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I. S. Ogorodnik I. V. Ryzhenko religion studies: Technique Guidelines for Practice Activities




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V. N. Alexandrovskaya

I. S. Ogorodnik

I. V. Ryzhenko


RELIGION STUDIES:


Technique Guidelines for Practice Activities

for 1-year students

of the Stomatology Faculty


Donetsk - 2009

Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine


Gorky’s Donetsk National Medical University


Department of Philosophy, Social Sciences and Humanities


R Е L І G І O N S T U D I E S


Technique Guidelines for Practice Activities

for 1-year students

of the Stomatology Faculty


Donetsk – 2009

ББК 86. 3 я 73.

УДК Р36


Religion Studies: Technique Guidelines for Practice Activities for the 1-year Students of Stomatology Faculty. – Donetsk: Gorky’s Donetsk National Medical University, 2009. - p.


Technique guidelines are necessary for preparing for practice activities. They include importance of the subject, objective of the practice, theory topics, literature reference and internet links, tables, sample tests, new terms and summary of procedures of the class.


By:

V. N. Alexandrovskaya, Doctor of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Social Sciences and Humanities of the Donetsk National Medical University (Subject 1)

I. S. Ogorodnik, Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Social Sciences and Humanities of the Donetsk National Medical University. (Subject 7 – 9)

I. V. Ryzhenko, teacher of the Department of Philosophy, Social Sciences and Humanities of the Donetsk National Medical University. (Subject 2 – 6)


Readers: V. V. Yeshina, Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Donetsk National Technical University;

L. V. Buteva, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, Inspector of Teaching Methodological Commission of the Donetsk National Medical University


Approved at the Academic Council of the Donetsk National Medical University

(Minutes 7, October 22nd, 2009)


© V. N. Alexandrovskaya,

I. S. Ogorodnik, I. V. Ryzhenko

© DNMU

Subject 1

^ RELOGION AS A SOCIO-HISTORICAL AND SPIRITUAL PHENOMENON

Importance of the subject consists in treating religion as a part of complex development of every person, formation of his spiritual culture, choice of values in every-day life. As interaction result of cultural-historical, ethnic-natiomal levels of religious phenomenon analysis, all peculiarities of religion as a socio-historic phenomenon are shown. Religion refers to emotional world-view; it is based on different aspects of human activity, as students of medicine should be aware of all kinds of religious phenomenon display in there professional activity

^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

To be able to formulate and choose value orientations in spiritual sphere for forming spiritual culture of students of medicine.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. distinguish difeerent bases of religion development process;

  2. interpret main elements of religion system;

  3. differentiate particular festures of religious world view;

  4. define the place and role of religion and religious culture in the spiritual culture of the society.
^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Religion as a socio-historic phenomenon. Social, historical, gnoseological and psychological bases of religion development process.

  2. Peculiarities and structure of religious world view.

  3. Structure of the religious system and its elements. Notions “religious faith” and “religious feeling”, functions of religion.

  4. The place of religion in the development of the spirital culture of the society. Religious culture. Freedom of consciousness and personality in religion. Religion and national culture of Ukraine.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

www.philosophypages.com

^

SAMPLE TESTS


1. Religion, studied by religion studies, is one of the components of the spiritual culture. Which from the listed below DOES NOT belong to the subject of religion studies?

  1. forming of religious conscience

  2. religion development

  3. reproduction of religion

  4. essence of religion

  5. history of religion


2. All peculiarities of religion as a social phenomenon can be defined by essence definition of religion. In this case, essence definition of religion is scientific world view and…

А. action on the basis of the science

В. culture of people on the basis of ethics

C world feeling

D світогляд

E relations between people on the bases of religion


3. Religious world view differs from other historic types of the world view. Characteristic features of religious world view are doubling of the world and…

  1. belief in the supernatural

  2. belief in miraculous healing

  3. belief in magic actions

  4. cult rites

  5. belief in paradise existence.


4. There are definite reasons of religion appearance. Basic origins of religion existence are social, gnoseological and… ones.

  1. psychological

  2. scientific

  3. moral

  4. logical

  5. cultural


5. Means of religion influence on the society are shown in religion functions. Which from the listed does not belong to religious functions?

А. praxeological

В integration-disintegration

С communicative

D world view

E culture-interpreting

^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on existence of the different components of appearance and further development of religion studies are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 2

^ APPEARANCE OF RELIGION. EARLY FORMS OF RELIGIOUS BELIEFS


Importance of the subject. Solving the problem of relion appearance has two approaches: theological and scientific. According to theological approach, person was created by the God and has a,ways benn with Him in the full entity. After the Fall this direct contact was lost. Religion is strives and actions of a person, aimed at renovation of the contact with the God. Another iterpretation of religion appearance is chaarcteristic of science. The problem of the supermnatural source of religion is not considered as the basic one in science. Science considers religion as an important component of culture and applies different scientific methods of research for studying the problem of its origin.

The mankind has developed in the proces of evolution, religion has existed as an element of culture since homo sapiens exists. For understanding of culture, understanding of human activity is important, basically his socio-historic activity. Socio-historic activity is activity in the course of which consolidation and transferring of experience takes place. It is transferred from one individual to the other, from the previous generation to the next one, from one community to the other in the sign-symbol form.

Studying of the primitive rekigions is based on different approaches. One of them consists in search of the so-called pra-religion, which was the beginning of other religions (muller, Durkheim). The problem on forming of polytheistic and monetheistic religious systems, national and state religions are also of great importance.


Objectuves of the practice


General:

To be able to analyse different religious systems, methodology peculiarities connected with studying of religion. It gives possibility to consider religion in the context of different scientific researches and define role of religion and its affect on forming of medicine as a particular sphere of activity.

Specific:

To be able to:

1. analyse theological and scientific approaches to studying the problems of appearance, existence and development of religion.

2. interpret ideas on peculiarities of the primitive and early forms of religion.

3. interpret peculiarities of monotheism and polytheism, national, state and world religions among different religious systems.

4. generalise historical facts and sequence of Christianity taking root in Kievan Rus.


CONTENTS

Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory topics:

  1. Divergence of theological and scientific approaches to the problem of appearance of religion. Legends and myths as a source of primitive beliefs.

  2. Primitive or early forms of beliefs: totemism, magic, animism, veneration of the dead, fetishism. Manifestation of the elements of early beliefs in modern religion and culture.

  3. Influence of socio-historic activity (hunting, gathering, agriculture and cattle breeding) on evolution of early beliefs. Polytheism and monotheism.

  4. Appearance of national, state and world religions as a consequence of cultural-civilisation development. Christianisation of Kievan Rus.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

www.philosophypages.com


^ SAMPLE TESTS

1. Totemism is one of the primitive forms of religion. Its basic feature is…:

  1. Belief in reincarnation;

  2. Belief that every person has a soul;

  3. Idea that every tribe or family comes from the common ancestor: animal or plant;

  4. Definite things have supernatural features, they either help or hinder in every-day life;

  5. Belief in work of incantations;


2. Animism is one of the primitive forms of religion. Its peculiar feature is…:

  1. Belief that every person or animal has a soul

  2. Belief in soul reincarnation;

  3. Idea that every tribe or family comes from the common ancestor: animal or plant;

  4. Definite things have supernatural features, they either help or hinder in every-day life;

  5. Belief in work of incantations;


3. Fetishism is one of the primitive forms of religion. Its peculiar feature is…:

  1. Definite things have supernatural features, they either help or hinder in every-day life;

  2. Belief in work of incantations;

  3. Belief that every person or animal has a soul

  4. Idea that every tribe or family comes from the common ancestor: animal or plant;

  5. Belief in soul reincarnation;


4. Magic is one of the primitive forms of religion. Its peculiar feature is…:

  1. Belief in possibility to influence things and people by means of special actions;

  2. Belief that every person or animal has a soul;

  3. Idea that every tribe or family comes from the common ancestor: animal or plant;

  4. Existence of healing, military and craft activities

  5. Belief in work of incantations;



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on existence of the different religions are put, their peculiaar features are distinguished.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 3
^

BUDDHISM AND RELIGIONS OF THE EAST



Importance of the subject. Buddhism is considered either as a religious-philosophic system or as a religion without God, free-thinking, atheistic view of lots of people with different interests and views. As an oriental tradition, on the contrary with the western one,it gives preference to practice of the theory. Interest of the intellectual and spiritual elite in the spiritual heritage of the East (Buddhism in all his manifestations) is connected with the practice understanding of not only traditional theocentric activity but any other kind of activity which is carried out sincerely, unselfishly, dedication. Another person can be cognized not by means of logic, but being oriented at creativity: characteristic of arts related to aesthetics of post-modernism. And what is more important, these local sets of values are not opposed to values of other cultural and religious communities, but they give a chance for a dialogue of the different world views.
^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

to analyse value orientations of the Buddhism which promote a dialogue of the different world views and do not contradict the values of other cultures and religions.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. to define peculiarities and distinctive features of the Buddhism dogma, world view and cult;

  2. analyse different currents in the Buddhism;

  3. differ Zen-Buddhism world view peculiarities;

  4. synthesize local values of the Buddhism with the system of spiritual values.
^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Buddhism appearance. Philosophic sources of the Buddhism and its religious literature.

  2. Buddhism dogma and cult. Buddhism world view and distinctive features. The doctrine about rescue.

  3. Buddhism social doctrine. Buddhism morality.

  4. Basic currents in Buddhism: Theravada, Mahayana (Tibetan Buddhism), Vajrayana.

  5. Zen-Buddhism in the system of Buddhism world-view.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk

http://www.cbc.ca/montreal/features/religion

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html

http://www.religionfacts.com

http://www.religioustolerance.org

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

www.philosophypages.com

^

SAMPLE TESTS


1. Buddhism is one of the world religions. Which country did Buddhism appeaar?

  1. - India

  2. - China

  3. - Mongolia

  4. - Japan

  5. - Ceylon


2. Buddhism world view is reperesented by the Noble Truths. Which from the listed truths determine the contests of Buddhism world view?

А. - Nirvana

В. - Jaina

С.- Dharma

Д - Lama

Е - Mahayana


3. Every noble truth has its definition. What is “karma” according to Buddhism?

  1. – sum of deeds and thoughts of all previous reincarnations

  2. – person’s world view

  3. – people’s moral deeds

  4. – feeling of love towards people, respect for parents, care of children.

  5. - sum of person’s deeds in one form of reincarnation


4. Every Buddhist can rescue himself if he goes by “Eightfold Middle Noble Path”. Which of the noble truths discloses essence of this path?

  1. - nirvana

  2. - mahayana

  3. - samsara

  4. - karma

  5. - dharma


5. In the 1st century AD Buddhism was split into main schools. They are Hinayana, Mahayana and…

  1. – Vajrayana

  2. - Krishnaism

  3. - Jainism

  4. - Hinduism

  5. - Sikhism




  1. In 520, the Indian monk Бодхидхарма created “isoteric” school of Buddhism, which was laid as a basis of one of Buddhism schools. Define this kind of Buddhism.

  1. - Zen

  2. – Tibetan Buddhism

  3. - Hinayana

  4. - Mahayana

  5. - Sikhism


7. Western supporters of Buddhism (intelligent people, students, different youth organisations) bring up their ideas on the basis of one of the Buddhism schools. Such Buddhism school is…

  1. – Zen-Buddhism

  2. – Tibetan Buddhism

  3. - Mahayana

  4. - Theravada

  5. - Sikhism



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on appearnce and further development of Buddhism are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 4

^ CHRISTIANITY. THE ORTHODOX CHURCH


Importance of the subject. Christianity has the greatest number of the followers. Due to this factor Christianity and its different schools is of great importance for the world culture. Appearance and development of Christianity, influnce of the social factors on the early Christianity is a set of questions, which must specify the direction consideration of the given topic. Studying the problems of Christinity taking root, it is necessary to distinguish the following periods of Christianity development: 1) Patristics (2nd – 8th century.), which can be divided into the early (2nd – 3d centuries.), so-called Apologetical Patristics (Origen); late Patristics (4th – 5th centuries), represented by – Gregory of Nyssa, Augustine of Hippo, Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagite; 2) sholastics (Thomas Aquinas).

Since the first centuries of Christianity existence, different sschools of the Christian church are formed. Two basic schools which oppose and contradict each other are Eastern or Bysantine Orthodox Church and Western or Roman Catholic church. Gradually, some contradictions were accumulated between these schools that led to the final split of Christianity into Orthodoxy and Catholicism in 1054. Knowledge of the cult peculiarities in Orthodoxy is very important, because Orthodoxy is the most spread denomination in Ukraine.

^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

Analyse the facts of the historic formation of Christianity. Strengthening of Christianity as a new religious system is the most important aspect of the given topic.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. interpret reasons and conditions of Christianity appearance.

  2. interpret historic periodisation of the early Christianity. Peculiarities of the church and theological activity in different periods of the early Christianity.

  3. analyse split of Christianity into Orthodoxy and Catholicism.

  4. analyse peculiarities of creeds, sacraments, cult activity in Orthodox churches.

  5. interpret the stages of: Orthodoxy development in Kievan Rus in the medieval period, split of Orthodoxy and the state of Orthodoxy in Ukraine in present days.



^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Formation of Christianity. Sources and ideological bases of Christianity.

  2. The early Christianity. Апологетичний period of Christianity. Christian mystics. Medieval scholactics.

  3. Orthodoxy: tenets and cult. The history of Russian Orthodox Church: its split and Patriarch Nikon’s reforms.

  4. Ideas of the Orthodox religious philosophy. Reflection of the religious ideas in the Orthodox works of art.

  5. Orthodoxy in Ukraine: history and modern state.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk

http://www.religionfacts.com

http://www.religioustolerance.org

http://www.cbc.ca/montreal/features/religion

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

www.philosophypages.com

^

SAMPLE TESTS


  1. At first, Christianity was formed as a sect. Within which religion did this process take place?

  1. Buddhism

  2. Hinduism

  3. Islam

  4. Zoroastrianism

  5. Paganism




  1. In charismatic period, development of the early Christian tenets was taking place. Vasilid, Saturnal, Karpokratus and… were working at it.

  1. Valentine

  2. Plato

  3. Aristotle

  4. Plotin

  5. Tertullian




  1. In charismatic period, development of the early Christian tenets was taking place. Who in апологетичний period of the early Christianity developed the dogma of the Holy Trinity?

  1. Origen;

  2. Kliment of Alexandria;

  3. Valentine;

  4. Saturnal;

  5. Iustine;




  1. One of the Christian dogmas is dogma of Trinity. Who was the first person who introduced this dogma?

  1. Tertullian;

  2. Origen;

  3. Iustine;

  4. Valentine;

  5. Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagite




  1. The first split of Christianity was split into the Orthodox and Catholic confessions. When did this split take place?

  1. 1054

  2. 980

  3. 988

  4. 900 (during Karl’s ruling);

  5. From the end of the 4th to the beginning of the 5th century (in the times of Augustine)



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on existence of Christianity in the early period and in the present days are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 5
^

CATHOLICISM AND PROTESTANTISM



Importance of the subject. On the basis of its tenets, Catholicism has worked out a wide social doctrine, which represents the view of the official Vatican on problems of the modern society. This, in its turn, considers different sides of life not only of the church, but to great extent Catholics and faithful of the other confessions and churches. Catholicism gives its view on problems and proposes to define ways of solving these common to all mankind problems (moral-ethical crisis, enviroment problems, military self-destruction, medical expriments, international terrorism, etc.), while the leading role in this solving is given to the Catholic church.

Protestantism set apart with its sects and main currents is promoting its dogma more and more actively, reforming its church, getting adjusted to new social-cultural conditions. It gives him an opportunity to use modern means of propaganda which leads to the growth of number of its followers, young people as a rule, and hold them away from real, social-political life. Such state makes a person obedient in the hands of the heads of different organisations, even being harful for human health some time.

Objective knowledge of dogma and cult of Catholicism and Protestantism gives possibility to students to estimate them adequately for themselves as well as for communication with the patients belonging to different religious confessions


^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

to be able to analyse objectively religious propaganda of Catholicism and Protestantism. Critical attitude tu such propaganda will give a possibility to protect oneself from its undesirable influence and add positive moments in the dialogue “doctor - patient”


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. define peculiarities of the Catholic tenets and cult;

  2. analyse the problems of the social doctrine of the modern Catholicism;

  3. interpret characteristic features of the Greek-Catholic doctrine;

  4. define preconnditions of appearance and peculiarities of Protestantism;

  5. differentiate dogmas and cult of Protestantism and its sects.



^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Catholicism tenets and cult, the doctrine on Filioque, worship dogmas of Virgin Mary, pecularities of rites and sacraments.

  2. Modern social doctrine of the Caholic Church. Papal Encyclicals. Liberation theology. History of the Roman Popes.

  3. The Greek-Catholic Church: history and present time.

  4. History of Protestantism appearance as a special as a special denomination of Christianity. Peculiarities of Protestant tenets and theology.

  5. Main Protestant schools: Church of England, Lutheran Church, Calvinism, Quakers, Methodists, Methodist Church, Baptist Churches, Pentecostalism, Jehova’s Witnesses.

  6. History of penetration and spread of the late Protestantism in Ukraine.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk

http://www.religionfacts.com

http://www.religioustolerance.org

http://www.cbc.ca/montreal/features/religion

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

www.philosophypages.com

^

SAMPLE TESTS


  1. Doctrine on Filioque is of great importance for Christianity. What is its essence?

  1. – Holy Spirit proceeds from the God-Father and the God-Son;

  2. - Holy Spirit proceeds from the God-Father;

  3. - Holy Spirit proceeds from the God-Son;

  4. – Holy Spirit is an independent hypostasis;

  5. – Holy spirit is equal to the God-Father




  1. Not all Christian denominations accept the doctrine on Filioque. Which of the Christian denominations differs by its doctrine on filioque?

  1. – Catholicism;

  2. – Protestantism;

  3. – Orthodoxy;

  4. - Calvinism

  5. – Lutheran Church




  1. In its tenets and doctrines, Catholicism gives special place and role to…

  1. – Virgin Mary;

  2. – Jesus Christ;

  3. – Saint Anna;

  4. – John the Evangelist;

  5. – the Pope.




  1. Christianity was influenced by some historical events. Protestantism appeared as a result of…

  1. - Reformation

  2. - Revolution

  3. – Split of Christianity

  4. - Revolt

  5. – Cultural revolution




  1. Different denominations of Christianity have their origins. Protestantism appeared within…

  1. - Catholicism

  2. - Orthodoxy

  3. - Buddhism

  4. - Zoroastrianism

  5. - Judaism




  1. In its tenet, Protestantism has definite principles. The most important of them is…

  1. – General ordination;

  2. – Acceptance of the Christian dogmas;

  3. – Dogmas on Virgin Mary;

  4. – Common faith;

  5. – Principle of equality and brotherhood.




  1. Every religious system has its sources of tenets. Such source in Protestantism is…

  1. - Bible

  2. - Tripitaka

  3. - Encyclical

  4. - Torah

  5. - Vulgate



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on existence of Catholicism and Protestantism in the different periods of history of the mankind are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 6

^ SACRED TEXTS. THE BIBLE

Importance of the subject. Studying of Bible gives opportunity to get acquainted to historic and cultural texts, analyse and compare them with the present time, see their foretelling role and existing contradictions. Comprehension of moral-ethical, social problematics of Bible is very important, because they have already been bearers of human essence for ages. Medical problems in Bible show history of formation and development of medical knowledge of different peoples in different periods of human history.

^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

to be able to differentiate human and medical problematics from the religious contents. Students of medicine have an opportunity to see history of formation and and development of medical knowledge, compare them with modern problems.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. to define Bible as a heritage of history and culture;

  2. to differentiate Bible’s structure and contents;

  3. to analyse problematics of the sacred text;

  4. to abstract Bible texts from the sacred contents.



^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. History of Bible’s appearance. Material, language and translation of Bible. Literature genres of Bible. Bible as a historic-culrural heritage.

  2. Christian tenet on God. God and his acts in the Old Testament. Jesus Christ is the Saviour and divine human in the New Testament. Discussion about God in Book of Job.

  3. The Old Testament about the world creation. Depravity of a person. Dualism of body and soul. Last Judgement and Doomsday. Revelation of John.

  4. Moral-ethical and social problematics in the books of prophets. Book of Job, Paul’s Epistles. Sermon on the Mount (ethics, image of an ideal person).

  5. Human being and sense of life in Ecclesiastes.

  6. Medical problematics of Bible.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk

http://bible.org/

http://www.religionfacts.com

http://www.religioustolerance.org

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

^

SAMPLE TESTS


  1. The sacred is a precondition of the religious cult. The sacred in religion can be defined as…

  1. – Attributing “sacred” contents to speeches, people, natural and social phenomena;

  2. – Attributing “sacred’ contents to everything that exists;

  3. – Dividing of all phenomena and processes into “sacred” and “not sacred”;

  4. – Subordination of every-day relations to religious influence;

  5. – Subordination of political and social institutes to religious influence.




  1. Sacralisation has its bases. It is…

  1. – Admitting of sacred as an opposite to secular;

  2. – Admitting of God’s superiority;

  3. – Opposition of God to a person;

  4. – God’s love of people;

  5. – Human love of God;


3. As a historical monument, Bible was written in a definite historical period. Which one?

  1. – 13th century BC – 2nd century AD;

  2. – 13th century BC – 1st century BC;

  3. – 1st century AD – 10th century AD;

  4. – 5th century AD – 10th century AD;

  5. – 1st century AD – 5th century AD


4. Bible is a sacred book of christians and Jews. Bible is…

  1. – Collection of the ancient ideological, historical and literary monuments;

  2. – Collection of the ancient narrations about heroes;

  3. – Collection of works of theologians and the faithful;

  4. – Collection of prayers;

  5. – Collection of narrations, poems and prayers.


5. Bible in Judaism in Christianity differ byits contents. Christian Bible is…

  1. – Collection of books of the Old and New Testament;

  2. – Collection of books of the Old Testament;

  3. – Collection of books about Jesus Christ’s life;

  4. – Collection of books by John the Evangelist;

  5. – Collection of the Gospels.
^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on appearance and translation of Bible are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 7

ISLAM


Importance of the subject. Islam is the second by number world religion. Islam is practised by more than 900 million people in more than 120 countries of the world. Islam is recognised as the state religion in 28 countries of the world (Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Moroco, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, etc). Most of Muslims live in the coutries of West, South, South-East Asia ant North Africa. In Ukraine the foolowers of Islam form the second by number religion group.

Islam is a young world religion. It appeared in the beginning of the 7th century in Arabian Peninsula. Appearance of Islam is subordinated to general laws of formation of the world religions. Islam appears on the basis of the tribal cult of cult of one of the most influential tribes in West Arabia named Quraysh.

Proceeding from the fact that our country is visited by a number of Muslims. Moreover there are a lot of Islam followers in Ukraine, learning tenets and ethical norms of Islam is very important for students of medicine.


^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

to teach students anlyse value norms of Islam which can lead to mutual understanding. Ethical and medical norms is a basis of communication of doctors and Muslim patients.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. define peculiarities and specific features of Islam;

  2. analyse Muslim world view and its cult;

  3. differentiate denominations of Islam: extremism which uses Islam as a cover and moderate Islam.
^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Appearance of Islam. Its turning into the world religion. Personality of Muhammad.

  2. Islam tenet and cult. Muslim written sources.

  3. Sunni and Shi’a – main denominations in Islam. Sufism.

  4. Muslim theology: Mu’tazili. Sects in Islam.

^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk

http://www.religionfacts.com

http://www.religioustolerance.org

http://www.cbc.ca/montreal/features/religion

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

www.philosophypages.com

^

SAMPLE TESTS


  1. Muhammd is the founder of Islam. When did he become the prophet of the new religion?

  1. - 610

  2. - 622

  3. - 628

  4. - 590

  5. - 593


2. Beginning with definite events, the Muslims start new count of time. Muslim era begins in…

  1. - 622

  2. - 602

  3. - 632

  4. - 988

  5. - 1054


3. Islam has developed tenet, but ordinary muslims don’t discuss theory thesis in detail. The basis for muslims is…

  1. – creed;

  2. – symbol of cross;

  3. – symbol of clothes;

  4. – pillars of Islam;

  5. – path of Islam.


4. All muslims have to pray every day. How many times?

  1. – 5

  2. – 2

  3. – 3

  4. – 7

  5. – 9


5. As any other religion, Islam has its canonical text. It is…

  1. – Qur’an

  2. – Talmud

  3. – Bible

  4. – Lunyu

  5. – Torah



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on the history of appearance and essence of Islam are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 8

^ SACRED TEXTS. QUR’AN.


Importance of the subject. Qur’an as a historical-cultural heritage furthers studying of mythology, religious dogma, matrimonial relations, law-making sources, scientific evidence and medical traditions which were being formed in patriarchal community are bases of development of all these spheres of human activity.

Qur’an is a continuation of Talmud and Bible mythology. It reconsiders them, supplements them with the new contents and evidence that gives opportunity to lern muslim dogma, way of life, morals of personal rescue, as well as medical and scientific heritage better.

^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

to differentiate specific Qur’an problematic from the religious contents. It gives opportunity to solve personal problems of a human being.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. to define interperetations of the Old and New Testament stories in the Qur’an;

  2. to define problematics of the Qur’an;

  3. analyse peculiar features of the scientific knowledge, medical evidence and moral norms in the Qur’an;

  4. desacralise surah texts.
^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Qur’an as a historic-cultural heritage of the Arabic-muslim culture and the holy book of Islam. Origin, structure and contents of the Qur’an. Parable and allegorical character of the text.

  2. Interpretation of the Old and New Testament stories in the Qur’an. The Qur’an about the world order, hell and paradise.

  3. Doctrine about Allah and his prophet Muhammad in the Qur’an.

  4. Social problematics in the Qur’an: person, his life and afterlife. Conditionality of the freedom of will and religion.

  5. Scientific knowledge in the Qur’an. Medical evidence and moral norms of the Qur’an.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk/religion

http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/quran

http://www.religionfacts.com

http://www.religioustolerance.org

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

^

SAMPLE TESTS


1. The Qur’an is the Holy book of Islam. When was it written?

  1. – 7th century AD.

  2. – 7th century BC

  3. – 1st century BC

  4. – 1st century AD

  5. – 5th century AD


2. The Qur’an is divided into suras, which consist of ayats. How many suras are there in the Qur’an?

  1. - 114

  2. - 100

  3. - 54

  4. - 164

  5. - 14


3. There is a sura in the Qur’an which plays the same role in Islam as the Lord’s Prayer. How is this sura called?

  1. – The Opening Sura (Al-Fatiha);

  2. – The Repentance (At-Tawba);

  3. – The Prophets (Al-Anbiya);

  4. – The Light (An-Noor);

  5. - the Day-break (Al-Falaq).

4. Creation of the world is one of the main problems described in the Qur’an. Who according to the Qur’an created the world?

  1. - Allah

  2. - Moses

  3. – Jesus Christ

  4. - Muhammad

  5. – Ali


5. The basic principles of morality in the Qur’an are connected with life of the separate person, but not mankind. Which from the listed principles is the main one?

  1. – to ne sinless before Allah;

  2. – to be just and decent;

  3. – to think about social consequences of actions;

  4. – to think about own actions;

  5. – to think about punishment after death.



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on the existence of the Qur’an as the holy book of Islam are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.


Subject 9


^ CONTEMPORARY RELIGIOUS WORLD: PROBLEMS, PROCESSES, PERSPECTIVES.


Importance of the subject: Contemporary religious world is characterised from the one hand by strengthening of the traditional religions, on the other, by weakening of traditional approaches and as a consequence, by formation of not traditional religions and cults which have their own features and types. It is necessary to know not traditional religions, because a lot of them have totalitarian character, cause loss and damage to physical and mental health of a person. It is essential for future doctors, because they have to cure consequences of influence of such cults, to carry out rehabilitation measures and to be cautious while meeting such religons not to become victims themselves.

Secularization, integration and dialogue between religions are necessary processes of historical development of the religious world, which can lead to integration or disintegration between religions. It’s important to understand that only humanism can be the basis of the dialogue on relationship of different religions.

^

Objectives of the Practice:


General:

to be able to differentiate totalitarian and neo-totalitarian neo-religions, relations based on dialogue and animosity. Doctors have to use proper methods of curing those diseases which were caused by the religious violence.


Specific:

To be able to:

  1. to interpret characteristic and specific features of non-traditional religions.

  2. to analyse activity of non-traditional cults;

  3. to define basic stages of secularization;

  4. to differentiate integration tendencies, ecumenism and cross-religion dialogue.



^

CONTENTS


Procedure sequence chart is given in Appendix 1.

Theory Topics


  1. Non-traditional religions and cults: characteristic features and types (gospel, oriental, scientological, occult, Hare Krishna, L. Habbard’s Church of Scientology, etc.).

  2. Secularization as a social-historical process and its basic stages.

  3. Integration tendencies in modern religious doctrines. Ecumenism: expression of the tendencies of closing in (separation) between religions.

  4. Dialogue and co-operation between the faithful and unbelievers. Humanism as a basis of dialogue. The problem of relationship between religions in the modern world.


^ REFERENCES AND LINKS

http://bbc.co.uk/religion

http://www.religionfacts.com

www.en.wikipedia.org

www.iep.utm.edu

^

SAMPLE TESTS


1. Non-traditional religions appeared on the basis of traditional ones. When did it happen?

  1. – 20th century;

  2. – 19th century;

  3. – 18th – 19th century;

  4. – 18th century;

  5. – 7th century.

  1. Non-traditional religions have their typology. Such religions are divided into gospel, scientological, occult and…

  1. - oriental

  2. - historical

  3. - astrological

  4. - Druid

Е. – psychological


  1. Modern religious world “gave birth” to the ideas of ecumenism. First, ecumenism appeared as…

  1. – movement for unity of all christian religions;

  2. – movement for church liberation;

  3. – unity of all churces and denominations;

  4. – unity of all faithful;

  5. – movemnt for unity of all churches




  1. Ideas of secularization were spread in society. Secularization should be understood as…

  1. – liberation of all spheres of public and social life from influence of religion and church;

  2. – liberation of religion and church from the state power;

  3. – movement within Christianity;

  4. – movement for liberation from the Pope;

  5. – liberation of scintific thought from religion.




  1. In the course of communication, contradictions can arise between the faithful and unbelievers. The basis of co-operation between them is…

  1. – humanism;

  2. – atehism;

  3. – pantheism;

  4. – deism;

  5. – sensualism.



^

Summary of procedures


Form of the lesson is 2-hour practical class. The class is conducted according to the procedure sequence chart. In the beginning of the lesson, problem questions on the existence of different non-traditional religions in the modern religious world are put.

The basis of studying process is working according to the plan of the practical class. Speakers make their reports on theory topics. Other students can give additional information, analyse it, make more exact. Opponents can put extra questions. After covering theory topics, conclusions are drawn. The teacher analysing reports, corrects and specifies them, points out mistakes.

For consolidation of the topic, students write the final test.

In the end of the lesson conclusions are drawn.

APPENDIX

Graphs of Logical Structure

Subject 1: Religion as a socio-historical and spiritual phenomenon.


Definition of religion



world-feeling

world perception

world view

specific behaviour




Bases of religion development



historical


social


gnoseological

psychological


Religious system


Religious conscience

Religious activity

Religious relations

Religious institutes and organisations





Religious culture



Specific functions of religion





world view

cognitive

educational

integration-disintegration

culture-translating





spiritual world view of a person

Subject 2: Origin of religion. Early forms of religion.

Origin of religion


Theological approach

Scientific ideas







Formation of the different religious systems

Poly

theism

Mono

theism

Zoomor

phism

Mixed

Anthropomorphism

Developed forms of religion

national

state

world


Search of the common pra-religion


Evolution of early forms of religion


fetishism


According to number of gods

Features of similarity with gods


veneration of the dead


totemism


animism


magic



Cultural-civilization development of religion



Subject 3:Buddhism and Religions of East


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