\"immunopathologic processes\" icon

"immunopathologic processes"




Скачати 55.09 Kb.
Назва"immunopathologic processes"
Дата29.08.2012
Розмір55.09 Kb.
ТипДокументи


"IMMUNOPATHOLOGIC PROCESSES"

The urgency of the theme: immunopathologic processes are the basis of immunopathologic, which studies all processes and diseases, which appear as the consequence of immunological conflict and the disturbance of immunological homeostasis. These illnesses are accompanied by autoimmunity, allergy and autoaggression, or immnodefefency state. For correct diagnostics, selection of the contemporary method of treatment and determining the forecast it is important to know how to correctly evaluate the mechanisms of the development of these illnesses and manifestations, to know their reasons, value and outcome.

Purpose (general): to know how to determine the different types of hypersensitivity, autoimmune processes, immunodeficient states, to establish their reasons, to evaluate pathogenesis, morphological special features, outcome and value for the organism.


The specific goals purposes of the initial level



1. To recognize the morphological signs of anaphylactic type hypersensitivity (atopy and system anaphylaxis), to determine the reasons for appearance, outcome and complications.

1. To interpret the macro- and microscopic signs of immune organs (department of histology, general anatomy), to establish the morphological signs of dystrophy and necrosis.

2. To recognize morphological manifestations of the antigen type of hypersensitivity, to determine the reasons for appearance, outcome and complications.

2. To interpret the macro- and microscopic structure of immune organs, kidney, lungs, the structure of the glamorous basal lamina, thyroid gland (department of histology, general anatomy), to evaluate the morphological signs of dystrophy and necrosis.

3. To recognize morphological signs of the immunocomplex type of hypersensitivity, special feature of local (Arthus's phenomenon) and generalized types, to determine the reasons for appearance, outcomes and complications.

3. To evaluate the macro- and microscopic structure of immune organs, kidney, glamorous basal lamina, the microscopic structure of the skin, vessels, (department of histology, general anatomy), to interpret the morphological signs of dystrophy and necrosis.

4. To recognize morphological signs of the cellular- defined by example type of hypersensitivity, to determine the reasons for appearance, outcomes and complications

4. To interpret the macro- and microscopic structure of immune organs (department of histology, general anatomy), to determine and to evaluate the morphological manifestations of the types of inflammation.

5. To recognize the morphological manifestations of autoimmune diseases, to determine their reasons, mechanisms of development, outcomes and value for the organism.

5. To evaluate the macro- and microscopic signs of immune organs (department of histology, general anatomy), to evaluate the morphological manifestations of the types of inflammation.

6. To distinguish the morphological manifestations of the types of the reactions of the rejection of transplant, reason, the mechanisms of their development, outcomes and value for the organism.


6. To interpret the macro- and microscopic structure of immune organs (department of histology, general anatomy), to evaluate the morphological manifestations of the types of inflammation.

7. To recognize the morphological manifestations of immunodeficient states (congenital and acquired), to determine their reasons, mechanisms of development, outcomes and value for the organism.

7. To interpret the macro- and microscopic structure of immune organs (department of histology, general anatomy).




So that you could estimate the correspondence of initial to the level of your knowledge - skills necessary, we propose to carry out a number of tasks. Tasks for self-verification and self-control of the initial level of knowledge- Skills


Task 1. Organ has capsule, marginal sinuses, follicles, which consist of small lymphocytes on the periphery and blast forms of the center (reactive centers), zone of T-lymphocytes, in the center the sinus alternate with the accumulation of lymphocytes, plasma cells. What organ does have this structure?

1-Ttymus

2- Brain

3-Lymphatic nodes


Task 2. With the microscopic examination of the blood, it is established that in man in the blood it does circulate many immunoglobulin’s M and G what cells of the blood are critical for the formation of immunoglobulin?

1-T- lymphocytes

2. B- lymphocytes

3- Neutrophils

4-Erythrocytes


Task 3. With the microscopic examination of the cells of the blood are revealed the cells, which ripen in the thymus. With what cells does deal the discussion?

1- Erythrocytes

2-B- lymphocytes

3- Neutrophils

4. T- lymphocytes

5-Basophils


Task 4. With a macroscopic study of the thymus of child it is established that it is located on the neck, decreases in the size, in it the separation into the crust and the cerebral substance is disrupted. By coca another organ does relate to the central organs of immunogenesis?

1-Lymphatic nodes

2. Lymphatic follicles in the walls of gut.

3-Mindalin of brain.


Task 5. Name the cellular system, specific function of which is the immune protection:

1-Neutrophil granulocytes

2. Erythrocytes

3- Lymphoid cells a

4-.Reticulocytes


The information, necessary for completing of the necessary knowledge and practical habits can be found in the following literary sources: 1. increase in weight M.G., Lysenko N.I., Bushkovich V.I. of Anatomy of man. - G., Medicine, 2001. 2. Afanas'ev YU.I., Yurina N.A. of histology cytology and embryology. - g., medicine, -1999. - s. 155-197. 3. Fіlіmonov V.I. of Normal of physiology.-Kiev. Health, 1994. . The content of instruction must ensure the achievement of the objective of instruction, what assistance of the graphs of the logical structure of the theme is rendered: "immunopathologic processes" (appendix №1) the basic theoretical questions, on basis of which possibly the fulfillment of purposeful it is specific activity.


1-Immunopathologic processes. Stages of immune response. Classification of the reactions of hypersensitivity.

2. Essence, reason, a characteristic of the anaphylactic type of hypersensitivity (atopy and system anaphylaxis), localization, manifestation, flow, outcome.

3. Essence, reason, a characteristic of the type of hypersensitivity, localization, manifestation, flow, outcome.

4. Essence, reason, a characteristic of the immunocomplex type of hypersensitivity, special feature of local (Arthus's phenomenon) types, localization, manifestation, flow, outcome.

5. Essence, reason, a characteristic of the cellular- defined by example type of hypersensitivity, localization, manifestation, flow, outcome.

6. Autoimmune diseases, etiology, the mechanisms of development, manifestation, examples of autoimmune diseases.

7. Essence, reason, characteristic and the types of the reactions of the rejection of transplant, morphological, flow and outcome

8. Immunodeficient states, classification. Innate immunodeficiencies, classification, reason, morphological characteristic, flow, outcome.

9. Acquired immunodeficiencies, reason, morphological characteristic, flow, and outcome.


You will carry out the following purposeful tasks.

Task 1. The woman of 35 years entered hospital in the urgent of order with the assault of bronchial asthma and at the height of assault began death. On the dissection are found the expressed spasm of bronchi, the infiltration of the walls of bronchi with neutrophils, by lymphocytes, by fat cells, and also the obscuration of the opening of small bronchi by mucus. What mechanism of hypersensitivity does be the basis of the described changes?

1. Immunological tolerance.

2. Immediate mechanism

3. Immunocomplex mechanism.

4. Cellular- defined by example mechanism

5. Atopy, anaphylaxis.


Task 2. The child of 2, 5 years, who prolonged was ill, lagged in the physical development, it died of the generalized fungus infection (candidiosis). The significant decrease of the thymus is found on the dissection. With the microscopic examination of the thymus among the fatty and connective tissue is determined an insignificant quantity of reticulocytes and lymphocytes. In the lymph nodes - expressed bright centers of the multiplication of follicles, the devastation of paracortical zones. About what process do testify these changes?

1. about immediate type hypersensitivity.

2. about retarded type hypersensitivity.

3. About the acquired of humeral immunity.

4. about the innate of humeral immunity.

5. about the innate of cellular immunity.


Task 3. With histological a study of the increased neck lymph node the anatomical pathologist found the plural granulomas, which consisted of epithelioid, lymphoid cells, giant polynuclear cells of Pirogov -Langans and foci of caseous necrosis. What mechanism of hypersensitivity does occur in this case?

1. Anaphylactic.

2. Immediate.

3. Immunocomprimesed

4. Cellular- indirected.

5. Cellular immunodeficiency.


Task 4. In woman with the rhesus- negative factor rh-positive child was born. Jaundice appeared toward the end of the first day in child, increased the liver and spleen. With a study of the placenta is determined its increase, pale painting, edema of naps. What immunopathologic mechanism does be the basis of changes in newborn?

1. Autoimmune disease

2. Humeral mechanism.

3. Immunocomplex mechanism.

4. Cellular mechanism

5. Atopy, anaphylaxis.


Task 5. Patient turned herself to the doctor with the complaints of an increase in the thyroid gland, the difficulty with the ingestion, apathy, and bradycardia. In palpation of gland is found the substitution of the tissue of gland by lymphoid infiltrations with the formation of lymphoid follicles and the proliferation of B-lymphocytes. For what illness the characteristic described histological picture?

1. Autoimmune thyroiditis of Hashimoto

2. Main goiter

3. Toxic goiter

4. Diffuse colloidal goiter

5. Diffuse parenchymatous goiter


Task 6. After transferred streptococcus angina in 2 weeks in the man of 23 years appeared general weakness, pains in the lumbar region, change in the urine - hematuria, proteinuria to 1 g/l. At the study of nephritic biostatic by immunohistochemical method are found the deposits in mezangiume, in the glomerate basal lamina Ig, M Ig.G, the fractions of complement, while with the electron-microscopic examination - electron-dense epithelial deposits. What immunological process did cause changes in the kidneys?

1. Anaphylactic mechanism of hypersensitivity.

2. Immediate mechanism of hypersensitivity.

3. Cellular mechanism of hypersensitivity.

4. Immunocomplex mechanism of hypersensitivity.

5. Cellular immunodeficiency.


Task 7. The boy of 8 months died of the staphylococcal sepsis. With a study of lymphatic it is main found the absence of reactive follicles and plasma cells. The thymus is developed normally. About what process do testify these changes in child?

1. Cellular immunity.

2. Immunological tolerance.

3. acquired humeral immunity.

4. Innate humeral immunity.

5. acquired cellular immunity.


Task 8. To patient with malignant lymphoma was carried out is somewhat it was course the radiation therapy. What changes in immunological status patient it does follow to expect?

1. Innate cellular immunodeficiency.

2. Immunological tolerance.

3. Acquired (second) immunodeficiency.

4. Innate humeral immunodeficiency.

5. Innate humeral and cellular immunodeficiency.


The flow chart of the occupation



stages

time in min.

The teaching aids Of the means Of the instruction


Equipment


Place of the conducting


1

checking and the correction of initial level

5

Test tasks





Training room


2

Independent work. Descriptions of the macro- and of micro-preparations

60

Graph of logical structure (appendix №1), the algorithm of morphological diagnostics of inflammations. Algorithm of the study of macro-preparations and micro-preparations


Microscope, macro- and micro-preparations,





3

self-verification and the correction of mastering material

30

Purposeful training tasks








4

total test control

15

Collector of the tests








5

5. summing up of the results of the work

10












Appendix № 1

^ THE GRAPH OF THE LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THEME "IMUNOPATOLOGICHESKIYE PROCESSES"



Immunopathologic processes




Forms of the disturbance of the immunogenesis




Hypersensitivity of the immediate type, disturbance of humeral immunity.


Hypersensitivity of the retarded type, disturbance of cellular immunity.




Reactions of hypersensitivity and their mechanisms of development.




Type 1 (immediate), cytotoxic reaction (IgE)


Type 2 cytotoxic reaction with the participation of the antibodies


Type 3 cytotoxic reaction with the participation of the immune complexes of complement


Type 4 Cytotoxic Reaction, Indirected By the T-lymphocytes


Type of 5 Granulomatosis




Autoimmune diseases




Mechanisms of development.




The damage of the physiological isolation of organs and cloths, with respect to which is absent the immunological tolerance


The primary disturbances in the immunocompetent system,

Appearance in the organism of new antigens. Cross reactions to the infectious and woven antigens




Hashimoto's encephalomyelitis polyneuritis Addison's disease Of aspermatogeniya is sympathetic ophthalmic multiple sclerosis.


Rheumatism arthritis systemic lupus erythematosis is system scleroderma dermatomyositis


Some forms of glomerulonephritis. Virus hepatitis. Chronic fundal gastritis. Cirrhosis of the liver. Burn disease Of agrunulomatosis




Immunodeficient states.




Primary (hereditary)


Second (acquired)




By the mechanism of development.


Reasons




Disturbances of the cellular and humeral immunity


Disturbances of cellular immunity.


Disturbances of humeral immunity.


1, malignant lymphomas, thymomae, virus infections, sarcoidosis.

Схожі:

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconImmunopathologic processes

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconContent module 3 Immunopathologic processes
...
\"immunopathologic processes\" icon"modern problems of global processes in the world economy"

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconDo different metamemory judgments share the same underlying cognitive processes?

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconTheme of №1 Compensatory and adaptive processes: hypertrophy, hyperplasia

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconObjective examination data Inflammative processes of salivary glands in children

\"immunopathologic processes\" icon«Anti Crisis Development of Social and Economic Processes in the Context of Globalization»

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconFe modeling of deformation and fracture processes when pulling-out bar reinforcement from concrete block

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconTactic algorithm “Principles of treatment of parotid glands inflammation processes in children”

\"immunopathologic processes\" iconДокументи
1. /DANICH MODELLING OF AVALANCHE-LIKE SOCIOECONOMIC PROCESSES.doc
Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Документи


База даних захищена авторським правом ©zavantag.com 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації
Документи