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Зміст2. Publishing and the literature.
4. New areas of a science.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE UKRAINIAN CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF NATIONAL-LIBERATION MOVEMENT
1 Preconditions and conditions of cultural growth (rise) in Ukraine in XVI - the first half of XVIII centuries
2. Publishing and the literature.
4. New areas of a science.
5. The art
XVI-XVIII centuries were exclusively difficult in a life of the people of Ukraine. After liquidation of a mongol-tatar yoke in XIV century people of Ukraine didn’t manage to create the national state. However the national culture had remained and even influenced culture of the people of neighbouring countries. It is explained that unlike tradition stateformation Ukraine succeeded to save cultural traditions of Kievan Russ, developed financial and spiritual culture. In XVI centure in Kiev Rus there were about 20 large cities with a population 10-15 thousand habitants and a handicraft production prospered in that cities. In Lviv, Kiev and other cities there were about 300 handicraft specialists. In cities there were schools at churches and monasteries, pharmacies, barber's shops. The Magdeburgskoe right promoted the development of commodity-money relations. On Volhynia and in Galichina, building of society constructions was all wider practiced not from a tree, but from a stone and brick. In XV v. plumbing was built in Lvov, I .Nechuy-levickiy in a novel «Ivan Vygovskiy» marked that in the houses of not only aristocracy but also petty bourgeois for a festive table were prepared more than30-40 names of dishes.
These examples testify that in spite of huge destructions, inflicted foreigner aggression in previous ages, the earth of Ukraine saved high cultural potential, that was one of pre-conditions of the cultural getting up in XVI v. Other factor, influencing on the development of culture in Ukraine in an examined period, was a national liberation fight of the Ukrainian people against foreign aggression and occupation. And if relationships with the Great duchy the Lithuanian had civilised character , with Poland and Crimean khanate Ukraine it was necessary to conduct a bitter fight. At this time in Europe demand grew on the products of agriculture. Spain which in previous ages was the «granary of Europe», didn't cope with this task. New suppliers were needed and Poland applied on this role.
The Polish feudal lords squeezed out a maximum profit of Ukraine, but to protect it from attacks a Turk and Tatars have appeared not in forces. The Polish feudal lords squeezed out a maximum profit from Ukraine, but they were not in force to protect it from Turks and Tatars attacks. In these terms all cultural processes interlaced with a national liberation fight which was conducted on two fronts. So, the struggle against approach of Catholic Church on orthodox was a part of struggle against the Rechi Pospolitoj, a fight for an outlet to the Black sea and creation of the Ukrainian fleet was an integral from a fight against the Osmanskoy Empire and Crimean khanate.
The position of social elite played an important role in the development of the Ukrainian culture in XVI - to the first half of XVIII centuries. Ukrainian feudal lords, the apex of clergy in the conditions of domination of Rich Pospolita renounced a national culture - language, traditions, orthodox faith - and perceived the Polish culture. One of the Ukrainian publicists - Meletiy Smotrickiy - in the polemic treatise of «Trenos» («Weeping») reflected sorrow of orthodox church on the abandoning it dynasties of Vishneveckikh, Zbarazhskikh, Sluckikh and other, before devoted the faith of the ancestors. In this historical situation the role of spiritual leader of people was played by original, formed in XV-XVI centuries. an estate is the Cossacks. Exactly the Cossacks caught up tradition of the national state system, came forward the defender of orthodox church, Ukrainian language.
Among the orthodox population of the Ukrainian cities there were brotherhoods - religious-national organizations. Such organization was created round parish church and in the beginning was engaged only in its support, the help to the poor. Facilities here consisted of certain «membership» dues. Gradually fraternities began to extend the sphere of the activity, were engaged also in political and cultural businesses. Some noble births join to them. The Lvovsky fraternity has become famous for it’s educational, literary activity.
Events connected with the religious union in 1596 were of the basic value for Ukrainian culture. In 1596 in Brest was drummed up a cathedral for proclamation of unii (union) of orthodox church and catholic. With the help of this union the Polish government wanted to strengthening its influence on Ukrainian society. The orthodox bishops of Ukraine made that conspiracy, had hoped to fix the personal power. In 1596 the new Ukrainian greco-catholic (uniatskaya) church was created. It was orthodox on a rite, but administratively inferior to Rome. Brest uniya caused hot spores, expressly exposed positions, accelerated consolidation of Ukrainian cultural forces.
Another important factor, which influenced cultural life in Ukraine, were ideas of the Renaissance and Reformation, which came from Western and Central Europe. Otherwise also could not be, as in cities of Ukraine lived ethnically various population: Poles, Germans, Jews, Armenians, Italians, Greeks, etc. that promoted interosculation of various cultures. Ideas of humanism are introduced to Ukraine, first of all in its central and western regions, by the Italian industrialists, merchants, architects. In XV v., when under the shots of Turkey the Italian colonies fallen into a decay in Crimea, part of the Genoese merchants transmigrated to Lvov and Kiev. On the other side, the children of the Ukrainian grandees studied in the universities of Prague, Krakova, Bolon'I. It is enough to remember the names of the Ukrainian poet of XV v. Paul Rusina, professor of medicine and astronomy from Drogobycha of George Kotermaka and other. In the Ukrainian culture the ideas of pantheism were spread in philosophy, anthropocentrism in an art, waiver of skholastiki in science. But it was not the simple borrowing, renaissance ideology got new forms on Ukrainian cultural soil.
Thus, in XVI - to the first half of XVIII centuries row of circumstances influenced development of the Ukrainian culture. In spite of unfavorable terms, in particular, national oppressing, there was active and many-sided development of culture of Ukraine.
Influence of ideology of the Renaissance and Reformation was expressed in development of literature and book-printing. Invention of I. Guttenberg, transition from a papyrus and parchment to the paper in XV century were preconditions of active development of book business in Europe. Most books in this period were printed in Latin.
At the end of XV - beginning of XVI centuries. the first books in cerkovnoslavyanskom language printed George Drogobych (Kotermak) in Rome, Francis Skorina in Krakove and Shvaypolt Fiol in Prague. Directly in Ukraine Ivan Fedorov became the first printer. hurrying from Moscow from pursuits of reactionary clergy in 60th of XVI . In 1573 Fedorov with the help of patrons of art created the first printing-house in Lviv, where in a year later famous «Apostle» (collection of descriptions of life of saints) was printed. Fedorov was ruined in time, pawned a printing-house and moved in Jail, in the estate of prince V.K.Ostrozhskogo - one of saving devotion to orthodoxy. In 1581 «Ostrozhskaya Bible» was printed. It was the first edition of Bible in Church Slavonic language. Its copies were purchased by the royal libraries of Sweden and France, that testified the high level of edition. In Moscow that «Ostrozhskaya Bible» remained the unique similar edition for a long time, so it was copied by writing.
The matter of I.Fedorov was got by development on all Ukraine. There were about 20 printing-houses in the first half of XVII century, the largest from which was a printing-house in Kievo-pecherska Lavra. Printing-houses were created on facilities (money) of patrons of art, Troops of Zaporoziha. Also printing-houses were actively organized by fraternities.
Along with stationary printing-houses there were movable. About 40 different printing-houses were counted to the middle of XVII century. Most printing products were books of religion character, but scientific treatises, reference books, calendars, textbooks were published also. Some textbooks played an important role in education. For example, M.Lomonosov named grammar the author of which was M.Smotrickiy (1619) the «gates of erudition». It was reprinted more than 150 years practically without changes. A fact, that ten and hundreds of books was counted in the home libraries of the rich Lvov petty bourgeois, is notable. First newspaper began to be published in Ukraine in 1776 in Lviv.
Tsar's government held a retrograde policy in relation to a book-printing in Russian part of Ukraine in XVIII century. Publications in Ukrainian language were forbidden, censorial limitations were entered. In instruction to the printing-houses, which appeared in 20th of XVIII v., it was talked that a book-printing must be carried out so that «no rozni and special adverb was». From fines, imposed on the Chernigov printing-house, it went bankrupt. After liquidation of Zaporozhia Sich in 1775 a book-printing in Ukrainian language falled into decay.
Development of book business was a shove for development of literature.
This sphere of culture reflected pdzekhodn'³|³kharshsge| to ) epoches, when was a formation of nadir^³almyugr yaz'³ka was, new styles and genres, new themes which in previous ages was considered forbidden or unnecessary rose. Most brightly new tendencies were reflected by foreign literature in translation. Different scientific treatises and reference books, for example, medical, a reference book «Aristotle’s gates» - were translated and published In XVI century. Were spread the translations of the Sainted Letter, which presented such genre, as hagiography. «Peresopnickoe Gospel» is considered to be one of the most valuable. It was published in 1561. Translation from Bulgarian and preparations to edition were done by the monks of Peresopnicke monastery in Volhyn.
Original works appear along with foreign literature in translation. In XVI v. the flowering of the Ukrainian epos registers thoughts, ballads, historical songs which T.Shevchenko put higher than homeric poems, are created. For example, popular were cycles of thoughts «Mary Boguslavka», «Samylo Kishka» and other Epic works are devoted a liberation subject, in them knighthood and heroism, fraternity and loyalty, is glorified to orthodoxy.
The splash of literary process in Ukraine was related to Brest church uniey. Prominent position in such situation in literary creation occupied the genre of polemic literature, arising up as a reaction on expansion of catholic church is in Ukraine. Writers-polemicists Meletiy Smotrickiy in work of «Trenos», ( it is weeping of orthodox church from retreat of its children); Zakhar Kopystenskiy in «Palinodii» («book of defensive»), Ivan Vyshenskiy in «Advice about clearing of church» argued against interference of the Polish government with the matters of the orthodox Ukrainian church, disrobed his policy on principle «than worse, so much the better».
The matter is that the orthodox priests appointed by Seym frequently were not enough obrazovanny, differed doubtful moral and personality qualities. One of such priests, Cyril Terleckiy, stood a trial for murder and raping. Took place extortion of money for parishioners, sale of church property and earths. In the total, by plan of pursuings such policy, expulsing of orthodox church catholic would be inevitable.
However polemicists were not limited by the problem of fight against the offensive of catholicism. In the works they raised questions of reformation of the most orthodox church, its reduction of prices, collective its administrative department, ridiculed an indolence and conservatism of orthodox hierarchies. In addition, rose social political problems: inequality of people, exploitation of man and one people a man other. The special polemic fervor selects works of Ivan Vyshenskogo. For example, in «Poslanii to the bishops» he disrobes a clergy as forgetting God korystolyubcev. By the unique method of rescue of man from egoism and world cruelty he counted a monkhood. Vyshenskiy emigrated to Greece and became a monk-hermit in one of the sainted caves on a mountain Athos.
A new literary genre became a poetry. In XVI-XVII centuries. poetical works were more frequent than all created wandering deacons and podeacons - by the students of spiritual schools. In the period of summer vacations they traveled and wrote the written in verse works by order, with the purpose of earnings. A table of contents of these verses could be laudatory-stately (panegyric) or related to death and funerals somebody from noble people (madrigal). Only not many verses were an author: Kasiyan Sakovich is «Verses on the pitiful cellar of hetman of Sagaydachnogo», Cyril Stavroveckiy is collection of poems «Perl mnogocennyy», Alexander Mitura is «Pattern of virtues» and others.
The Ukrainian poets often used biblical themes, much attention was spared the problems of moral, religion, that answered tastes of that time. At the same time in these works rarely there are images, allegory, metaphor. All of it gives the poetries of XVI-XVII centuries. a few naive character. It is necessary to take into account and that a it wasn't the literary norm in Ukrainian, in this connection the written in verse works of that time are hardness perceived a modern reader. Nevertheless the Ukrainian poetry in XVI -the first half of XVIII centuries. experienced the important stage of the development. Authors used so-called silabical and not silabical systems of construction of lines, able to use a rhyme and written in verse size. Often used the iambic and trochee tetrameter and pentameter. In XVIII v. most achievements of poetic art were related to the name of Grigory Skovorody.
In XVII v. dramaturgy became popular. Most popular were two types of drama: religious and school. Religious drama, in same queue, was subdivided into three forms: a mystery is a mystery of expiation of sins of people by Jesus by Christ; mirakl the events from life of saints; moralite is dramas, where the allegoric figures of the Soul came forward, Love, Anger, Envies et cetera and the talks of instructive character were conducted.
School drama developed not only religious but also society themes. Its purpose was consisted foremost to help students in their study of works of greek and Roman authors, and also Bible. Ten and even hundreds of persons took part in performances were put in educational establishments. A poet Dmitry Tuptalo created christmas drama «Comedy on Christmas Christly», Simeon Polockiy - drama «About Navukhodonosore», Grigory Konisskiy is «Resurrection of dead».
An original literary genre were chronicles. Being not historical researches in complete sense, chronicles are connected by the lines of science and art. If the first releases of the Kievan chronicle, created at the beginning of XVI v., gravitated to Old Russian stylistic, more late releases have signs of new time. Chronicles appeared in XVII v., the reflecting most bright and important events of that time are forming of the cossacks, Liberation war 1648-1657 - chronicle of Samovidca, Grigory Grabyanki, Samuila Velichko, monasterial chronicles and other. Along with documents the authors of chronicles used folk-lore sources, own remember. Chronicles played an important role in development of literature and science.
To one of distinguishing features of the Ukrainian culture of Xvi-xv1ii centuries. there is particular interest which was shown by society to the questions of education. Because a culture developed in the conditions of Polish expansion of collision of catholic and orthodox churches, each of sides aimed to use all facilities for strengthening of the influence. The original result of such opposition was become by the wide network of various schools.
For a long period of time the basic type of educational establishments were initial, parochial (parish) schools at orthodox monasteries and churches. A level and teaching forms in them already fallen short of the requirements of time. After formation of Speech Pospolitoy in 1569 jesuitic kollegiumy appeared in Ukraine - in fact higher schools which bylb is well organized and financially well-to-do. Their doors were opened and for the Ukrainian young people. The unique condition of reception in a jesuitic college was a creed of catholicism. These educational establishments executed the function of okatolichivaniya and opolyachivaniya of the Ukrainian population.
Many representatives of the Ukrainian elite were oriented although, as talked already, on a stranger culture and language, there were however the patriotically adjusted rich feudal lords, comings forward initiators creations of orthodox schools which would not yield jesuitic. In general traditions of patronage of art were in this period very expressed. It is possible to name the names of prince Andrey Kurbskogo, hurrying from disgrace of Ivan Threatening and in a small town Milyanovichi on Volhynia of creating whole cultural group, prince George Sluckogo, which in the estate collected many cultural of Ukraine and Byelorussia workers, and others. One of most devoted the Ukrainian culture of people there was a prince Vasiliy Konstantin Ostrozhskiy. In 1578 in the estate he opened the first higher educational establishment in Ukraine -pravoslavnyy kollegium, where for work specialists were invited from the row of the European countries. Drevneslavyanskiy, greek and Latin languages and cycle of disciplines, named traditionally «seven free sciences were studied in kollegiume»: grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music.
Initiative of prince Ostrozhskogo was found many followers. The most active from them are become by fraternities, and, it is necessary to say, school business is included in the number of their main anxieties. In 1584 permission was got on this activity, and in 1586 the first brotherly school was opened in Lvov. Only on Pravoberezh'e about 30 similar schools were created. Joins in creation of schools and the cossacks, especially in XVII v. Assertion during Khmel'nichchiny of forms of the national state system, regimental division, local self-government conduced to the mass opening of initial schools. The school operated in Zaporozhia Cut.
To the beginning of XVIII v. hundreds of schools were counted in Ukraine, in particular, on Left-bankness, more than 1000. Practically in every large village, there were schools in gorodkis and cities. They differed democraticness of regulations, the children of all estates, including orphans, studied free of charge in them.
In Europe at this time formed two in fact opposite going near teaching and education. If in France found support of idea Rousseau and Pestalocci about free development of spiritual forces and capabilities of man through interest, through a game as teaching form, in Germanium opinion prevailed of necessity of hard regulation and control after studies, permanent supervision of teachers. These tendencies found a reflection and in Ukraine, that showed up during competitive activity of orthodox and jesuitic schools. To tension of fight the examples of closing of row of fraternities and brotherly schools testify on the west of Ukraine. Even Ostrozhskiy kollegium halted existence after death a prince Konstantina. His grandchild Anna-Eloiza on its base opened jesuitic kollegium. Poland considered Lvov the earth, willows 1661 a government opened an university, first in Ukraine here.
The offensive of jesuits resulted to moving the center of cultural life from the west of Ukraine on Left-bankness. In XVI v. Zaporozhia the Cossacks were formed as an estate. To to 1620 Brest uniya in fact lost the value in the central region of Ukraine. By Army of Zaporozhia, his hetman P.Sagaydachnogo an orthodox metropole was recovered.
Focus of culture in Kiev became the Pecherskaya large Monastery and Kievan fraternity. In 1632g. a metropolitan is become by Peter Mogila, which conducted the row of reforms, instrumental in renewal of authority of orthodox church: the new rules of sanctifying of hierarchies are ratified, a sermon as form of divine service is entered, earths and apartments which a church lost in connection with Brest uniey are returned. At the same time Grave was not a reformer in European sense. He aimed to strengthen influence of church on a political sphere.
Played the important role of P.Mogila and on business of development of education. In 1632 on the base of brotherly school and school of Kievo-pecherskoy large Monastery new kollegium which was adopted his name was created. There were «seven free sciences in basis of 12-years-old year». The children of all estates studied - from aristocrats to the cossacks and peasants. Such progressive forms, as discussions, were used in an educational process, theatrical predstavlennya, encouragements of the best student (studeev), handing over of examinations of commission (but not to one professor), mutuals of students and teachers. Notably, that kollegium had a dormitory, that was rareness at that time. In 1736 in collegiums 127 students were taught, except for Ukrainians, Russians and belorussov, from other European countries. In 1701 on initiative of hetman Mazepy to collegiums the rank of academy was appropriated.
Many pupils of kollegium stood in good stead to Russia, because there were not higher educational establishments of the European level in a dopetrovskuyu epoch. Preparation of well-educated people was carried out abroad, but attitude toward them in Moscow was watchful. In this connection many tried not to return home after completion of education. From 30 persons, sent on studies a tsar by Boris Godunovym, only one returned. Therefore from Kiev to Moscow arrives, for example, Semen Polockiy, becoming teacher of czarevitch Sof'I, czarevitch Feodor and other tsar's children. From 23 rectors of the Moscow academy in XVIII v. 21 got education in Kiev, and from 125 its professors - 95.
Apparently, outflow of well-educated people from Ukraine already then went at full speed, that was, sure, by the negative for the Ukrainian culture phenomenon. In XVII v. of such people named «migratory birds».
In 1700 kollegium appeared in Chernigov, in 1726 - in Kharkov, in 1738 - in Pereyaslave.
Thus, in XVI - to the first half of XVIII centuries. in Ukraine school business and ideas of inlightening spread widely. Unique achievement was a high percent of competent people (to 90%). A positive line was availability, unclass, democratic character of education. The children of all task forces could study, because teaching was free of charge. However torn enough off education was from life. In particular, specific gravity of natural and exact sciences was very small. For example, in the Kiev Mohyla academy the faculty of medicine was opened only in XIX v. The living language of people practically was not inculcated in an educational process which took place, more frequent than all, in Latin language. Tradition of wide primary education was stopped together with the new enslaving of the Ukrainian peasants by the end of XVIII v. at Ekaterine II.
As talked already, the Ukrainian culture long had developed without state support, at weak participation of social apex. It resulted in lag of such sphere of culture, as science. Especially it behaves to natural sciences, for development of which a modern equipment, financial providing, is needed. In respect of humanities, successes were more ponderable here, In particular, philosophy was selected in an independent area, though enough lately on European measurements - in XVIII v. In Western Europe ideology of Inlightening, which pulls out such values, as rationalism, democratization of different spheres of life, pantheism in philosophy, becomes firmly established at this time. People admired before possibilities of science and inlightening, considering their boundless. But for the world view of epoch the simplified, mechanistically look was characteristic to the methods of scientific research. So, the French scientist P.Laplas considered that if the initial state of bodies is known, it is possible to calculate, that will be tomorrow and in 100 years, because the laws of motion unchanging. Approximately similarly reasoned and M.V. Lomonosov.
The ideas of Inlightening are developed by such philosopher, as Feofan Prokopovich, pupil, and in future professor and rector of the Kiev Mohyla academy. In the main works «True of will by a monarch», «Word in a week coloured about power and honour of tsar's» Prokopovich expounded the conception of the «enlightened absolutism». State power, on the idea of philosopher, has divine character, and a monarch is in fact a father for the citizens. Like T.Gobbsu, Prokopovich asserts that people, fearing «war all against all», create the state which protects them from internal and external enemies. However, unlike Dzh Lokka and Sh. Montesk'e, considered that people passed to an anxiety about the observance of the rights the state forever. Folk the masses must submit a monarch, especially as the enlightened ruler will be neither wicked nor unfair. But people possess on occasion and some active functions - he can offer an opinion, criticize the policy of monarch and even to choose him, if heir of throne on one or another reasons will not appear.
Idealistic logic of Prokopovich was based on his look to the man. Nature pawned good in a man, evil appears from society, from poverty. Evil, Prokopovich considered, it is possible to win by the enlightenment. The recognition of people of active function which Prokopovich wrote about, is one of substantial conquests of domestic public idea.
Special place in history Ukrainian, and world philosophy, Grigory Skovoroda occupies. Like the European enlighteners, he admired before reason, science. But understanding of the world a man with his cruelty and egoism will not do a man happy.
Happiness gives a man the freedom, self-knowledge and «related», that creative labour. Free creative labour and inlightening develop in a man the kind beginnings, stopped up nature - so thought Skovoroda in works «Noble Erodiy», «Wretched lark», «Bee and Hornet» and others.
Skovoroda simply rejects world view position of Renaissance age about «strong personality», much persons interested and much arriving at. In excessive social activity, aspiration to capture the world by reason, knowledges, will, weapon a philosopher sees one of main reasons of all misfortunes of modern him life. Desire of riches, glory and power infuse with in the soul a spite, envy, cruelty, eternal dissatisfaction by itself and all. Exit from contradiction of human life one is renunciation from superfluous desires, hunger for a fame and power, limitation of necessities of man by the slice of bread and water. God did difficult unnecessary, and necessary undifficult -told philosopher.
Admiring before reason, Skovoroda was distant from absolutes of his possibilities. As far as light of reason can arrive at truth, so he can err. A man comes to truth and by a heart, and such way can be more short. Pulling out position about an important role, which is played in human by act intuition, emotional and subconscious-unconscious spheres, a philosopher on centuries passed the time.
His idea is exceptionally actual about harmony of relations between people and nature which Skovoroda considered divine. A man must not count nature by something lifeless and callous, and then, like ancient greek Antaeus, he will infinitely ladle forces from it.
On the complication with development of science becoming of professional artistic culture is comparable. If in Western Europe an art of XVI v. is an art of late Revival, in the Ukrainian culture some renessansnys tendencies interlaced with medieval.
A novelty consisted already in that in XVI-XVII centuries. there are a several schools of the church monumental painting and icon-painting in Ukraine. Leading school of artists was formed in XVII v. in the Kievan monasteries. Artists worked mainly in the genres of the monumental painting, icon-painting, engraving and graphic arts. In works of such icon-painters, as Feodor Sen'kovich, Nick Petrakhnovich, Ivan Rutkovich, is noticeable waiver of medieval aesthetic canons, claim of realizations and blitheness. The same tendencies are in painting of the Uspenskogo cathedral and Troickoy church of Kievo-pecherskoy large Monastery, in the churches of Poltava, Pereyaslava and other Characteristically, that the Moscow clergy disapproved such creative approach of the Ukrainian artists, when saints were represented a «person and eyes light a -I body corpulent». Part of the temple painting was become by a portrait. In painting of temples depicted historical persons. For example, 85 portrait images are placed in altar part of the Uspenskogo cathedral - from a prince Vladimir to Peter I.
Transitional role between an icon-painting and by society portrait painting played parsuny are portraits, executed the receptions of ikonopisnoy technique. Families of cossack petty officer, the privileged position of which was more strengthened, in a great number ordered the portraits. Fashionable began to have an own art gallery. To the artists sometimes even ordered pictures, representing peasants. To the second half of XVIII v. there is tradition already in complete sense of word to the portraiture. But at this time the tendency of departure from Ukraine of talented young people shows up to Petersburg, in Academy of arts. So, largest artists of Russia of that time: D.Levickiy - by birth from Kiev, V.Borovikovskiy - from Mirgoroda. Ukrainian was a creator of historical genre in the Russian academic art of A-Losenko.
The quite special genre was become by a «folk picture». It - above all things are series of cossack appearances: «Cossack with a bandura», «Cossack Mamay». As an element of folk way of life such pictures were saved to beginning of XX v.
In architecture influence of Western Europe was related to arkhitek¬turnym style of baroque. He supposes plenty of decorations outside and into building, complication of architectural construction, flight of fantasies of architect. Society buildings - palaces of grandees, city councils, schools, markets had most specific gravity in city building. Fountains and parks which was broken up in accordance with traditions French are popular were, or regular, park. Symmetric location of planting, giving geometrically of regular shapes to the bushes and trees, exotic flowers - such requirements corresponded tastes of gentlefolks in a that period. What less than a park or garden looked like forest jungles, the he was liked anymore. And only from the second half of XVIII v. this tradition changed: the English parks (landscape planning) are included in a fashion, and a baroque all more frequent next with other styles.
The look of the Ukrainian cities changed and in connection with that along with wooden buildings all more stone buildings are created. However characteristically, that at building of cities did not follow a single architectural plan, as it was accepted in epoch Revivals. Quarters and streets took place enough chaotically. Only at the end of XVIII v. there are new cities of south of Ukraine.- Odessa, Nikolaev, Mariupol - have rectangular and square quarters, expressly selected center.
Except for society buildings in XVT-XVIII centuries. built, sure, and temples which became the real decoration of city. Exactly in temple architecture the lines of baroque showed up most evidently and full, which often interlaced with the elements of classicism and rococo. Temples and temple sooru¬zheniya, built on the projects of representative of swiss arkhi¬tekturnoy school Peter Krasovskogo became pride of Lvov, for example, - Kornyaktovskaya tower and Trekh-svyatitel'skaya chapel (XVI v.); Paolo Dominichi Romanusa (Paul Rimlyanina) is the Uspenskaya church (XVI-XVII centuries.); Bernarda Meretini is Cathedral of Saint George (XVIII v.). The masterpieces of architectural art were created in Kiev: Andreevskaya church to Bartolomee Rastrelli, bell tower of Kevo-pecherskoy large Monastery Ioganna Shedelya, Pokrovskaya church of Ivan Grigorovicha-lordly (all in XVIII v.). The synthesis of the European baroque and Ukrainian architectural reasons - decorative pattern, symbolism, choice of color and other is noticeable in creation of the Kievan architects This phenomenon was got by the name Ukrainian, or cossack, baroque.
Considerable development was got by a musical art. Already in XVI v. notes were widely used in Ukraine. Collections of festive songs are popular were - irmologiony. which was printed in printing-houses. A musical deed was studied by the students of kollegiumov, and in XVIII v. musical the capital of Left-bankness was become by Glukhov. Musical school was here opened, where studied a vocal, game on a violin, flute, guslis, harp. Most graduating students got traditionally to Moscow and Petersburg. For example, the half of choristers of tsar's choir was made by vykhodcy of their Ukraine. And although in XVIII v. local gentlefolks also aimed to create in the estates vocal and instrumental choirs, the best, the most talented musicians became «migratory birds however». Typical a fate of composer Dmitry Bortnyanskogo, which gets to Moscow as early as childhood, is, for example. Nevertheless in his creation repeatedly there were Ukrainian reasons. Two other talented composer of XVIII v. is Maksim Berezovskiy and Artemiy Vedel' - were more closely related to Ukraine.Pupils of the Kiev Mohyla academy, they studied and for ital'yan¬skikh masters. Composers worked in different genres, in particular opera, but church music prevailed however. Masterpieces for the time are consider vocal concerts, expected on po¬lifoniyu (mnogogolos'e).
XVI is the first half of XVIII centuries. were the important stage of development of the Ukrainian culture. Selected from the array of Old Russian kul'tu¬ry in previous centuries, a young culture appeared in terms, which, it would seem, must were bring it over to disappearance, assimilations by other cultures. But in people there were forces, providing not only a survival but also further development of the Ukrainian culture as original, with peculiar only to it by lines. Development of the Ukrainian culture took place in close connection with getting up of national liberation motion against Speech of Pospolitoy. pi¬kom which was become by war 1648-1657 However section of Ukrainian earths between two empires, rolling up of autonomy of Ukraine Russian carizmom, liquidation of getmanschiny, prohibition of publications in Ukrainian language, rusifikaciya of apex of Ukrainian society by the end of XVIII v. again created a heavy for the Ukrainian culture situation.
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Тези до XVI international School-Seminar “Spectroscopy of molecules and crystals”, 25. 05 06 2003, Sevastopol, Ukraine
|Xviii-iii ст до н е. Історії Стародавньої Греції|
Стародавнього Сходу. Єгипет. Месопотамія у ІV-II тис до н е. Хеттське царство. Стародавня Індія. Стародавній Китай XVIII-III ст до...
|Ingle crystals growth by Czochralski method||Ingle crystals growth by Czochralski method|