Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine M. Gorky Donetsk National Medical University icon

Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine M. Gorky Donetsk National Medical University




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Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine

M. Gorky Donetsk National Medical University


REFLECTOR, HUMORAL AND LOCAL MECHANISMS OF THE DIGESTION REGULATION. DIGESTION IN THE ORAL CAVITY. COMPOSITION OF THE SALIVA.


Methodical instructions for students


Donetsk


2009

REFLECTOR, HUMORAL AND LOCAL MECHANISMS OF THE DIGESTION REGULATION. DIGESTION IN THE ORAL CAVITY. COMPOSITION OF THE SALIVA.


Actuality of subject: The importance of studying “Reflector, humoral, and local mechanisms of the digestion regulation. Digestion in the oral cavity. Composition of saliva.” based on the theory of Anokhin’s functional systems, regarding digestion behavior and the mechanisms of hunger and saturation. The study of digestion in the oral cavity is important not only because there initial stage of food processing takes place, but and processes, which influence on other processes. The knowledge mechanisms of digestion in the oral cavity is necessary for a therapeutist, a surgeon and stomatologist for assessment of state and for treatment of gastro-enteric tract diseases.

Common purpose: To be able to interpret the knowledge of mechanisms of nutritional behavior, to assess the role of digestion in the oral cavity and for further use of this knowledge in internal diseases clinic.

^ Specific purposes Purposes of initial level of knowledge

To be able to:



1.Estimate role of mechanisms of starvation and saturation front Anokhin’s functional systems theory point of view.

2. Base importance of processes which carry out in the oral cavity. Estimate composition and physiological role of saliva.

3.Explain importance of various mechanisms in regulation of saliva production and salivation processes.


1. Make a scheme of physiological functions self-regulation. (Biophysic Department)


2. Value importance of CNS different sections in forming motivation and behavior.(Anatomy Department)


3. Interpret histological and functional peculiarities of the oral cavity and saliva glands formations.(Histology Department)

4. Explain principle of ferments action (Biochemistry Department).



You must decide some tasks in order to reveal your initial level of knowledge-skill:

^

Tasks for control of initial level of knowledge


Task # 1. The animal did have not food during two days at a chronic experiment. In consequence of this the maintenance of nutritive substances in blood decreased and nutritional behavior was formed. What structures play the role of a measuring device in the functional system of nutrition (by Anokhin)?

  1. Chemoreceptors of the tissues and hypothalamus

  2. Chemoreceptors of the heart and the lungs.

  3. Chemoreceptors of the liver and the intestine.

  4. Baroreceptors of vessels and hypothalamus.

  5. Baroreceptors of the heart and lungs.

Task #2 During examination at animal one of the brain structure was destroyed, inconsequence of this the animal could not satisfy its hunger and died. The reason of death was overeating. What brain structure was destroyed?

1) Ventromedial hypothalamus.

2) Lateral hypothalamus.

3) Nonspecific nuclei of the thalamus.

4) Red nucleus.

5) Black substance.


Task # 3. The peripheric part of the sympathetic nerve fiber which innervated the parotid salivary gland was stimulated at an experimental animal. How did of the salivary gland secretion change?

  1. Secretion of thin saliva diminished.

  2. Secretion of viscid saliva increased.

  3. Secretion of viscid saliva diminished.

  4. Secretion of thin saliva increased.

  5. Secretion stopped.


Task # 4. The big salivary glands were removed in a patient. The maintenance of α-amylase was decreased after this operation. What substances destroyed this ferment in the oral cavity?

  1. Urea.

  2. Proteins.

  3. Fats.

  4. Amino acid.

  5. Carbohydrate.



If you decide previous tasks then you must decide following tasks independently.


Task# 5. During chronic examination monkey was not got food. Motivate nutritional behavior was formed in consequence of this. What did the hunger center activate in this case?

  1. Increase in maintenance of glucose in blood.

  2. Decrease in maintenance of glucose in blood.

  3. Decrease in common glucose amount.

  4. Increase in maintenance of glucose in cells.

  5. Decrease in maintenance of glucose in cells.


Task # 6. The structure of the brain was stimulated at the experimental animal. It caused the animal’s desire to eat (aphagia). Which structure was stimulated during experiment?

  1. The hypothalamus.

  2. The thalamus.

  3. Reticular formation.

  4. The midbrain.

  5. The medulla oblongata.


Task #7. During treatment of teeth the stomatologist introduced cotton tampon in clear space between cheek and alveolar process of the upper jaw. Which outlet opening of gland duct did he closed?

1) Parathyroid gland.

2) Submandibular gland.

3) Sublingual gland.

4) Parotid gland.

5) Thyroid gland.


Task # 8. The big salivary gland was extracted in 37 year old man. Chemical processing of carbohydrate was changed after the operation. Which enzyme lacked in the oral cavity after the operation?

  1. Pepsin.

  2. Amylase.

  3. Nuclease.

  4. Saccharose.

  5. Phosphotase.


Basic theoretical questions.

  1. The functional system of nutrition. The role of the hypothalamus in regulation of food intake (hunger and satiety) and behavior.

  2. The functions of the gastro-intestinal tract (nutritional and non - nutritional).

  3. The common characteristic of digestive processes. The physiological role of nutritive substances.

  4. Importance of processes, that carry out in the oral cavity. Composition and physiological role of saliva.

  5. Mechanisms of salivation. Secretion of the saliva glands in response on action of various nutritional products.

  6. Unconditioned - conditioned reflex regulation of the salivation. Role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, humoral factors in salivation regulation.

  7. The mechanisms of chewing and swallowing.

  8. Methods of examination of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  9. Reflector, humoral and local mechanisms of the regulation digestion.


LITERATURE

  1. 1. Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall Textbook of medical physiology.-2000.-Vol.2.-P.804-809, 728-730, 738- 742,764,.

  2. Lectures.



^

The educational tasks



Task # 1. One section of the monkey’s brain was destroyed during the experiment. In consequence of this it did not intake food and died from hunger. Which section of the brain was destroyed?

  1. The non-specific nuclei of thalamus.

  2. Reticular formation.

  3. The ventro-medial hypothalamus.

  4. The lateral hypothalamus.

  5. The cerebellum.

Task # 2. One of the salivary glands was extracted in a 47 year old man. After the operation the maintenance of amylase in saliva decreased. Which gland was extracted?

  1. Gingival gland.

  2. Buccal.

  3. Submandibular.

  4. Parotid.

  5. Sublingual.



Task#3 In Old India offender was tried so-called ”God justice”. He could swallow of dry rice and if it did not come out, fault was proved. Why under negative emotion was impossible to swallow dry food?

1) Sympathetic influence was activated.

  1. Parasympathetic influence was activated.

  2. Gland blood supply increased.

4) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreted.

5) Saturation center inhibited.


If you decide previous tasks then you must decide following tasks independently.


Task#4. New-born rats died for 2-5 days after extraction of main salivary glands or after ligation of their ducts at experiment. Why?

1) Water - salt metabolism broke.

2) Lack of amylase.

3) Lack of milk swallowing.

4) Lack of oral cavity hermetical.

5) Impossibility of vitamin absorption.


Task # 5. The function of the sublingual and mandibular glands was broken in a 40 year old man after a craniofacial injury. Which nerve was impaired?

  1. Vagus.

  2. Hypoglossal.

  3. Glossopharyngeal.

  4. Facial.

  5. Trigeminal.


Task # 6. The dog licks a wound on the skin after trauma. In this situation a wound heals more quickly. Which function of saliva explains this case?

  1. Fermentative.

  2. Digestive.

  3. Bactericidal.

  4. Secretory.

  5. Incretory.



The task for the control of final level of knowledge


Task.

At patient blockade of glosspharyngeal nerve was carried out. What changes of taste was observed in this case?

А. Tastes did not perceive.

В. Lack of sour perception .

С. Lack of salt perception .

D. Lack of sweet perception.

E. Lack of bitter perception .


^ SHORT METHODICAL INSTRUCTIONS.


After organization part , in the beginning of study, after actualization of topic pay attention to necessity to be able to interpret peculiarities of digestion in the oral cavity which influences on the other departments of the digestive system.

After this the teacher ascertains initial level of knowledge-skill which you received before.

After decision of teaching tasks students independent interpret functional system of the digestion in the oral cavity. During this students use table-train, graf logical structure of topic (addition 1).

After this students decide teaching tasks, which they receive during this. Students with teacher modulate situation tasks on these topics. Teacher corrects mistake students’ actions.

Students carry out laboratory works independently. For consolidate the topic students see education film.

After this students decide control tasks. Sum up of study and announcement marks.


^ TECHNOLOGICAL MAP OF THE STUDY




Stage

Time

Teaching aids

Place

Note







Min

Means of training

Equipment

of study




1.

Organization part. Actuality of subject. Purpose of study. Control initial level of knowledge-skill with the help of tasks

15

Tasks




Classroom




2.

Independent work of students with recommend models and scheme and teaching tasks. Modeling of the situation tasks and correct mistake action of students

50

Graf logical structure of topic. Tasks Table-train




-//-




3.

Independent carry out laboratory works. Draw up minutes. Seeing of educational videofilm

40

Instruction for laboratory works Tasks

Rubber, salt, sugar, onions, eau-de-Cologne solution, 1% solution of starch, nitric acid, potassium iodide. TV-set

-//- Videoroom




4.

The task for the control of final level of knowledge. Sum up of study. Announcement of marks

15

Tasks

Computer

Computeroom Classroom





Functions of the oral cavity

Saliva produce and salivation

Digestive

Primary analysis

Signal

Mechanical food processing

Chemical food processing

Nondigestive


Thermoregulation

Excretion

Protective

Digestion in the oral cavity

Lateral horns of superior thoracal segments

Saliva

Parotid

Sublingual

Submandibular

Glands of the tongue, palate and cheeks.

Medulla oblongata

^

Brain cortex

Swallowing

Phases

Oral

Pharyngeal


Esophageal

Contraction of chewing muscles

Chewing


Ion’s balance

Absorption of some substances

Graf logical structure of topic
^

Methods of examination




Fistulous

Intubation

Masticatiograpgy

Interpret of organism physiological state for further use this knowledge in clinic


Addition 1.

Gnathodynamometry







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