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Basics of pedagogics
Basics of psychology. Basics of pedagogics
Literature: Petrovsky A. V. Psychology. M.: Progress Publishers, 1989. – 443 p. Vitenko I. S. General and
Personality and its individual manifestations 2 2




BASICS OF PSYCHOLGY

BASICS OF PEDAGOGICS


Technique Guidelines for Practice Activities

For 1-year students

Of the International Medical Faculty


ББК 88+74.

УДК 159

V.N. Aleksandrovskaya,L.V.Voloshinskaya.

Basics of psychology. Basics of pedagogics: methodical instructions to seminar employment for 1st year students of medical faculties. - Donetsk: ДонНМУ, 2008. – 25 p.

Methodical instructions contain the materials necessary for students independent work, during preparation for “Basics of psychology. Basics of pedagogics” seminars. They include: substantiations of an urgency that and the purposes of seminar employment, theoretical questions to them, the list of the basic and additional literature, the column of logic structures that, a complex of training tasks and also the characteristic of methodical forms of practical classes carrying out.

Translated by Voloshinskaya L.V., Tverdostup-Belchikova A.V.


© DonNMU


PERSONALITY AND ITS INDIVIDUAL MANIFESTATIONS

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

For practical doctors, direction of attention toward psychological peculiarities is necessary on all the stages of medical treatment, because due to this the disease of an individual is exposed, but not the disease in general. A knowledge of personality structure and typology, as well as regularities of its development, will most likely enable doctors to forecast and, hereby, correct reactions and behavioral acts of patients and colleagues, thus making the process of socializing more efficient.

THE OBJECTIVES

Considering the above, the general objective of this unit can be formulated in the following way: to develop students' skills in researching into psychological characteristics to describe personality, as well as in analyzing and using them in occupational and social activities.

Main Objective: to acquire skills in:

researching into personality characteristics ( of self and other people);

pointing out original and acquired characteristics in man's behavioral manifestations, and analyzing their interrelations;

establishing the correlation between the objective description of personality and the subjective notion idea of self;

generalizing the results of observations and research and drawing up psychological image of personality;

using psychological characteristics of personality in occupational and social activities.


THE CONTENT OF THE STUDY IS DUE TO THE OBJECTIVES.

1. THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

1. Definition of "personality".

2. Personality structure.

3. Peculiarities of interrelations between different elements of personality structure.

4. Types of temperament and character.

5. Definition, structure and essence of personality purposefulness.

6. Stages of personality formation.

7. Age peculiarities of personality.

8. Manifestation of psychological peculiarities of personality in occupational activities.


2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 1 (look at addition)

3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES:

1. Vitenko I.S. General and Medical Psychology. Second edition. - K.: Zdorov'ya, 1994. - pp. 52-91.

2. Gippenreiter U.B. An Introduction to Genetal Psychology. Lectures. - M.: CheRo, 1996. - pp. 337 - 354.

3. Granovskaya P.M. Elements of Practical Psychology. - Second edition. - L.: LGU Press (The University Press, St. Petersburg). - 1998. - p.p. 337- 354.

4. General Psychology: Lectures. / Compiled by Y.I. Rogov. - M.: Vlados, 1995. - p.p. 311- 344.

5. Vitenko I.S., Garina M.G. and others. Basics of General Psychology: Textbook. - Kiev.- p.p.4-14.

6. Psychology of Personality: A Course of Lectures.

7. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.


The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.


Task 1

During their practical activities in psychology, the students were assigned to research into their personality substructures. Which methods are to be used to perform the task? The issues to be reviewed:

A Temperament, character, and thinking.

B Emotions, perception, and memory.

C Character, peculiarities of attention, and emotions.

D Style of socializing and intelligence quotient.

E Temperament, character, motivation sphere.

Task 2

Taken from results of psychological research: «Introvert, high-level neuroticism, deep emotional experience, is characterized with high anxiety...». Define the given type of temperament.

A Sanguine person.

B Choleric person.

C Phlegmatic person.

D Melancholic person.

E Cyclothymic person.

Task 3

On arrival to a medical centre, two patients were informed by the nurse about the cancellation of examination because of some. This caused manifest discontent in both of them, as they had wasted their time. Trying to suppress his obvious annoyance, one of the patients politely but coldly asked when they could come again. The other kept manifesting his long and loud indignation with the irresponsibility of the medical staff and intended to complain about it to the authorities. Which personality substructures are similarly manifested by the two patients?

A Character;

B Temperament;

C Emotional and volitional sphere;

D Personality purposefulness;

E Social targets.

Task 4

Patient N., aged 35, being in hospital, demanded special attention of the medical staff and her ward-mates. All her complaints were focused on the detached onlooker. Sometimes she didn't behave on the basis of the previous experience, she behaved, proceeding from satisfaction of the present-moment desires. Which character accentuation is the behaviour of the patient caused by?

  1. Labile

  2. Emotive

C. Demonstrative

D. Hysteroid

E.Hyperthymia

Task 5

Patient K, aged 37, who was hospitalised because of pneumonia, is exposing increased agitation occurring on the ground of high-level anxiety. The patient is in the state of uncertain threat and non-motivated fear. His most typical utterances are as follows: "I always care much about my health, I take vitamins...", "Doctor, do I follow your prescriptions accurately enough?" Which character accentuation is most likely typical of the patient?

A. Pedantry

B. Sticking

C. Emotive.

D. Neurotic.

E Excitable.


Standard answers to the tasks: 1 E, 2 D, 3 B, 4 C.

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES:

The subject study covers six (4) academic hours (2 practices). Each practice starts with testing of the students' theoretical acquisition level. After, the teachers’ instructions, students do the psychological tests: Eisenk test, Temperament Formula test by A. Belov, the Psychogeometric test by S. Dellinger. The results are analyse and then discuss under the teacher's supervision The class ends with students’ knowledge level testing with the help of control tests (during each class), by summing up.


PSYCHIC COGNITIVE PROCESSES

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

Psychic processes present one of the forms of existing psychic phenomena. Psychic processes which include sensation, perception, attention, imagination, memory, thinking, and speech, are the most significant components of any human activity. To satisfy personal needs, socialize, study and work, man has to perceive the world around, pay attention to different points and components of activities, as well as to imagine, memorize, think over things to be done and share opinions. Man's activities are impossible without psychic processes. At the same time, psychic processes not merely participate in man's activities, they develop through them and indicate man's behavioral peculiarities. A knowledge of characteristics, functions, interrelations between psychic processes leads to comprehension of the psychic activity structure, thus enabling the physician to influence the patient's personality. This knowledge is necessary for both occupational and social activities, as it contributes to better mutual understanding of people.

THE OBJECTIVES

Considering the above, the main objective of this unit can be formulated in the following way: to develop students' skills in identifying, analyzing and estimating different psychic processes and using these data for the personality complex characteristics and choosing appropriate tactics of socializing and influence on personality.

Main Objective: to acquire skills in:

characterizing psychic processes;

distinction of interrelations between different psychic processes;

analyzing and estimating peculiarities in the course of psychic processes to choose proper tactics for socializing and influencing personality.


THE CONTENT OF THE STUDY IS DUE TO THE OBJECTIVES.

1.THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

1. Types of psychic cognitive processes.

2. Sensations. Definition, types, common properties and interaction.

3. Perception. Definition, types, properties, spatial, motional and temporal perceptions.

4. Attention. Definition, main properties, types of memory and their peculiarities.

5. Memory. Definition, basic processes of memory, types of memory and their peculiarities.

6. Thinking. Definition, types and their peculiarities, operations and processes of thinking, types of people-based on character of thinking.

7. Interrelations between different psychic processes.

8. Ways of perfection and formation of psychic processes.

2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 2 (look at addition)


3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

1. Vitenko I.S. General and Medical Psychology. - K.: Zdorov'ya Publishers, 1994. - pp. 52-91.

2. Petrovsky A.V. An Introduction to Psychology. - M.: Academia Publishers, 1995. - p.p. 117-217

3. Vitenko I.S., Garina M.G. and others. Basics of General Psychology: Textbook. - Kiev.- p.p.15-39.

4. Psychic Cognitive Processes (A Course of Lectures).

5. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.


The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.


Task 1

In the course of surgical operation, a tray of tools got dropped behind the surgeon's back. The surgeon continues operating without turning back. Due to which of the following attention properties the surgeon did not react to the noise?

A. Distribution.

B. Concentration.

C. Volume.

D. Distraction.

E. Ability to switch over.

Task 2

To facilitate acquisition of manual (practical) skills, it is reasonable first to make an introduction to the subject material and sets of medical instruments, thus enabling the students to examine them before memorizing the user's instructions. Which type of thinking with regard to the content of the task to be solved, leads to this way of organizing thought activity?

A. Visual and image-bearing.

B. Verbal-logic.

C. Intuitional.

D. Visually active.

E. Creative.

Task 3

While examining the patient, a physician focuses on the symptoms of the disease, marking them out from other indications. Which regularity of perception is it bound up with?

A. Integrity.

B. Selectivity. (Activity *)

C. Comprehension.

D. Structural character.

Standard answers to the tasks:

1.B

2.D

3.C

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES:

The subject study covers two (2) academic hours (1 practices). Each practice starts with testing of the knowledge acquired. Then, to find out different characteristics and peculiarities of the course of psychic processes, students individually research into the following aspects: attention, memory and thinking.

On completion of the above procedures, the teacher estimates the results of students' performance. The class ends with students’ knowledge level testing with the help of control tests , by summing up.



PSYCHOLOGICAL BASICS OF COMMUNICATION

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

Socializing is the most significant part of the individual aspect of human being.

In the process of socializing, man interacts with other people by exchanging opinions, ideas, purposefulness targets, interests, feelings, etc.

It is hardly possible to find the psychic phenomena typical of man, which in some way or other are not involved in the process of socializing.

The ability to perform socializing is especially important for specialists who constantly interact with other people. In particular, a practitioner has to regularly socialize with his patients, their relatives, colleagues, etc. Therefore, it is essential to realize what components make up socializing, which types and ways of socializing can be used for obtaining the maximum information and achieving mutual understanding.

THE OBJECTIVES

Considering the above, the main objective of this unit can be formulated in the following way: to develop students' skills in identifying the purpose of socializing, in accomplishing the process of socializing and achieving the desired result.

Main Objective: to acquire skills in:

differentiating and using various components of socializing to achieve the required result; identifying the necessity of using this or that type of socializing regarding the real life situation; efficient using different types and ways of socializing;

applying the verbal type of socializing in accordance with ethic standards in a particular situation; estimating different signs of non-verbal socializing and adequate applying them to the types of socializing chosen;

controlling the process of socializing and testing it, as well as in estimating the results in accordance with functions of socializing.


THE CONTENT OF THE STUDY IS DUE TO THE OBJECTIVES.


1.THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

    1. Definition of "socializing".

    2. Role and significance of socializing in formation of personality, social relations, etc.

    3. Types and ways of socializing.

    4. Functions of socializing.

    5. The nature of interpersonal perception.

    6. Means of communication. Verbal and non-verbal communication.

    7. Emotions. The emotional sphere of personality and emotional manifestations in socializing.

    8. The culture of socializing.

2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 3 (look at addition)


3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

  1. Vitenko I.S. General and Medical Psychology. - K.: Zdorov'ya Publishers, 1994. - p.p..169 -181.

  2. General Psychology / A.V. Petrovsky, A.V. Brushlinsky, V.P. Zinchenko and others.: Edited by A.V. Petrovsky. - M.: Prosvescheniye Publishers, 1986. - p.p. 231-348.

  3. Vitenko I.S., Garina M.G. and others. Basics of General Psychology: Textbook. Kiev.- p.p. 40-50

  4. Psychological Basics of Socializing (A Course of Lectures).

  5. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.

The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.


Task 1

During the surgical interference, the surgeon and the nurse silently hand the necessary medical instruments to each other. Which component of communication is exposed in this situation?

A. Communicative.

B. Interactive.

C. Perceptive.

D. Verbal.

E. Non-verbal.

Task 2

While making his regular round in the hospital, the practitioner quickly examined the patient. He hardly looked in the patient's eyes and confined himself to just a few questions about his current health state. As soon as the physician left, the patient's mood got immediately spoiled despite his complete trust to the doctor. Which dissatisfied function of socializing resulted in the patient's negative emotions?

    1. The function of self-actualization.

    2. The function of information exchange.

    3. The service function.

    4. The function of emotional satisfaction.

    5. The function of control and testing.

Task3

While soothing the child, who has to be hospitalized, the doctor says, «1 do understand that you are afraid of staying here all alone, without your mother, with unfamiliar people around. You cannot know, what will happen to you. You may keep crying, if it helps you. Many children cry when they are taken to hospitals. Now I am going to explain your mother when she may visit you, and then introduce you to other children». Shortly after, the child stops crying and calms down. Which phenomenon of interpersonal socializing did the doctor show in this situation?

A. Empathy.

B. Stereotypification.

C. Reflection.

D. Communication.

E. Apperception.

Standard answers to the tasks:

1.B

2.D

3.A

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES:

The subject study covers two (2) academic hours (1 practices). In the beginning, the initial level of the students' knowledge of the subject. After the teacher’s instructions the students are doing individual tasks'. To work individually, the students are assigned with the following exercises:

Exercise 1: «feelings transfer».

Exercise 2. «Representative system definition»The students work in pairs.

Exercise 3. Psychological test « Listen ability »

On having accomplished each task or role play, the teacher and the students discusses the

results. After that students’ knowledge level is testing (with the help of control tests). The class ends, summing up of the work done.


GROUP. COLLECTIVE. LEADER

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

An obligatory part of every doctor's activities is the knowledge of basics of social psychology. This branch of psychology studies regularities of people's behaviour and activities conditioned by their introduction into social groups, as well as psychological characteristics of the said groups. The ability to apply the knowledge of social psychology will enable the leader of an institution (enterprise) to facilitate the search of optimal ways and means of influencing separate individuals within groups and the group as a whole. Lack of understanding this leads to subjectivism in managerial activity and reduces its efficiency within the bounds of social community.

THE OBJECTIVES

Considering the above, the main objective of this unit can be formulated in the following way: to develop students' skills in choosing the optimum ways of influencing the behaviour either of any personality within the group, or the group as whole.

Concrete Objective: to acquire skills in:

identifying types of groups;

understanding the intragroup differentiation;

identifying the leader's role within the group;

identifying ways of origin and types of the crowd;

using psychological characteristics of social groups to efficiently control them

.

THE CONTENT OF THE STUDY IS DUE TO THE OBJECTIVES.


3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

1. Vitenko I.S. General and Medical Psychology. - K.: Zdorov'ya Publishers, 1994. - p.p..169 -181.

2. General Psychology / A.V. Petrovsky, A.V. Brushlinsky, V.P. Zinchenko and others.: Edited by A.V. Petrovsky. - M.: Prosvescheniye Publishers, 1986. - p.p. 127-156.

3. Vitenko I.S.. Garina M.G. and others. Basics of General Psychology: Textbook.—Kiev.- p.p. 51-59.

4. The Group. The Collective. (A Lecture).

5. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.

1.THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

1. Definition of "group", "collective", "crowd".

2. Classification of groups.

3. The collective as a highly developed group.

4. The structure of the collective.

5. The leader and leadership.

6. Classification and properties of the crowd.


2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 4 (look at addition)

3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

1. Vitenko I.S. General and Medical Psychology. - K.: Zdorov'ya Publishers, 1994. - p.p..169 -181.

2. General Psychology / A.V. Petrovsky, A.V. Brushlinsky, V.P. Zinchenko and others.: Edited by A.V. Petrovsky. - M.: Prosvescheniye Publishers, 1986. - p.p. 127-156.

3. Vitenko I.S.. Garina M.G. and others. Basics of General Psychology: Textbook.—Kiev.- p.p. 51-59.

4. The Group. The Collective. (A Lecture).

5. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.


The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.

Task 1

A teenager is attending an athletic section. As senior boys from the same section serve an example for him, he consults them and imitates their actions while training and even the way they socialize** Which group do the teenager's senior fellows present for him?

A. Review group.

B. Collective.

C. Association.

D. Diffusion group.

E. Corporation.

Task 2

A staff member from the X. hospital department proved to be a person of tough character. He spoke scornfully of his colleagues, frequently in their presence, his behavoiur being often tactless. Putting forward new ideas, he considered them to be perfect. He could not stand being criticized. Finally, the majority of the staff members rejected him. Which social role does this staff member perform within the intragroup differentiation?

A. Pretentious.

B. Isolated.

C. Passive.

D. Follower.

E. Collectivist.

Task 3

Ten thousand fans have arrived at the stadium to watch the football match. What is this gathering of people called?

A. Association.

B. Conditional group.

C. Actual big group.

D. Conventional crowd.

E. Diffusion group.

Standard answers to the tasks:

1.A

2.B

3.D

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES:

The subject study covers two (2) academic hours (1 practice). In the beginning, the initial level of the students' knowledge of the subject is checked. After having introduced the necessary instructions students are doing a psychological test “ Collective’s psychological climate study” and/or business game “Wrecked” or sociometric study is performed. The students are asked the following questions:

"What member of your academic group would you like to do some responsible work with ? " "What member of your academic group would you like to entertain with?" Each student has to note five (5) persons with regard to all the directions of the choice made. Next, sociometric "stars" (who are chosen by the majority), "pariahs"( who are rejected by everybody) and the whole hierarchy of intermediate links are identified. The sociometric study being completed, the students and the teacher discuss and summarize their results. After that students’ knowledge level is testing (with the help of control tests). Summing up concludes the practice.


CONFLICT AND METHODS OF ITS SOLUTIONS

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

Interdependence in labour and social spheres on the one hand, difference in objectives, necessities and ideas on the other hand often lead to conflicts. The understanding of causes and conflict structure, its dynamic and results, the ability to manage conflict situation characterizes socially mature person. Conflict is a combination of something social and personal, objective and subjective; it's a key moment in the development of interpersonal relationships and of a group on the whole. A constructive outcome of any conflict is possible in case of active participants' or middlemen's striving for its solution.

Considering the above, the main objective of the chapter can be formulated as following: to be able to estimate pre-conflict and conflict situation; to manage conflict and take efforts to solve it.

Concrete Objective: to acquire skills in:

-to give the characteristic of a conflict;

-to define the reasons of a conflict;

-to manage conflict;

-to offer an effective conflict solution;

-to use personal characteristics of conflict participants and middlemen for managing the conflict.

THE CONTENT OF THE STUDY IS DUE TO THE OBJECTIVES.

1.THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

    1. Conflict. Its types and reasons.

    2. The scheme of conflict development.

    3. Ways of conflict managing and solution. The outcomes of conflicts. After consideration of theoretical questions, fulfill the following tasks.

2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 5 (look at addition)


3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

1.Vitenko I.S. General and medical psychology.-K.: Health, 1994.-p.197, 206-214.

1.Borodkin F.M., Koryak N.M. Attention: conflict! -Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1989.- p.27-35.

2.Scott J.G. Conflicts and their solution.-K.:Vneshtorgizdat, 1991.-p.44-57

3.Vitenko I.S., Garina M.G. The basis of general psychology: manual.-Kiyv.-p.60- 69

4.Lecture "Conflict"

5.Graphological structure of the problem.


The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.


Task 1

Two citizens, A and B are arguing in a public transport. A is using obscene words. Others are revolted with such behaviour. The driver stops the transport and, showing at the policeman, offers them to get off the vehicle. B gets off and A refuses to do it. What's the stage of the conflict?



  1. Culmination

B. Final

C. Development

D. Solution

E. Post conflict syndrome

Task 2

A young family of students is considering a problem of the first common rest. He suggests mountain resort, she doesn't want anything but sea. What's the best solution of the conflict? A Evasion B Competition C Compromise D Cooperation E A middleman's help

Task 3

In a public transport citizen A is expressing his irritation about governmental taxation strategy. Citizen B joins in the dispute. They begin quarrelling with using obscene words. Others are passively observing the scene, some people are expressing indignation. Define the type of the conflict. A Interpersonal B Biological C Social D Intrapersonal E Intergroup

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES:

The subject study covers two (2) academic hours (1 practice). In the beginning, the initial level of the students' knowledge of the subject. After having introduced the necessary instructions students are offered situational tasks for solving, Thomas’ test “study of reactional peculiarities at the conflict situations”. On having accomplished each task the analysis and correction of the students individual work are making. After that students’ knowledge level is testing (with the help of control tests). Summing up concludes the practice.


PERSUASION AS METHOD TO INFLUENCE PERSONALITY AND FORM MOTIVATION OF TRAINING

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

Success of medical procedures to be carried out depends on the doctor's ability to form motivation of training and choose the most appropriate methods and ways of persuasion, as well as to attract the trainees' attention to preventive or medical instructions.

Nowadays, doctor often tends to force the patient to follow medical prescriptions rather than to persuade him to realize the necessity of following them. This style implies frightening and terrifying the patient according to the scheme: "If you do not follow the prescriptions, the illness will gain power and the end can be unpredictable". Attempts to influence the patient the above way may result in direct harm to the person's health, as they form inner conflicts and neuroses. An experienced doctor creates positive motivation of the patient's behavior by applying various methods and ways of persuasion which results in the patient's realizing the importance of following medical prescriptions.

THE OBJECTIVES

Considering the above said, the general objective of this unit can be formulated in the following way: to be able to apply in future occupational activities methods and ways of persuasion as a pedagogic method to form motivation of training.

Concrete Objective: to acquire skills in:

• choosing various methods and ways of persuasion with regard to particular situations;

• making up a dispute or lecture plan;

• using an example to improve the efficiency of persuasion;

• defining types of motives (reasons) and their influence on efficiency of training;

• applying persuasion as a method of pedagogic influence on personality.


THE CONTENT OF THE STUDY IS DUE TO THE OBJECTIVES.


1.THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

1. The idea of "persuasion".

2. Ways and methods of persuasion.

3. Lecture and conversation: peculiarities and requirements.

4. Peculiarities of dispute as a method of persuasion.

5. Importance of an example in persuasion.

6. The idea of "study motivation". Kinds of motives.

7. Pedagogic requirements to using persuasion as a method.

2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 6. (look at addition)

3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

1. Babansky Y.K. Pedagogy. M.: Prosvescheniye, 1988. - pp.105 -113.

2. Radugin A. A. Psychology and Pedagogy. - M., 1996. - pp. 263- 268.

3. Zimnyaya I.A. Pedagogic Psychology. - Rostov-on -Don.: Phoenix Publishers, 1997.-PP.294-305.

4. Kharlamov I. F. Pedagogy. _ M.: Vysshaya Shkola (Higher School) Publishers, 1990.-pp. 3324-329.

5. Garina M.G., Tverdostup L.V., Makhmutova I.V. and others. Basics of Pedagogy: Textbook. - Kiev, 200. - pp. 6-15.

6. Methods and Forms of Pedagogic Process (A Course of Lectures).

7. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.

.

The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.

Task 1

A teenager, who is doing well at school, confessed to his friend, that if not for his parents' strict control, he would spend less time and efforts on getting prepared for his lessons. What motives is the boy mostly guided by in his studies?

A. External ones.

B. Internal ones.

Task 2

A child of five staying in hospital is afraid of physiotherapeutic procedures. Which method of persuasion is the most acceptable for communicating with the child?

A. A lecture.

B. A conversation.

C. An example.

D. Encouragement.

E. Punishment.

Task 3

A doctor working for a private company, persuades the boss to purchase an expensive vaccine and motivates his proposal by the fact that vaccination of the whole personnel will reduce the number of the epidemic cases N times and thus will save the company's profit, which is impossible in case of mass epidemic of the staff members. Which method of persuasion is used by the doctor in this case?

A. Proof.

B. Suggestion.

C. Explanation.

D. Combination of proof and suggestion.

E. Stimulation.

Task 4

A worried patient refuses to fulfill the doctor's prescriptions, as she has read about some side effects caused by medicines prescribed. Which are the most reasonable methods of persuasion to be applied in this particular situation?

A. A lecture and encouragement.

B. A conversation and example.

C. An example.

D. Stimulation and suggestion.

E. A dispute.

Standard answer to Task 1: A

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES

The subject study covers two (2) academic hours (1 practices). Each practice starts with testing of the students' theoretical acquisition level. After having introduced the necessary instructions students are making the situational tasks or the content of the lecture individually, conversations, dispute of individually chosen topic (work in the small groups). On having accomplished each task the analysis and correction of the students individual work are making. . After that students’ knowledge level is testing (with the help of control tests). Summing up concludes the practice.


EXERCISE AS METHOD OF FORMING BEHAVIORAL ABILITIES, SKILLS AND HABITS

STIMULATION METHODS.

IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

An obligatory component of the doctor s treatment-and-preventive practice is forming necessary behavioral abilities, skills, and habits among the staff members.

Therefore, a modem doctor is not only a specialist knowing medicine. He is an educator who should organize purposeful influence on the medical staff for developing certain abilities, skills and features necessary to improve the efficiency of their work. Stimulation as a method of influencing the personality is used to improve the quality of medical staff work. Efficiency of applying this method is favoured by such components as encouragement, punishment, and competition. The chapter considers the basic requirements to these methods and its principles.

THE OBJECTIVES

Considering the above said, the general objective of this unit can be formulated in the following way: to be able to use the in the future professional activity methods of stimulation and exercise as a method to form abilities and skills and behavioral habits for better efficiency of doctor’s pedagogical activity.

To achieve the general objective one should acquire skills in:

• using different types of exercises with regard to certain situations;

• using of exercise method to form necessary stuffs’ abilities, skills and behavioral habits;

• choosing an appropriate method of encouragement as a way of affecting the personality;

• finding out the necessity and choosing an appropriate way of punishment as a method of bringing up;

• choosing a stimulation method which is the most efficient for a certain situation.

1.THEORY ISSUES OF THE SUBJECT

1. The idea of "exercise".

2. Exercise and getting accustomed: similarity and difference.

3. Regularities of the process of forming abilities and skills.

4. Types of exercises. Their characteristics.

5. Methods of formation of behavioral skills and habits.

6. Objectives realized by exercise as a method.

7. Basic stimulation methods.

8. Encouragement and its basic principles and ways.

9. Punishment. Main approaches and requirements for means of punishment.

10. Competition as a way of improving work efficiency.


2. Logic structure chat of the topic № 7,8. (look at addition)


3.APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES

1. Babansky Y.K. Pedagogy. M.: Prosvescheniye, 1988. - pp. 116 -118.

2. Radugin A. A. Psychology and Pedagogy.- M.: Tsentr (Centre) Publishers, 1996.-pp. 269-271.

3. Kharlamov I. F. Pedagogy. M.: Vysshaya Shkola (Higher School) Publishers, 1990. - pp.329- 334. 4.

4. Garina M.G., Tverdostup L.V., Makhmutova I.V. and others. Basics of Pedagogy:

Textbook. - Kiev, 200. - pp. 38-44.

5. Levi. A Non-Standard Child.- M: Znaniye (Knowledge), 1989.- p. 256.

6. Methods and Forms of Pedagogic Process (A Course of Lectures).

7. Logic Structure Chart of the Subject.


The list of the tasks for checking of concrete objectives’ achievements.

Task 1

To accomplish her professional duties, the nurse should be able to make injections.

Which method is she to use in order to form this skill?

A. Persuading.

B. Exercising.

C. Stimulating.

D. Getting accustomed.

E. Talking.

Task 2

While being trained to make injections students practice on plastic mould. Find out the type of exercise according to Radugin' Classification.

A. Special.

B. Reproductive.

C. Creative.

D. In social activity.

E. Routine. .

Task 3

A negligent pupil's parents started using the following stimulation system in order to improve their son's performance in studies: for every bad mark the child was assigned with "the out-of-tum duty", e.g. to carry away the litter, peel potatoes, clean the toilet, etc. Estimate the system of bringing up practiced by the parents.

A. Incorrect, as an aversion for labour is inculcated.

B. Correct, as unpleasant work will be interpreted as punishment.

C. Incorrect, as there will be time left for the pupil to get prepared for classes. As a consequence, his performance in studies will get still worse.

D. Incorrect, as this can develop into a disgust for studying.

Task 4

A young worker is assigned with a responsible task. How should his boss start the conversation with the worker?

A. Rising praise.

B. Reminding of mistakes made in the past.

C. Ricochet (Rebound).

D. Indirect approval.

E. To inform the worker what punishment he is going to have in case of failure.

Task 5.

While criticizing a worker, the manager negatively characterized him as personality. Which requirement for using punishment was violated?

A. To bring no harm to health.

B. To observe personal immunity.

C. Combination of punishment and persuasion.

D. One fault is one punishment.

E. -

Standard key answer to Task 1: B.

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES

The subject is studied throughout two (2) academic hours (1 practice).

The practice starts with testing the students' theoretical acquisition level. After having introduced the necessary instructions students are making the situational tasks(work in small groups). On having accomplished each task the analysis and correction of the students individual work are making. After that students’ knowledge level is testing (with the help of control tests). Summing up concludes the practice.


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Logic structure chart № 7

EXERCISE AS METHOD OF FORMING BEHAVIORAL ABILITIES, SKILLS

AND HABITS

Exercise




Types of exercise




During social useful activity




Reproductive

Regimen




Creative

Special




Stages of skills and abilities formation




Practice activity objectives and goals explanation

Exercise carrying out demonstration

Actions’ primary reproduction

Practice activity




Methods of formation of skills and behavioural habits




Upbringing target setting and rise of the students need in some kind of activity

Activity types explanation of the actions for tasks solving

Practical explanation of the actions for tasks solving

Primary reproduction of shown actions (behavioural examples) organization

Further improvement practice and condition of the ways of activity and behaviour

The claim to students in the tasks organization

Remaining and behavior control




Conditions of formation of abilities, skills and habits necessary for doctor’s pedagogical activity



Logic structure chart

Of the subject

STIMULATION METHODS.

Stimulation




Encouragement




Punishment




Competition




Methods




Demands




Organizational principles




Raising praise

Prepayment

Indirect approval

Ricochet

Compensation



Clear arrangement of the aims

Proclamation of the conditions

exchange of experience and mutual help

Result comparability

Open summing-up

Winner awarding




To make no harm to health

Combination with persuasion

One fault one punishment

No punishment for old faults (time limitation)

No punishment for unintended fault

To take into account age and individual peculiarities

To observe personal immunity

No punishment without sufficient cause, for “ prevention”

Conditions use of the stimulation methods in the doctor’s pedagogical activity




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