Скачати 19.34 Kb.
Зміст2. Science and education
3. Development of books business and literature
4. Architecture and visual arts.
3. UKRAINIAN CULTURE AFTER MONGOL-TATAR CONQUEST (Second half of XII-XV cent.)
1. Historical conditions of development of culture.
2. Science and education
3. Development of books business and literature.
4. Architecture and visual arts.
1. Historical conditions of development of culture.
Culture development in second half of XII-XV cent. was defined by difficult historical situation.
Before Mongol-Tatar conquest Kiev Rus was separated in set of princedoms, that were independent from each other or unsteadily connected by some military-political contractual relations.
Historical sources counts 18 large state formations, but if to count the smaller ones, there will be approx. 30.
Absence of political unity and incomplete submission even by younger princes to the senior ones leaded to absence of the military unity.
Therefore it was extremely difficult to princes to resist to the big, well trained and violent mongol-tatar army.
Kniazes-Princes suffered defeat in the first collision with mongol-tatar on Kalka river in 1223 year, but even this didn’t result in overcoming of the interstine conflicts.
1237-1240 years can be named the most tragic in Kiev Rus history. Annals and archeological sources say about terrifying fires, street fights and mass destructions in Kiev, Chernigov and other towns. Among with towns
many culture products were destroyed, ten thousands people were killed or stolen as a slaves, including some professional workers, rest of population ran away in woods, left the whole regions empty.
In 40ths of XIII cent. for most of the princedoms of Kiev Rus the Yoke began, and it ended only after quarter of century, and there was other quarter of periodic attacks by Kazan, Astrakhan and Crimea khans, supported by Turkey.
Devastation and hard tax leaded to the long economic decline.
In the first 50 years of mongol-tatar conquest wasn’t built any town.
A lot of technologies of building and manufacturing were forgotten at that time.
The arising communication of towns and villages was destroyed by mongol-tatar practically everywhere.
Kiev Rus became separated from world trading ways.
Opposing to theories of foreign scientists, mongol-tatars didn’t influence the character of culture essentially, though some words in Slavic language were added by tatars. Culture was developed relying more on the internal basics.
Also, being captured by mongol-tatars, Kiev Rus saved connection with Byzantian world, that turned out as a basic of subsequent dawn of spirituality.
Russian Mytropoly (head division of orthodox church)
was under control of Constantinople. Understanding the value of church, horde rulers tax-exempted orthodox clergy and their ground possessions became untouchable, under a condition that heads of church – mitropolits (and princes also) would go to take the yarlyk (edict) of Horde.
As a result of this even in most hard times church was the center of cultural life in Kiev Rus.
Notable, that different princedoms were in different condition during and after the mongol-tatar conquest.
In case of moving of European trade from Byzantium to Western Europe, in Rus trade moved from Kiev princedom to the Galicia- Volhynian princedom, where ways from Western, North and Eastern Europe crossed.
That resulted in intensive cultural development of the region.
Churches and monasteries played the main role in spreadin of education and development of many branches of culture.
Before mongol-tatar conquest there were a lot of educated people.
There were even graffiti ancestors, inscription on stones, walls, or wood. Those included autographs, requests addressed to God, church theses , polemic between clergy and secular people (including one in Sophia’s sobor), puzzles, wishes from princes to their people etc.
In Zvenigorod, Galitzk and Berest were found some inscriptions known as “Berest gramotas”, and in Zvenigorod, Peremyshl, Galich and Lviv – styluses – tools made from bronze to write on the wax.
There were also church schools on Volhyn. This fact known from the biography of icon painter named Piotr, later a metropolitan. Parents gave him to study books when he was seven years old.
Unfortunately, we don’t known a lot about education in the period of conquest. Most of the known information is about The Galicia- Volhynian princedom, that suffered less because of its remoteness.
Attachment of Ukrainian lands to the Great Lithuanian Princedom began a new period in development of Ukrainian culture, especially in science and education.
In that period schools existed in cities and also were attached to big churches, monasteries and rarely – in magnates apartments.
Reading, writing and gospel singing were taught using Psaltyr and Chasoslov as textbooks.
There were also people who knew foreign languages and worked in prince’s and bishops’ offices. They worked with such things as texts, bills and diplomatic correspondence.
In the end of XV cent. in Poland and Lithua cultural growth began. Ideas of humanism, Ian Gus and other Reformation leaders were disseminated here.
Progressive ideas came to Ukraine through Poland, and also polish culture was developed as a result of contact with Ukrainian.
There were students from Ukraine in Europe universities. From second half of XIV cent in documents of Sorbonne (Paris) were names of Ukrainian students, licentiates and holders of a master's degree.
In the middle of XV cent. there were even a few Ukrainian DPhil (doctors in science) in Sorbonne .
Book business in Ukraine, like the whole culture was in difficult condition in 30-50th of XIII cent.
According to some sources books were written in the end of XIII cent. in Kiev-Pecherskij monastery, in Vladimir-Volinsky, in Holm and in Lviv (Lvov). In our taime there’s 200 saved manuscripts and excepts, that were made in the end of XII-XIV cent : 28 made in the end of XII – Beginning of XIII cent., 19 made in the first half of XIII cent., 83 made in XIII cent. (without a date), 34 made in second half of XIII cent. and 35 were made in the end of XIII and beginning of XIV cent. They all were written on parchment.
Centers of book business was Galich, Holm, Peremyshl, Polotzk, Volin.
There were big book workshop in the house of kniaze (prince) Vladimir Vasilkovich, philosopher and book reader. He presented 36 books (according to annals) to various churches in Vladimir, Berestye, Velsk, Kamensk, Lutzk, Permyshl, and Chernigov.
There were a few types of writing known in Ukrainian earths in XIII – XV cent. Examples are “Ustav” – geometrical type, resembling modern typing and Half-Ustav, that were used widely in letters in XIV cent.
In XV cent. appeared “skoropis” (fast writing) .
Coma and dot with coma appeared in XV cent. and the second one were used as a question mark.
Writing of a book was very long - only 2-4 pages a day.
First liter called “inital” was written big and with ornaments.
In the manuscripts of XIII cent. leading position were by books, needful for churches.
Annals were the most prominent literature genre at this moment.
On of the most interesting of this works is “A Word about Russian earth death”.
It’s strong dramatically written unfinished book.
But there’s some errors in geography and politic.
In peoples oral speech works of this period the most prominent genres was fairy tales, novellas, legends etc.
Around the population were popular stories about Khan Batiys conquest and legends abot Kiev kniaz (prince) Mikhaylik – hero of war against mongolo-tatars, among with patriotic songs.
Architecture and visual arts were most the harmed cultural types in mongolo-tatar period.
Building was common only at Halich-Volin Princedom, mostly in style of Kiev Rus.
In second half of XIII cent. begins building of stone castles in Lutsk, Kremenchug and Hotin.
There’s also new style in churches architecture.
New style is a mix from Byzantic-russian and Gothic styles.
From the end of XIV cent. military inventions leading to all-stone buildings.
In XV cent. architecture often returns to Kiev Rus traditions, especially in building of wooden churches.
Icon paintings of Halich-Volin Princedom mostly inspired by that of Kiev Rus.
Most popular icon painting theme was patronship and security.
In XIV cent. traditional motives begin to use.
The most popular was paintings about Yuri, the snake killer and about Armageddon. The last one was usually satirical and antifeudal as a result of painters customers idiotism.
In XV cent. first Renaissance motives were used in paintings by Piotr Ratnensky, that was born in Volin.
His paintings can be find in Vladimir-Volin Sobor and Uspen sobor in Moscow.
Ukrainian icons of XV cent. can be identified by laconism, integrity of composition, colour restraint, ability to unite contrast colors and saturation of symbol image.
This features in future became components of Ukrainian visual arts.
There was also peoples traditional decorative art of western Ukraine like carpets and Easter eggs (here known as pisankas).
In the second half of XIII-XV cent. appeared scomorohs – jester like traditional actors, singers, musicians, dancers.
There was also Kobzars, that singed dumas in accompaniment of traditional musical instruments like kobza.
So, despite fact of hard times, original culture of Ukrainian people continued the traditions of ancient Russian culture and was connected to western European culture and was saved in the time of tataro-mongol conquest.
Ukrainian culture continued to developing despite fact of lose of own state.
|Historical ways of formation of the ukrainian culture. Concept of "culture" There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following||Historical ways of formation of the ukrainian culture. Concept of "culture" There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following|
move to 0-15635633
|Historical ways of formation of ukrainian culture concept “Ethnic Culture”||V. traditional culture of the ukrainian people the basic employment and material culture|
Таvriya, coast of the Black and Azov seas, building was conducted mainly under projects of landowners or administration and had the...
|II. culture of kiev rus culture development in Pre-Christian period||Conference will be held on the 17th of April, 2013 at the Ukrainian Institute of Arts and Sciences|
«actual problems of social and economic processes in the context of transformation of the ukrainian society»
|Матеріали тез: Шевчук В. Н., Попович Д.І., Демченко П. Ю., Усатенко Ю. М., Серкіз Р. Я. Структура та парамагнітні центри оксидних нанопорошків // XII міжнародна Конференція „Фізика І Технологія Тонких Плівок та Наносистем” (мкфттпн-xii) / Матеріали конференції,|
Д.І., Демченко П. Ю., Усатенко Ю. М., Серкіз Р. Я. Структура та парамагнітні центри оксидних нанопорошків // XII міжнародна Конференція...
|More than half the sensory receptors in the human body are located|
|Закон україни про національні меншини в Україні (Відомості Верховної Ради (ввр), 1992, n 36, ст. 529) (Вводиться в дію Постановою вр n 2495-xii ( 2495-12 )|
Вводиться в дію Постановою вр n 2495-xii ( 2495-12 ) від 25. 06. 92, Ввр, 1992, n 36, ст. 530)
|Сорба олександр Михайлович (25. XII. 1980, м. Керч, ар крим, Україна) – політолог, к політ н. (|
Сорба олександр Михайлович (25. XII. 1980, м. Керч, ар крим, Україна) – політолог, к політ н. (Просторово-часові виміри політики:...