General study about the inflammation icon

General study about the inflammation

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General study about the inflammation.

Alterative productive inflammation

The urgency of the theme: inflammation – is a pathological process, which is the basis of infectious, infectious-allergic, and many other illnesses, that occupies one of the most important places in the structure of the diseases of man. The knowledge of theme is necessary for studying the course of special pathologic anatomy; with studied of all clinical specialties in the elder courses and in the practical activity of doctor. For correct diagnostics, selection of the method of treatment and determining the forecast it is important to know how to reveal the nature of inflammation, to know its reasons, pathogenesis, consequence and value.

Purpose(general): to know how on the basis of morphological characteristic to distinguish inflammation from others it is specific pathologic processes; to evaluate its varieties, mechanism of development, outcome and value for the organism.

The specific goals Purposes of the initial level

1. to recognize the morphological signs of alteration, exudation and proliferation

1. to interpret the microscopic structure of the normal tissues of lungs, heart, wall of stomach; structure and the cellular composition of connective tissue (department of general anatomy and histology)

2. to diagnose microscopically alteration and proliferating inflammation, to determine their reasons, outcome and value for organism

2. to evaluate the morphological signs of dystrophy and necrosis, regeneration of connective tissue

3. to recognize on basis of macro and microscopic examination the different types of exudative inflammation, to characterize their special features, to determine reasons, outcome, value for the organism

3. to evaluate structure and function of neutrophils, macrophages, T and B-lymphocytes (department of histology)

So that you could estimate the correspondence of the initial level of your knowledge - skills necessary, we propose to carry out number of problems.

Tasks for self-verification and self-control of the initial level of knowledge-


1. In the organ are revealed the cavities of the different form, which are covered by the sealed epithelium, with the presence between them of the belts of connective tissue with the vessels. Establish the organ?

1. Wall to stomach

2. Spleen

3. Lung

4. Myocardium

5. Liver

2. At a study of organ the liquid between the cells with the leukocytes near the vessels are found. What vessels are most fitted out to the output of them of the component parts of the blood?

1. Artery

2. Veins

3. Arteriole

4. Capillaries

5. Venoules

3. It is known that pus, into composition of which enters a large quantity of neutrophils, can lead to the lysis of tissues. With what qualities of neutrophils this is connected?

1. by Phagocytosis of microbes

2. by isolation of the active forms of oxygen

3. by isolation of proteolytic enzymes

4. by pinocytosis

The standards of answers to the solution of tasks for self-verification and self-control of the initial level of the knowledge- skills: 1-3; 2.-4; 3-3.

The information, necessary for completing of the necessary knowledge and the skills can be found in the following literates’ sources: 1. increase in weight M.G., Lysenko N.I., Bushkovich V.I. of Anatomy of man. - G., Medicine, 2001. 2. Afanasev YU.I., Yurina N.A. of histology, cytology and embryology. -, medicine, -1999. - 155-197. 3. Fіlіmonov V.I. of Normal of physiology-Kiev. Zdorov, 1994.

The content of instruction must ensure the achievement of the objective of instruction, what assistance of the graphs of the logical structure of the theme is rendered: the "common study about the inflammation" (appendix №2) the theoretical questions, on basis of which the possible fulfillment of purposeful it is specific activity:

1. Essence, reason, the mechanism of the development of inflammation.

2. Component of inflammation, their morphological characteristic.

3. Classification of inflammation.

4. Latin terminology of inflammation.

5. Essence, etiology, pathogenesis, localization, morphology, examples, outcome and the value of alterative inflammation.

6. Essence, etiology, pathogenesis, localization, morphology, examples, outcome and the value of proliferating inflammation.

7. Morphological signs of sharp and chronic inflammation.

Literature for mastering the necessary knowledge- skills on this theme:

1. Strukov A.I., Serov EXPLOSIVES Pathological physiology Anatomy. - Kharkov "fact". 1999, s. 164-186.

2. Lecture of department on the theme "the general study about the inflammation. Alterative, exudative and proliferating inflammation ".

3. Graphs of the logical structure of theme the "common study about the inflammation" (appendix №y).

4. Algorithm of differential diagnostics of inflammation (appendix №2).

You will carry out the following purposeful tasks.

Task 1. Patient turned herself to the doctor apropos of severe pain into the section of knee joint. Doctor revealed an increase in the volume of extremity in the section of knee joint, the sharp reddening of the skin and a local increase in the temperature. Soft tissues with the palpations condensed, unhealthy. What pathologic process does occur in patient?

1. Local arterial plethora

2. Inflammation

3. Necrosis of the tissues of knee joint

4. Regeneration

5. Hypertrophy

Task 2. With a histological study of the heart of the patient, who died of the rheumatism in endocardium and stroma of myocardium they were revealed the focus accumulations of macrophages and lymphocytes around the sections of fibrinoid swelling and fibrinoid necrosis. What process in the myocardium it is revealed?

1. Alterative inflammation

2. Serous inflammation

3. Fibrinous inflammation

4. Purulent inflammation

5. Granulomatosis inflammation

Task 3. The patient, who suffered of virus hepatitis, died of the hepatic insufficiency. The liver is increased in the size, the flabby consistency, yellow color. In the section in it are revealed the extensive fields of necrosis, what inflammation in the liver on the predominance of component?

1. Alterative

2. Exudative

3. Proliferating

4. Exudative- Proliferating

Task 4. Macroscopically in the gut is revealed the formation with a diameter of 1, 5 cm, which protrudes above the surface. Microscopically it consists of the identical glands, which are covered by the epithelium, which imitates normal. Between the glands of the accumulation of lymphocytes, plasma cells and a small quantity of connective tissue, vessels. What process in the gut?


2. Exudative inflammation

3-Alterative inflammation

4-Proliferative inflammation

Task 5. With the examination of the histological preparation of the ileum, the anatomical pathologist drew the conclusion that sharp proliferating inflammation in the lymphoid apparatus occurs. What is the most probable reason for the development of this inflammation?

1- Colitis




5-Amiloidosis of gut

Task 6. With the histological the study of the heart of the boy of 8 years, who is ill by diphtheria and dead person from the cardiovascular insufficiency, is revealed expressed adipose dystrophy and focus lysis of cardiomyocytes with the weak lymphocytic infiltration of stroma. About what process do testify the described changes?

1. Exudative myocarditis

2. Proliferating myocarditis

3. Cardiomyodystrophy

4. Alterative myocarditis

5. Cardiosclerosis

Task 7. With the histological the examination of biopsy of the liver are revealed sharp dystrophic changes in the hepatocytes, necrosis there, moderately expressed edema of stroma with the infiltration of portal circulation by lymphocytes, separate lymphocytes penetrate inside the lobules. In what process do testify the changes in the liver?


2-Alterative inflammation

3-Serousev inflammation

4-Proliferative inflammation

Task 8. With the microscopic examination of the meninges of the brain of the granulomas, which consist of the epithelioid, lymphoid, giant cells with the centers of gaseous necrosis? Which of the diseases characteristically this inflammation?

1. Meningococcal meningitis

2. Influenza meningitis

3. Tubercular meningitis

4. Pneumococcal meningitis

5. Meningitis with anthrax

Independently you must study micro-preparations and, solve situation tasks by macro-. Macroscopic forms are studied in the macro-preparations: "acute stomach ulcer", "pulmonary tuberculosis".

The microscopic signs of inflammation are studied in the micro-preparations: "acute stomach ulcer", "tubercular protuberance", "and diffuse interstitial myocarditis". In this case is used the algorithm of differential diagnostics of inflammation (appendix №2). The instructions of the study of the macro-preparations (see appendix № 2, "parenchymatous dystrophies"), the table on this theme. Occupation completes by the analysis of the sums of the independent work of each student by checking the description of micro-preparations and test control of mastering knowledge.

Appendix №2

Algorithm of morphological diagnostics of the inflammation




In the stroma of organs the leukocytes are accumulated, monocytes, histiocytes, fibroblasts and fat cells, are determined fibrous structures. Alterative and exudative components are expressed .

By woven dendrites, which are surrounded by macrophages, fibroblasts, some of them are transformed into the epithelioid cells. Alterative and exudative components are expressed

Different degree of dystrophic processes (from the turbid swelling to the necrotic changes parenchyma and the stroma of organs). Proliferating and exudative component of them are expressed.

Interstitial (interstitial, diffuse) inflammation

Granulomatosis (focus) inflammation

Alterative inflammation

Proliferating inflammation (productive inflammation)

Appendix №2

Graph to the logical structure of the theme: the "general study about the inflammation"


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