acute anemia

4. Blood clot

5. Dilution of blood


Q 5. Autopsy of a man with gastric ulcer shows: sharp pale shells in all tissues of internal organs. In the lumen of the stomach and small intestine there more than 2 liters of elastic and liquid blood clots. Heart and major blood vessels are empty. What kind of circulatory disorders in a patient thought pathological anatomist?

1. Blood thinners.

2. Blood clots.

3. General blood engorgement.

4. General venous congestion

5. General acute anemia


Q 6. Autopsy of 56 years old male, who suffered from chronic pulmonary tuberculosis revealed pale mucous and serous membranes of internal organs.   Pronounced dystrophic changes in parenchyma organ. In the cavities of the heart and large vessels, yellowish-white elastic blood clots. Determine the type of circulatory disorders that developed in this case?

1. General venous congestion

2. General arterial hyperemia

3 .general chronic anemia

4. Blood clots

5. Dilution of blood


Q 7.  Autopsy of a man who suffered from stomach cancer shown: pale mucous membranes of in internal organs. The spleen is a dense and bone marrow is red.  Analysis of blood show that red blood cells count is 2.8 million in a MSW. Microscopic examination of the liver, heart and kidney revealed small and large spot adipose. These morphological changes are manifestations of which process?

1. General venous congestion

2. General arterial hyperemia
3. General acute anemia
4. General chronic anemia
5. Dilution of blood


Q 8.  Autopsy of patient who died from extensive burns (2nd degrees), revealed a thick, viscous and dark blood clots in the vessels. Microscopic examination of lung, kidney, liver and brain. Revealed small blood clots and Sand grouse-phenomenon.   Which
circulatory disorder is in question?

1. General venous congestion

2. General arterial hyperemia
3. General acute anemia
4. Blood clots
5. Dilution of blood


Methodical instructions to estimate the work of students in practical training
 "General circulation disorders"


At the beginning of class the solution to homework should be checked.  Then a control test will be used to estimate how you understand the topic.

You have to learn on your own macro-and micro preparations to solve situational problems. Macroscopic manifestations of venous plethora learn from macroscopic drugs: "nutmeg liver”. "Venous engorgement of the kidney” Microscopic manifestation of venous plethora study on micro preparations: "nutmeg liver”  "Cardiac fibrosis of the liver” and “Venous engorgement of the kidney”. In this study, use the instructions of macro preparations (Supplement № 2) and Micro preparations (Supplement № 3).   Use tables and photomicrographs, and understand the essence of other common circulatory disorders with specific purposes.

Conclude the lesson with analysis of results of independent work of each student by checking the descriptions and micro preparations. then test control for the whole material.

^ Technologic map of the class.

s/n

Period

Session (min.)

Educational visual aid, means of training

equipment

Place of holding

1.

Testing and correction of initial state.

5

Multiple choice questions




Study room

2.

Individual work. Description of macro- and micro- preparations.

60

Supplements # 1,2,3. Algorithm of study macro and micro preparations.

Microscope, macro and micro preparations. Microphotographs.




3.

Self testing and correction of the learned material.

30

Target educational tasks







4.

Final test control

15

Test collection







5.

Summery of the class

10












Supplement no 2

User study macro preparation

1. Identify the authority
2. Dimensions
3. Form
4. Surface
5. Consistency
6. Dye
7. Drawing on the cut
8. Specify nature of focal changes
9. identify abnormal pattern


Supplement № 3


User study micro preparations


At low magnification to show the drug to establish authority. Find the field of view with pathological changes, identify signs of venous plethora. If there is need, examine the morphological changes at high magnification. It Increase diagnosis of the pathological process


1. Micro preparations "venous hyperemia of the liver"
Locate the small increase in the border of the liver lobules (lobules located in the periphery of the triad). Note the view of the central vein and sinusoid at the center of slices; they expanded, filled with blood. In hepatocytes, the center lobes atrophy, dystrophy. Diagnosis: nutmeg liver.


2. Micro preparation "venous hyperemia of the kidney"
Venous vessels of all humming expanded, filled with blood. In the epithelium of convoluted tubules dystrophic changes. Diagnosis: venous engorgement of the kidney.


3. Micro preparations "Cardiac fibrosis"
Central Vienna and sinusoids dilated. Filled with blood. In hepatocytes, the center lobes atrophy, proliferation of connective tissue. Diagnosis: cardiac fibrosis.

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