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Зміст3 Period of Enlightenment and Rationalism (15th century
4. Political-sociological stage (2nd
5. Political science period (since
Early ancient and ancient periods of development of the world political thought. theology
Ancient period of development of the world political thought
Plato is the most
Aristotle was Plato's follower. His
Marcus Tullius Cicero is a representative of-Ancient Rome
The middle ages theology.
Main principles of politics (Advice for politicians), proved by Machiavelli, are possible to generalise in the following way
1. Thomas Hobbes
3. Jean Jacque Rousseau
Political-sociological (2nd half 19th century - ii world war, beginning of 40-s) and political scince period (from 1949) of deve
POLITICAL SCIENCE STAGE (since 1949)
LECTURE № 2
HISTORY OF POLITICAL THEORIES
1. Pre-ancient (4th century BC) and ancient (5thcentury AD) periods of development of the world political thought. Theology (Middle Ages)
2. Enlightenment and Rationalism period (15th - the first half of 19th century)
3. Political-sociological (2nd half 19th century - II World War, beginning of 40-s) and political science period (from 1949) of development of the world political thought.
PERIODIZATION OF THE WORLD POLITICAL THOUGHT
1. Pre-ancient period of development of the world political thought (4th century BC)
Political doctrines of the Ancient East. Two political currents - Confucianism (Confucius) and Legalism (Shang Yang)
2. Ancient period of development of the world political thought
(5th century BC - 2nd century AD).
Political doctrines of Ancient Greece and Rome, leading philosophers Protagoras, Hippias, Фрасемах, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero
Theology (Middle Ages). Church dogmas acted both as political axioms and rules of law.
^ - the first half of 19th century)
Euro-American political and philosophical thought of Renaissance, Enlightenment and realistic concepts of the first half of 19th century.
N. Machiavelli, J. Bodin, T. Hobbes, J.-J. Rousseau, J. Locke, S. Montesque, I. Kant, K. Marx
^ half of 19th century - II World War, the beginning of 1940-s)
Political processes were researched in the context of sociology or independently, but being based on empirical methods.
A. Comte, H. Spencer, M. Weber, E. Durkheim, Pareto, Моска, Михельс
^ 1949). Political science is an independent science and subject which unites both theoretical and empirical methods of research (it is recognised by UNESCO).
Henry Lasswell, Robert Dal, David Easton, Zbigniev Brzezinski, Gabriel Almond
EARLY ANCIENT PERIOD (4th century BC)
Political science as a science was formed not so long ago, but political ideas, concepts and theories have been accumulated for centuries. With state appearance there appeared first political science concepts. This process began in the countries of the Ancient East first.
Features of political thought of the Ancient East:
1. It proved a divine origin of power;
2. Identified state power with the power of the king or emperor;
3. Recognized divine interference in the state governing and in ruling sway the human destinies;
4 Proclaimed priority of ethical and moral principles over political ones
5 Had applied character, i.e. mentioned governing problems, but not structures and functions of political institutes.
Among political doctrines of the Ancient East in the 4th century BC, Confucianism and Legalism were basic concepts of politics.
Its founder was Confucius (Cun-zi). He considered the state as a big family where power of the emperor was like power of the father in the name of each member of the family. Relations between the governor and citizens were considered as relations between elder and younger members of the family. People's blessing was a main objective of the state administration. The governor should come from a noble family and care about people benifits, protect them by means of weapon and bring them up. In their turn, people must obey orders of the governor implicitly.
Legalism. Shang Yang was its founder. Legalists refused ethical and religious understanding of politics of their predecessors. In their opinion, the government should be based only on laws (for the first time there was introduced such thought) following of which should be provided by centralised machinery of the state officials. People, but not the governors who are legislators must follow these laws. Ideal state is the state where there is one encouragement (award) on every 9 punishments.
(5th century BC - 2nd century AD)
Unlike the early ancient period, the ancient one has its own features:
1 For the first time political theories became a separate area;
2 the principle of individual freedom and civil duties was put forward instead of east collectivist morals. People were given rights to write laws and form political institutes;
3 For the first time in political theories questions on essence and form of the state, and also ideas of private property and law were considered.
Concepts of the ancient period laid the foundation for the western political tradition.
5th century BC - sophists (paid teachers of philosophy in Ancient Greece).
Protagoras, Hippias, etc.
Protagoras: «Man is a measure for all things. All people are equal by nature.»
Socrates did not write any scientific work. His thoughts were written down by his followers (Plato, Aristotle). Socrates asserted that kings and governors are not those who hold a sceptre in their hands who received power by drawing lots or by violence, but those who have a talent to rule over people.
Considerable contribution to development of the ancient political thought was made by Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, Roman historian Poliby and politician Cicero.
^ gifted disciple of Socrates. He explained state genesis as natural aspiration of people for public life for securing of requirements for existence and perfection. One of his works - "The State" (4 volumes). State, according to Plato, should serve first of all to the high ideal - approach of people to idea of good, calmness and happiness. He developed two concepts of state: ideal and real.
The basic features of the ideal state, according to Plato, are:
1) Generality and constancy. Generality suggests the state being guided by common good, instead of separate interests of citizens. Constancy consists in common citizens' achievement of the state purpose.
2) In the ideal state all citizens should be divided in 3 strata, each of which should live and be brought up in certain conditions and possess their own virtues:
I (highest) stratum - governors who should be philosophers (philosophers who rule over the state). Their virtue is wisdom;
II stratum - soldiers who care about the state integrity, protect its borders and home order. Their virtue is bravery;
III stratum - handicraftsmen, merchants, grain-growers, all those who are occupied with extraction of material means for existence. Their virtue is moderation, reasonableness of actions and acts.
The first two strata should live according to communistic principles - without private property and family. They should also pass through the school of state education.
Plato suggests state forms according to the degree of their perfection and regressive line of development.
Aristocracy is power of the best, the timocratia is power of military men, oligarchy is power of the rich; democracy is power which supposes equality and levels hierarchical properties of people; tyranny is power of unfair and not clever people who seized it by force.
Thus, the ideal form of state governing, according to Plato, existed in the past. If there are no philosophers in the state capable to govern, Plato in his work "Laws" offers the project of the legislative state in which wise laws replace wisdom of philosophers. In this work, Plato stated a unique guess about destruction of the state in which laws were not valid and were under someone's power. And on the contrary, only that state provides blessing of its citizens where law is sovereign over governors, and they are its slaves.
^ work - «Politia». Aristotle, unlike Plato, did not offer the project of ideal state, and focused his attention on such state model which would be the most comprehensible to certain historical conditions. He treated the state as a unity of free citizens created for society governing. Aristotle did not accept Plato's idea about property and home life nationalisation recognising that it would lead to laziness and egoism.
He classified forms of the state according two criteria: number of governors and purpose of governing (service to general welfare or personal interests). According to these criteria, Aristotle distinguished right and wrong forms of the state.
He considered monarchy (the imperial power), aristocracy and politia right forms of power, and tyranny, oligarchy and democracy - wrong ones.
He considered politia the best form of the state. Politia is moderate democracy which unites best features of oligarchical and democratic governing and is based on laws. Politia should be supported by middle class which can maintain balance between the rich and the poor.
The main slogan of «Politia»: Man is political animal (i.e. everybody aspires to power).
Polubius developed logic of appearance and change of six forms of the state such as monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy, охлократии, tyranny within one cycle. Monarchy as individual governing of the king or the leader is based on reason. Decaying, monarchy turns to tyranny, and discontent with tyranny can lead to establishing aristocracy by noble men with the help of people. Aristocracy, in its turn, gradually regenerates to oligarchy where power is used for the purpose of making profit. People dissatisfied with luxury of oligarchy, dethrone its power and establish their political system - democracy. Ochlocracy (power of the crowd) when anarchy and mess dominate is a perverted (unnatural) form of democracy. Incapable to govern, the crowd elects the king again. To overcome circulation of political forms, it is necessary to establish mixed form of the state which would unite monarchy, aristocracy and democracy.
^ . He laid foundation of judicial understanding of the state not only as display of public interest of all its free members, but as display of their dialogue ordered by the right, «general law and order». He proved republican principle of the state forming (res publlicus - public business).
The ideal form of the state is republic (such, as Roman). The main objective of the state power is safety of citizens, overcoming their fear of each other.
Cicero, as well as Polybius, supported mixed form of the state by analogy with the state system of Rome, where monarchic form was represented by power of city council (first of all power of consuls), aristocratic - by powers of the senate, democratic by powers of public meetings and tribunes.
State governing which, according to Cicero, is a unity of science and art, demands knowledge, honesty and practical skills. The wise statesman should provide a course of political events, neutralise undesirable consequences on time, and be capable to establish order by dictatorial in case of danger for the state.
Decline of the Greek-Roman civilisation and appearance of the feudal states of medieval Europe where the Christian church occupied predominating position, led to essential change in essence and contents of political thought. Political thought of medieval Europe was under the influence of theology.
Church dogmas were both political axioms and rules of law.
The main principle of the medieval doctrine was "Existing power is established by the God and there is no other power". The most wide-spread doctrine of 12th - 13th centuries was the doctrine of "two swords» which were owned by the Church. It kept one sword for itself, the other handed over to governors for their directing terrestrial affairs and carrying out will of the Church at the same time. (Aurelius Augustine)
^ «City of God».
ENLIGHTENMENT AND RATIONALISM PERIOD (15th - the first half of 19th century)
During the Early modern period, with appearance of capitalist relations, political philosophy tried to become free from theology, to explain the nature of political phenomena from rational point of view.
The given period is represented by the five basic concepts:
Its founder was Nicollo Machiavelli. His main work is "The Prince" where he laid the basis of secular understanding of state and politics. He tried to make politics free from religious and moral bases. The essence of any dogma, according to Machiavelli, is important not from the point of view of its value, but from the point of view of public benefit; i.e. for performing a slavish duty or for formation of high qualities of a free person. He defended the slogan "purpose justifies the means", and it meant that the governor for the sake of glory and power of the state can break moral standards. But he admitted the governor to be immoral only in case of mortal danger to the state. In all other cases the governor should aspire to be fair and honest.
Mixed republican form of Ancient Rome was ideal form of governing for Machiavelli. But individual dictatorship for taming willfulness of aristocracy and establishing order should precede it.
· For governing, it is necessary to know the true reasons of human acts, their desires and interests;
· In politics, it is always necessary to count on the worst, instead of on ideally best;
· Power must not encroach on the property of citizens as it causes their hatred
· Governor should unite in himself characteristics of lion to defeat eemies by force, and fox to avoid traps artfully placed by opponents. One must be a fox to recognise traps, and a lion to frighten off wolves;
· Sovereign has to instil horror for if not to get love then to get rid of hatred and establish order in the state;
· People, choosing officials, can sometimes make better choice than the governor;
· Tyranny of the governor is more terrible than tyranny of the people.
Concept of the state sovereignty.
Founder Jean Bodin.
Jean Bodin formulated the concept of sovereignty as essential sign of the state. In his understanding, state sovereignty is unique, indivisible, free from restrictions and laws power over citizens.
The basic features of sovereignty (according to Bodin) are:
· independence of power which is shown externally in independence from other states, and internally - in independence from submission to anybody in the state;
· constancy and continuity of power (which in France, for example, manifested during communique about death of one king and introduction to the throne of another one (the king died, long live the king) is delegation of power by peace;
· being not bound by laws as they are orders of the same sovereign power (power can be bound by law as display of the common justice);
· inalienability and indivisibility of power (monarchy).
Sovereign power, according to J. Bodin, has right to pass laws, to declare war and peace, to appoint officials, to administer justice, to pardon, to mint coin, to establish measures and weights, to collect taxes.
Theory of the social contract
Concepts of natural rights and social contract have been developed by English thinkers ^ and John Locke, and a French thinker Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The essence of concepts of natural human rights consisted in recognition that people have right to life, freedom, property and safety by nature and nobody can encroach on natural rights as integral from the essence of a person. People got these rights from birth. Philosophers understood this state differently: T. Hobbes - as «the war of all against all» ("Bellum omnium contra omnes"), though J. Locke emphasised peace character of people by nature, however he did not exclude possibility of occurrence of threat of existence of the natural rights. J.-J. Rousseau treated natural state as the happiest period of mankind. Depending on understanding of natural state these thinkers explained the essence of social contract between power and people.
The nature of a person - "the war of all against all". State is a result of social contract between power and people where people completely refuse their rights, submit to the absolute power (Leviathan - a mythical monster) to get rid of constant fear for own life.
2. J. Locke
People only partially delegate their rights, limiting thus the power, conferring it the "minimum" authority, keeping thus specific features.
Social contract is deceit of the poor by the rich. The rich created the power for protection of their interests. Rousseau offered in exchange such contract in which separate individuals while delegating their rights of community created by them, provide their civil rights and freedoms.
J.-J. Rousseau is considered as a founder of the concept of people's sovereignty which essence consists in people being a source and a bearer of power. The people sovereignty, according to J.-J. Rousseau, cannot be aloof or divided. Therefore he criticised supporters of division of power, comparing them with Japanese conjurers who cut a child into pieces, throw up upwards, and the child remains live and safe.
J.-J. Rousseau opposed idea of differentiation of functions of bodies of the state to the idea of power division. The people sovereignty is carried out by means of participation of all citizens in legislative process. He was sure that the laws passed by people, would be useful both for the people as a whole, and for each citizen separately. J.-J. Rousseau as a representative of direct democracy denied parliamentarism on the ground that parliament, first, reflected interests of different parties and cliques, second, deputies did not reflect directly collective will, and were only authorised persons for discussion of laws.
The concept of power division
J. Locke and Charles Montesquieu put forward the concept of division of power. According to Locke, power is divided into legislative, executive and federal.
The first establishes norms of behaviour of the citizens, the second carries out actions on application of laws, and the third defines relations of the state with other states. Locke does not separate judicial power from the executive one.
Developing J. Locke's doctrine, C. Montesquieu allocated three branches of power: legislative, executive and judicial.
The principle of power division supposed that it belongs to different authorities, and the law establishes prerogatives for each of the power branches, each branch of power both limit and constrain each other (i.e. there is a mechanism of control and counterbalance). Power concentration in hands of one person, according to C. Montesquieu, inevitably leads to death of freedom and abuse of power.
The concept of civil society and jural state
The basic ideas of the concept of jural state are found in works of German philosophers Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm, Friedrich Hegel.
Immanuel Kant defended thought that blessing and mission of the state was in the perfect right, in the maximum corresponding of structure and system of the state to law principles. State (according to Kant) is a community of many people subordinated to legal laws. The state purpose does not consist is in care about material and social interests of citizens, but in legal maintenance of individual freedom.
Thus, the idea about impossibility of alienation of the main natural human rights belongs to the basic components of the concept of jural state which which were worked out by philosophers of Enlightenment and rationalism. These natural human rights do not depend on the state recognition, but should be legalised the state and limit its authority; compulsion of the constitutional and judicial guarantees of the rights of the person; leadership of law over the state.
Theoretical bases of the concept of civil society were laid by Hegel. In his opinion, civil society is characterised by system of requirements, justice and corporations, is based on private property and general equality.
The main function of civil society which completely relies in its actions on justice, - protection of freedom and private interests of citizens. However Hegel considered civil society through a prism of social and status structure of society of that time and gave priority to the state as to an embodiment of "absolute spirit» over civil institutes.
Marxism was a serious opponent of these political concepts of classical liberalism. Marxist concept of politics developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels contains such basic ideas:
· State did not exist always. In a primitive-communal society, before appearance of writing and class structure, states did not exist. State appearance is connected with division of labour and assignment of ways of manufacture that led to appearance of antagonistic classes.
· State is an instrument of a ruling class which is used for conquest of oppressed classes. The capitalist state is an instrument of maintenance of domination of bourgeoisie over proletariat. K. Marks supposed that there were periods of equilibrium between antagonistic classes in the history of society when the state got independence from interests of a ruling class.
· For keeping power over oppressed classes, the state uses three basic means, resorting to them simultaneously or in turn, depending on a situation - army, police and bureaucracy to which such features as centralisation, hierarchy, rituality are peculiar; ideology with the help of which real oppression is hidden and which distracts from thought about any resistance to it.
· Irreconcilability of antagonistic classes leads inevitably to class struggle which is a motive force of history
· Revolution is a necessary condition of public progress, and the basic force of revolutionary process is proletariat which has nothing to lose, except shackles. Winning independence for itself, it gets freedom for all society.
· Revolutionary violence is a necessary condition for transition to a new social order. Marxism supposed a peace way of social development only on condition that the organised proletariat forces bourgeoisie to surrender.
· For realisation of revolutionary violence in relation to bourgeoisie, the proletariat establishes its dictatorship. It is necessary only at a transition period stage (from capitalism to socialism). After disappearance of antagonistic classes, the state will disappear and people self-governing will be established.
· Negation of liberal democracy with its parliamentarism and division of power as such which creates illusion of public representation, but actually is only one of dictatorship kinds. Marxists suppose «bourgeois democracy» only in the limits favorable for class struggle, but their overall objective remains destruction of liberal-democratic political system and its replacement with "temporary" dictatorship of proletariat with the further building of society of communistic type.
· Ideal state is a state of communistic type.
POLITICAL-SOCIOLOGICAL (2ND HALF 19TH CENTURY - II WORLD WAR, BEGINNING OF 40-S)
The big influence on development of political thought was made by positivism which started to be formed in 1830's, but became dominating methodology in the end of 19th - beginning of 20th century. Its main principles were formulated by Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim.
Sociological positivism strives for:
1. transferring methods and principles, characteristic of natural sciences, on the branch of cognition of society;
2. releasing sociology from metaphysical and ethical problems;
3. refusing any influence and psychological predilections in scientific research.
Positivists were engaged to more extent in sociological problems though they touched upon separate questions of the theory of politics.
For example, French sociologist Auguste Comte (a representative of early positivism) considered three stages of social development (theological, metaphysical, positivistic), analyzed a condition of political relations at each of them. At the theological stage (to 1300), ecclesiastical and secular power were united, the ruling of hereditary monarchy was characteristic. At the metaphysical stage, power came to philosophers-metaphysicists, there was a desire to replace monarchy by people power, individualism and egoism amplified. The positivistic stage is characterised by ruling of sociocratia which is based on solidarity of interests. Rich patricians ruled the society, relying on professionalism of philosophers-positivists. A. Comte, unlike philosophers of enlightenment proclaimed priority of the rights of person, placed emphasis on categories of duty, order and progress.
^ defended the concept of gradual development of society, without revolutionary cataclysms (he considered revolutions as social pathologies), and its similarity with human body functions. According to such understanding of social development he divided two types of society - military and industrial.
According to Spencer, in military society there is a military despotic power which corresponds to conditions of severe struggle of people for survival where the stronger, more artful and mean win.
In industrial society instead of rough military discipline, peace, order, freedom, equality, cooperation and voluntary consent dominate. The state turns into «voluntary political association for mutual protection of interests of individuals». Such state should interfere less in social and economic life, into realisation of the principle «do what you want to, trade with whom you want to».
H. Spencer understood public progress as increase in guarantees of participation of citizen in the process of power realisation and consequently criticised the phenomena of strengthening of bureaucracy, centralisation, militarization. He also criticised European parliamentarism. All these limited freedom of citizens, their participation in political life. In the theory of socialism Spencer saw, in case of its realisation, appearance of a new slave-owning society.
Though Emile Durkheim was not engaged in research of social problems of politics, he laid the main principles of methodology of positivistic sociology which formed a basis of political science development. The essence of these principles was the following:
Certain deviation from methodology of classical positivism is observed in works of German sociologist Max Weber. His direction is called understanding sociology as human actions, according to Weber, can be explained as they contain social sense are always focused on actions of other people.
The basic difference of Weber's sociology from sociology of classical positivism consists in the following:
· he suggests to consider social facts as certain values with the help of which society, social groups and separate individuals show their attitude to the world, and connection between which, unlike natural phenomena, is not put in usual concept "law";
· he asserts the thought that scientific theories, hypotheses about society can be considered as probable;
· he suggests consideration of social phenomena from the analysis of social action of a person (methodological individualism), instead of social institutes;
M. Weber, from the analysis of social action, suggests three kinds of legitimate governing which is based on trust of citizens to the power: rational-legal, traditional and charismatic. Rational governing which exists in countries of Western Europe and in the USA, supposes subordination not to personalities, but laws, it also demands professionalism from authorities. Traditional governing is based on belief in sanctity of traditional public orders. This type does not professional governing and power division, but personal fidelity of servants to their misters. Charismatic board is based on belief of people in extraordinary talent of the political leader. Authoritative style of governing when laws and traditions are ignored is peculiar to it.
M. Weber considered politics as participation in realisation of power or striving for influencing its division within the state and between states. State, according to Weber, is a community of people which within certain territory uses monopoly for legal physical violence.
M. Weber also developed ideas about modern bureaucracy. He considered bureaucracy as a device of governing - hierarchic, lacking individuality, specially prepared, as a display of public rationalisation which grasped the European society after feudalism decline. M. Weber considered that bureaucracy was not only a state element, but of the whole complex of social institutes (political parties, trade unions, churches, enterprises) and its willfulness could be limited by power of the leaders elected by the people.
Elite concepts of Italian sociologists Vilfredo Pareto, Gaetano Moska and German sociologist Robert Michels also belong to the political-sociological stage of development of the political thought. Supporters of these concepts allocate in the society creative minority - elite which govern the state and people incapable of active and creative activity.
V. Pareto proved the law of elite circulation. According to this law, first power is grasped by that elite which uses force as means of coming to power and keeping it ("lions" elite), after it other elite which comes to power by means of belief ("foxes" elite) comes. Circulation of elite, according to V. Pareto, is carried out also vertically - top-down and bottom-up. Vertical circulation comes when elite becomes a brake for development and it is eliminated by revolution.
G. Moska formulated the concept of a new political class - the governing minority which aspires to legalise and rationalise their governing. Division of political elite is characteristic of any society, irrespective of political regime. There are two kinds of the ruling clique: aristocratic, or closed, elite which resists changes, and democratic, or opened which supposes expansion of their numbers at the expense of people from bottoms. The system of elite of the closed and opened types does not always coincide with dictatorship and democracy system.
R. Michels formulated «the iron law of oligarchy» according to which the ruling minority exists in any organisation and has power over the majority. The ruling minority tries to keep the power and to strengthen their positions. This process is irreversible and characteristic both for authoritative and for democratic parties.
After the Second World War political thought developed in the context of political science itself. A leading Behaviourism direction took the leading place in the development of political science during this period up to 1960-s. For behaviourism the main thing is not working out of concepts and explanation of the public phenomena and processes, but description of facts, improvement of supervision technique. In such understanding behaviourism methodology presupposes, first, consideration of fixed behaviour only; second, improvement of technique of facts registration which is based on mathematical and statistical data; third, works are carried out directly on the location of object of research; fourth, the preference is given to processes which can be observed and calculated such as: to elections structure, distribution of voices, activity of political parties, pressure groups, decision-making mechanism.
The concept of mass communications and the concept of elite pluralism is distinguished in behaviourism. The most famous representative of the concept of mass communication is an American political scientist Harold Lasswell. He considered politics as behaviour of political groups, and power as a phenomenon of interpersonal interaction. He studied influence of mass media on reproduction and distribution of symbolics of political power, and deduced the formula which is revealed in the following components: who speaks - what he says, with the help of what channel and to who, with what effect? In such sequence communicator (i.e. the institute which organises, supervises); message (so-called content-analysis); ways and audience (its qualitative and quantitative characteristics); result (i.e. changes of audience consciousness) are under research. In such understanding of mass media human socialising is considered by H. Lasswell as an open forum for constant discussion of problems on access to basic vital values. Problems of public opinion and mass media were also researched by Paul Lasarsfeld and David Risman.
Certain conclusions were drawn by Robert Dal as for the concept of elite pluralism (i.e. polyarchy), namely:
According to R. Dal, polyarchic model of governing is peculiar to all American society and to certain extent to all world civilisation.
In 1960-s behaviourism ran gauntlet and was partially cast away by American political scientists. This criticism was reduced by such moments:
1) bihaviourism has an excessive inclination to figures because of which it is possible to miss more important problems which cannot be measured directly;
2) beheviourism is a fragmentary approach to the analysis of facts prevents from global approach to political problems;
3) bihaviourism is a pseudopolitism as it, being based only on the facts, cannot criticise public order because thus it will defend its preservation subconsciously.
New currents of post-behaviourist directions are guided by such principles:
1) Reality should dominate over research techniques
2) Main problem of political science consists not only in describing and analysing the facts, but in treating them from the point of view of key problems of political development;
3) Scientists should unite both informative and standard-value aspects of political science. Among these political trends it is necessary to emphasise systematism of David Easton who formulated the doctrine about political system. According to D. Easton, the main task of systems consists in distribution of values and forced recognition of it by most part of society for a long time. Impossibility of system to carry out distribution of values leads to intensity increase in it and even to its destruction.
For understanding of system processes, according to D. Easton, high level of theoretical generelisations is necessary, except certain volume of empirical data.
To modern political concepts belong concepts of totalitarianism and social political modernisation. Problems of totalitarianism origin are thoroughly reseasched in works of Hannah Arendt, Raymon Aron, Zbigniev Brzezinski, Friedrich Hajek, etc.
For example, H. Arendt explained origin of totalitarianism from atomizating society which did not consist of citizens, but of the mass which appeared as a result of decomposition of class system and, being at the stage of general confusion, it was looking for the leader, without which this mass was only crowd. At the same time the leader without mass is nothing too. In such society where there is a movement for movement, terror becomes the main core of political activity.
H. Arendt distinguished «terror of revolutionary dictatorship», directed against opponents of regime, and totalitarian terror directed against everybody. She considered that the basic difference of totalitarian dictatorship from the previous ones consisted in indissoluble connection of ideology and terror. As totalitarian regimes Arendt considered only national socialist Germany of the beginning of 1940-s and Stalin's Russia.
R. Aron researched into totalitarian regime in comparison with liberal one. As criterion of comparison he took the type of organisation of political parties. Proceeding from it, R.Aron distinguished two types of regime - constitutional pluralistic and monopolistic. He considered legal organisation of peace competition for power and government gain as dominating feature of constitutional pluralistic regime.
The basic feature of monopolistic regime is maintenance of the unique party of monopoly for the legalised political activity which leads to the following consequences:
1) monopoly of power influences character of the state, makes power wilful;
2) monopoly of power demands great ideological efforts for its legalisation;
3) monopoly of power denies opposition existence in its basis;
4) monopolistic regime leads to appearance of belief and fear in the basis of public consciousness:
History of political doctrines and ideas, accumulation of political knowledge schouldn't be confused with political science itself. The first ones appear with the appearance of the state, and political science was formed in the process of exarticulation of politics as an independent subsystem of human society. It started only during modern in the course of formation of the capitalist society.
Political science begins with the following 3 events:
1857 Francis Laber started reading lectures on the theory of political processes in Columbia University
1880 John Burgess opened the first political school
1949 The International Association of Political Science was formed in the USSR under the aegis of UNESCO.
Policy - is system which has its system formation factors: political interests, political consciousness, political behaviour, political relations, political institutes, civil society with social institutes (not of political character).
Realisation of political activity is impossible without presence of certain system - political power. It represents set of elements which are officially recognised as executors of political power. These are State machinery, political parties, trade unions, various public organisations (church does not belong to political organisation as in our society it is separated from the state). These are the main components of branched out and strong soldered system unity, the mechanism with the help of which political power is carried out in society.
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Визначати поняття типових патологічних процесів: пошкодження клітини, місцевих порушень кровообігу та мікроциркуляції