Viral infection. Relevance of the topic icon

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic

Скачати 35.54 Kb.
НазваViral infection. Relevance of the topic
Розмір35.54 Kb.


Relevance of the topic: Viral infections are one of the many groups of infectious diseases, a variety of clinical course and morphology. They are highly contagious and can cause epidemics and pandemics. Knowledge of this topic is necessary for the study of viral diseases in clinical departments (Department of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Therapy, Department of Neurology, etc.), as well as in the work of family doctors and narrow specialties for timely diagnosis of a comprehensive, rational treatment of viral diseases, clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations.

The purpose of (total): To be able to morphological changes (macro-and microscopic) to distinguish between viral diseases (influenza, measles, hepatitis, polio, HIV infection), to their agents, pathogenesis, complications and assess the cause of death.

The specific objectives The objectives of the entry-level

Be able to:

1. Identify morphological changes in the respiratory tract with influenza, taking into account clinical and morphological forms.

1. Identify macro-and microscopic structure of the trachea, bronchus and lung (Department of Anatomy and Histology).

2. Identify pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications of influenza.

2. Identify macro-and microscopic structure of the liver (Department of Anatomy and Histology).

3. Identify morphological changes (local and general) with measles.

3. Identify macro-and microscopic structure of the spinal cord (Department of Anatomy and Histology)

5. Identify morphological changes in various forms of viral hepatitis and to assess complications and outcome.

6. Identify morphological changes in poliomyelitis, its complications.

7. Recognize the morphological manifestations of HIV infection in its various periods.

In order for you to understand whether the initial level of your knowledge, skills required, we offer a number of tasks to perform.

^ Assignments for self-knowledge, entry-level skills.

Target number 1. The wall of the body consists of 4 layers: epithelium - pseudostratified prismatic, ciliated, in his own record contains elastic fibers, lymph follicles and some bundles of smooth muscle cells. One of the shells formed are not confined to the back of the rings of hyaline cartilage. What is the authority?

  1. Trachea

  2. Bronchus

  3. Stomach

  4. Small intestine

  5. Esophagus

Task number 2. In bronchial biopsy revealed hydropic dystrophy patient ciliated epithelium, lymphoid cell infiltration subepithelial layer. What a shell struck the bronchus?

  1. Internal (endobronhit)

  2. Average (mezobronhit)

  3. Outdoor (peribronhit)

  4. All three shells (panbronhit)

  5. The inner and middle (endomezobronhit)

Task number 3. Body under microscopic examination consists of irregularly shaped, inside they are lined with a single layer of compacted epithelium. Epithelium between two adjacent cavities are predominantly capillary type vessels. For a body characterized by a structure?

  1. Liver

  2. Lungs

  3. Kidneys

  4. Spleen

  5. Blood vessels.

Specifying № 4. Histological examination of the body, it consists of segments in which the rows of cells (beams) converging to the center, which is determined by Vienna. At the border a few cloves is an artery, Vienna and duct lined with single layer epithelium. What is the authority?

  1. Lungs

  2. Spleen

  3. Liver

  4. Kidneys

  5. Lymph node.

Task number 5. On cross-section body consists of white and gray matter in the form of a "butterfly". Microscopic examination of the gray matter are determined by large cells with processes, many small cells with dark nuclei and fibers. Large cells with processes in the white matter are absent. What is the authority?

  1. Lymph node

  2. Spinal cord

  3. Brain

  4. Spleen

  5. Sympathetic ganglion.

Standards of responses to meet the challenges for self-examination and self-knowledge, entry-level skills: 1-1, 2-1, 3-2, 4-3, 5-2.

Information necessary to supplement your knowledge, skills can be found in the following literature:

  1. Prywes M., Lysenkov NK, Bushkovich VI Human Anatomy / C-II "Hippocrates", 2001 S. 301-316, 282-287, 504-510, 489-496.

  2. Histology (edited by I. Afanasiev, NA Yurina) M: Medicine .- 2002 .- P. 616-637, 597-607, 425-448, 304-323.

The basic theoretical issues on which you can do the task activities:

  1. The etiology and pathogenesis of viral influenza.

  2. Pathological anatomy clinical and morphological forms of influenza (flu slight, mild flu and severe flu with its variants).

  3. Pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications of influenza.

  4. The etiology and pathogenesis of measles.

  5. Morphological manifestations of the general and local changes in measles. Complications of measles.

  6. The etiology and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis.

  7. Clinical and morphological forms of hepatitis, their morphological manifestations and complications.

  8. The etiology and pathogenesis of poliomyelitis.

  9. Pathologic anatomy of polio, complications and causes of death.

  10. HIV - infection, etiology, pathogenesis, and morphological manifestations of different stages.

Books for learning-skills.

  1. AI Strukov, V. Serov. Pathological Anatomy / M: "Medicine" .- 1995. S. 461-466, 468-475, 589-591, 382-387.

  2. Department Lectures on "Viral infections".

  3. Logical structure of the Count of threads (addition № 1)

  4. Morphological diagnosis algorithm (Appendix № 2)

Further reading:

  1. Fundamentals of Human Pathology (edited by G. Shlopova-Kiev .- 1999.-S. 430-436, 438-445, 446-452).

  2. VV Serov, NE Yarygin, VS Of spiders. Pathologic anatomy. M. Atlas of Science .- 1986 .- S. 329-335.

After studying the material on the subject for self-mastery of the material consists of the following targets:

Test task number 1. In a study of child doctor discovered catarrhal conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, the mucous membrane of cheeks, respectively, the lower molars small, white spots, and krupnopyatnistaya papular rash on the face, trunk, extremities. Which disease correspond to the detected change?

  1. Corey

  2. Scarlet fever

  3. Typhus

  4. Meningococcal disease

  5. Influenza.

Test task number 2. Male 27 years old died of HIV infection with AIDS. What changes detected lymph nodes?

  1. Hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles

  2. Hyperplasia parakortikalnoy zone

  3. sinus histiocytosis sharp

  4. Sharp atrophy of lymphoid tissue

  5. Sprawl mielodnoy tissue with erosion pattern lymph node.

Test task number 3. A child 7 years old, died from paralysis of respiratory muscles, histological examination of the medulla oblongata revealed severe degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells, glial proliferation and lymphoid infiltrates around the vessels in the form of "Coupling." For a disease characterized by the changes described?

  1. Flu

  2. Measles

  3. Polio

  4. Syphilis

  5. Tuberculosis

Test task number 4. Child 10 years ill acutely fever to 37.6 gr. Appeared cough. At survey discovered that mucosa upper airway swollen, hyperemic, with pointlike hemorrhages covered mucus. Which correspond to the detected change in diagnosis?

  1. Mild form of flu

  2. Moderate flu

  3. Severe form of influenza (toxic)

  4. Severe form of influenza (with pulmonary complications)

  5. Measles.

Test task № 5. When opening the patient who died from influenza in the lung revealed multiple cavities of irregular shape with jagged walls of 0.5-2cm, the cavity filled with a greenish-yellowish contents. What is the complication of influenza has been a patient?

  1. Hot abscess

  2. Gangrene

  3. Chronic abscesses

  4. Bronchiectasis

  5. Carnification

Test task number 6. Death patient trod on day 3 from onset. The autopsy revealed hemorrhagic pulmonary edema, multiple hemorrhages Punctulata in the brain, including the trunk, in the mucous and serous membranes, internal organs, degenerative changes in parenchymal organs. What form of influenza has been a patient?

  1. Fulminant form

  2. Mild form influenza

  3. The average form of influenza

  4. Severe form of influenza with pulmonary complications

  5. Toxic form influenza.

Test task number 7. Patient 30 years old enrolled in the infectious disease clinic. If any of these infections are the primary containment of viral replication (gates infection) coincides with the tissue to which the virus has a tropism?

  1. Flu

  2. Viral hepatitis A

  3. Polio

  4. Viral hepatitis B

  5. HIV infection.

Test task number 8. The child, who overcame polio with lower paraplegia (poralichi lower limbs) died of bilateral pneumonia join. Where found typical changes of poliomyelitis histologically bodies of the dead?

  1. Motor neurons of the spinal cord

  2. Sensitive neurons in the spinal cord

  3. Peripheral nerves

  4. The brain stem

  5. The cerebral cortex.

Test task number 9. The young men arose a marked increase of all the lymph nodes, further lymph nodes decreased significantly. Histological examination of the lymph nodes revealed adiposis, a sharp depletion of its lymphoid tissue, preservation of the reticular cells, macrophages. What kind of disease most likely to be thinking in this case?

  1. HIV infection

  2. Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia

  3. Sepsis

  4. Limfogranulomatoz

  5. Malignant lymphoma.

Test task number 10. Patient 27 years old diagnosed with HIV infection. Which cells have tropism of human immunodeficiency virus?

  1. Mertsalnomu epithelium airway

  2. Stroma (reticulum) of immunocompetent

  3. T-suppressor

  4. T-helpers

  5. B-lymphocytes

Test task number 11. The patient died 40 years of influenza pneumonia. Which listed traits not characteristic influenzal pneumonia?

  1. On the pathogenesis of this pneumonia

  2. The prevalence of a lobular pneumonia

  3. By Localization she mixed

  4. By the nature of serous exudates, hemorrhagic lesions with fibrinous and purulent inflammation of the accession of bacterial infection

  5. Necessarily affected the pleura - a pleuropneumonia.

Test task number 12. A child 5 years on the basis of clinical and morphological changes diagnosed measles. What is the gateway to infection with measles?

  1. Upper respiratory tract

  2. Conjunctiva

  3. Digestive tract

  4. 1 and 2 simultaneously

  5. 1,2,3 at a time.

Test task number 13. I pebenka 5 years diagnosed catarrhal pharyngitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, the buccal mucosa whitish spots. Died from cerebral edema. The autopsy revealed focal myelin breakdown, proliferation of astrocytes and microglial cells, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates. What kind of disease you can think of?

  1. Measles encephalitis

  2. Influenzal encephalitis

  3. Polio

  4. Meningococcal disease

  5. Suppurative encephalitis

Test task number 14. In viral hepatitis B in liver biopsy needle was found lymphocytic infiltration of portal tracts and lobules, proliferation of Kupffer cells, vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes. What is the cause of damage to hepatocytes?

  1. Cytotoxic effect of the virus

  2. Cytolytic action lymphocytes

  3. Eating disorders in hepatocytes due to compression of the vascular inflammatory infiltrate

  4. The damaging effect of macrophages

  5. Activation of lysosomes of hepatocytes.

Test task number 15. In needle biopsy of the liver is determined by vacuolar degeneration, and moderate fat, step and bridging necrosis as porto-portal and porto-central, marked sclerosis with formation of false lobules, lymphoid histiocytic infiltration. Which surest diagnosed?

  1. Chronic viral hepatitis B with cirrhosis of the outcome in

  2. Chronic viral hepatitis C

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis

  4. Viral hepatitis A

  5. Chronic viral hepatitis B.

Test task number 16. In needle biopsy of the liver is determined by fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, bridging necrosis and graded, Moderate and severe sclerosis of lymph histiocytic infiltration with lymphoid follicles formation of similarity. What is the most correct diagnosis?

  1. Viral hepatitis A

  2. Viral hepatitis B with moderate activity

  3. Viral hepatitis B with distinct activity

  4. Viral hepatitis C with moderate activity

  5. Viral hepatitis C with severe activity.

Test hind № 17. In men 23 years of skin found multiple nodes is bright red, soft, some wounded. Gastroscopy found in the stomach of the same node. Histologically knots diagnosed sarcoma Kaposhi. Which infection may cause the appearance of this tumor?

  1. Epstein-Barr virus

  2. Papilloma virus

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  4. Adenovirus

  5. The flu virus.

Methodical instructions for students on practical training "Viral infection".

To work effectively in class read "The technological map classes." Early lessons reference replies check correctness solutions homework. Then by the test control will be tested to prepare your lesson.

You should independently examine the macro-and micropreparations, to analyze the tracings to solve situational problems. Makropreparaty "Influenza pneumonia," "influenzal bronchitis," "Measles pneumonia," "The liver in Botkin's disease" learning algorithm, which is given on the first lesson of the course. At mikrofoto and micropreparations learn "influenza pneumonia", "Viral Hepatitis", "spinal cord in poliomyelitis." In this study the algorithm using macro-and micropreparations (supplement number 2). Session concludes with an analysis of the results of independent work of each student by checking the description of the test control micropreparations and learning topics.

Supplement number 1

Graf logframe themes "Viral infections"

Continued additions № 1


Chronic hepatitis



Continuation of application number 1

Continuation of application number 1

Supplement number 2

The algorithm of morphological diagnosis of viral infections


Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconRelevance of the topic

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconIntestinal infections The relevance of the topic

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconPeriodontitis. Stomatitis. Epulis. Relevance of the topic

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconPre-and perinatal pathology. Relevance of the topic

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconGeneral circulatory disorder Relevance of the topic

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic icon" Atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease. " Relevance of the topic

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconKey words: body mass index, motivation, obesity, physical activity. Relevance of the topic of research

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconДокументи
1. /Topic 1 st admission departm.doc
2. /Topic...

Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconДокументи
1. /Topic 01.doc
2. /Topic 02.doc
Viral infection. Relevance of the topic iconДокументи
1. /Topic 01.doc
2. /Topic 02.doc
Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:

База даних захищена авторським правом © 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації