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ЗмістProcess political of socialization has objects and subjects
Stages of typical features
Process and institutions of political socialization
PERSONALITY as Subject and Object of POLICY
1 People and Politics
2 Political socialization of the individual
3 Political behavior and human activity in the policy
1. PEOPLE AND POLITICS
Criteria for evaluation of the subject-actor.
1) A specific political actions-actions.
2) real level of influence on policy decisions in public policy.
3) They are the organized governmental organization.
Actor - anyone who is actively involved in political cooperation with the state, regardless of the impact on policy decisions and the nature of public policy. Not all citizens of the state are the actors (do not understand, alienated, do not want). Potential actors, all the citizens who are alienated from politics.
Actors are all interactive with each other
Partsionalnost-principle of the here and now (non-professional politician, may not be interested in, terrorist attack, komikadze)
Behavior groups are the basis for policy. And the groups and institutions are made up of people, the subject-individual.
The subject of politics characteristic of:
1. Purposeful action (teleological)
2. Certain relationship with the government
There is a paradigm of human relations and power.
Paradigm-logical model formulation and solution of scientific problems.
1. Paternalism Confucius, the founder of
Type of interaction with non-elite of the elite groups, when the first guarantee social protection in exchange for loyalty and support.
The high degree of state intervention in the economy, social and cultural spheres of society.
1.Priority of the state over a person
2. Liberalism-priority rights over the state, Locke, Jefferson
Man is the main social value. The state only "night watchman"
3. The paradigm of solidarity and subsidiary
Proclaims a compromise between the individual and the state, and this compromise should be based on government subsidies to the individual.
Slogan: A man should not live for ourselves and not for others, and with all and for all. Montesquieu, Rousseau, Rogozin, Panarin.
Relies on individual human potential.
The concept of socialization has been introduced in the scientific revolution to the end of the XIX century. American sociologist FA Giddings and French social psychologist G. Tardieu. They knew him by "the process of development of the social nature of man and identity formation under the influence of social environment." At the turn of the 50-60s. XX century. By analogy with this concept was formulated and the notion of "political socialization", which means the process of perception and assimilation of individuals of the political values, norms and rules of behavior in this society and their active reproduction of political knowledge and experience in communication and ongoing of activity.
Political socialization - a process of assimilation of certain political knowledge, values and norms, transfer and acquisition of political experience gained by previous generations, allowing the individual to become a full participant in the political life of society, navigate complex social processes, make informed choices in politics.
Political socialization process initiation and development of the individual during his life of political knowledge, norms and values of the society within which it exists.
The subject of politics is always active, spreading its influence on the object.
Function of the process: information, value-oriented, and regulatory.
Stages of age-specific software politically socialization - 3 - 16 (18) - 40 - 60
1. 3-4 years-family.
2. School years, the state system of education (+ newspapers, magazines, books)
Civil Rights or the maturation of his initiation to politics stepwise. at an early age, when a family, close associates, the media, the child acquires the first information about the policy. At the stage of primary socialization children receive the initial idea of right or wrong behavior, actions. It is believed that the child passes through four sub steps primary socialization: the politicization - awareness of the existence of foreign children (in relation to family) of power, personalization - the understanding of political power through the children personalize their figures, idealization - the attribution of political leaders only positive qualities institutionalization - turning in the minds of children to the more impersonal, depersonifitsirovannomu notion of power.
1. PERSONIFICATION-stage when the process of socialization is associated with specific political actors. BLL Clinton-America, Pinochet-dictatorship. System, the regime ideology is just a person.
2. IDEALIZATION some samples, images of man-American smile, Russians-dolls. Operate on an emotional level. The main factor is the emotional perception of politics.
3. Institutionalize the process, a stage when some formalized system of knowledge, a holistic worldview concept, independent political orientation.
Truth from his parents, the moral principles from childhood.
Socialization, primary and secondary
Primary - direct acquisition of political knowledge and attitudes
Resocialization (secondary) - the projection of their own personality traits, childhood experiences, their environment on the political values and orientations
Types and patterns of political socialization:
1. hegemonic type of negative attitude to the whole person beyond the limits of its political system, characterized by a negative attitude a person to any social and political systems, but "his";
2. pluralistic type - the recognition of human equality with other citizens of their rights and freedoms and by characterizing its ability to change their political preferences, go to a different value systems, characterized by high levels of political activity of the masses, mobility, social values, attitudes, the proclamation of the equality of all people in the world.
3. Conflict-type formed on the basis of intergroup conflict and struggle of interdependent interests and therefore perceiving their own goal and the politicization of maintaining loyalty to their group and its support, loyalty to one's own group and intolerance towards other
4. Harmonic - is characterized by psychologically normal relations with the institutions of human government, which give rise to a rational and respectful attitude towards the rule of law, the state, their civic duties; compromise between power and man, where the first protects the interests of rights in all spheres, and the second recognizes and fulfills civic duties.
Under the political socialization is to be understood the totality of the processes of formation of political consciousness and an individual's behavior, adoption and implementation of political roles of political activity. This concept is broader than the political education and enlightenment, as it involves not only the intended effect on the identity of the dominant ideology and political line, not just a natural effect, but also his own political activity of the subject.
The process of political socialization of the individual attached to the political culture shapes its political orientation and position. Changes in the model of political culture are carried out through a political socialization.
Political socialization takes place in any country and any form of government because the ruling circles seek to promote among the citizens of friendly management norms of political behavior and political participation.
The process of political socialization is aimed at addressing the following major tasks: the transfer of new members of the public key elements of its political culture and consciousness, creating favorable conditions for accumulation members of the community the necessary political experience to political activity and creativity all comers, conversion of the corresponding elements of political culture as a necessary condition for change .
Of particular interest in the content and the possible consequences of the process of political socialization is due to two new phenomena. First, the socialization process has become more visible and defined through the expansion of the school system in the world. The technological revolution, opening the possibility of building a modern school system, at the same time made it necessary to functionally align the relative experience of socialization, where children are exposed the most diverse population. Because of this, political leaders have the opportunity to transfer to the general political values of young people with a certain number of channels that can be manipulated. Secondly, it serves as the spread of the "spirit of participation" in public life among members of all modern political systems. Regardless of the actual distribution of actual power, leaders have to theoretically justify their right to guide the support of those who find themselves depending on their decisions. Symbolically, the spread of the "spirit of participation" marks a change in status of an individual deprived of public office: in the "subject", he becomes a "citizen."
The process of political socialization takes place continuously for the entire life of the individual. With the accumulation of social and political experience is a permanent modification or consolidation of the respective positions and activities of the individual.
The process of political socialization has a historical character, which is determined by the specific development of civilization, the arrangement of social and political forces, especially the political system, as well as the peculiar perception of these factors for each individual. Political socialization is a certain class, political, moral, aesthetic and ethical orientation, aims at the formation of "voter" to a particular political culture and orientation.
The content and features of the political socialization depends on many factors, including the influence of the macro (the nature of the era, international relations, state, nation, class and other social groups, political culture), micro (institutional and informal communities, schools, families, and individuals) Interior genetically defined factors, and self-education.
The process of political socialization is carried out through various intermediaries: institutions (family, school, institution, and enterprise), group communication (relatives, friends, and interest groups), media (print, radio, television, computer information systems).
It is advisable to allocate political factors of socialization: the nature and type of government, political institutions, parties and movements, as well as non-political, family, peer groups, schools, work, culture, science, art, national traditions, the media (in general, as communication tool). In real life, political and nonpolitical factors are intertwined, have a complex, multifaceted and multi-factorial effects on humans.
Considering the processes of political socialization, it is necessary to pay attention to age and individual characteristics of each person on the surrounding social environment, the policies undertaken by government agencies, the activities of social, political parties and organizations, as well as on the level and characteristics of political culture.
So, from the earliest age a person is feeling the effects of socialization, which, the more effective it is freer field of action. The child discovers the role of government; in family and school - the father, mother, teacher, and he learns from the experience of conflict and ways to resolve them, he learns to obey or rebel, and he tries to join the operating standards of the group, which owns or departs from it. This kind of "pre-political" experience growing updated information on the history of his country, about politicians, about the periods of active political life. Observations show that the political socialization can go different ways, depending on the socio-cultural environment (system), belonging to a particular generation, class and even the personal data of the individual. Under the influence of attitudes and views that are prevalent in the family, political preferences, norms, values "laid" is often for life, are resistant.
A significant part of political education and training of children occurs at school, the period of which is the secondary stage of political socialization. During this time, is the study and assimilation of students in one way or another basic common political values and attitudes that they receive the initial experience of social practice, especially through participation in youth activities.
The next stage of political socialization between the ages of 16 to 30 years. By entering into this period of development, young people have the right to vote and be elected to various representative bodies, which affects their attitude to politics. They also get more in-depth knowledge in the field of policy studies by the institute, followed by training activities, etc.
Political socialization and continues into adulthood. On their political behavior, in addition to common factors significantly affect the life experience, having children, well-established political orientation. They may have a deep understanding volatile and controversial social events, make the necessary adjustments in their political attitudes and behavior.
Socializing influences and to people of retirement age. Some of them start more alive than ever, interested in political events. Many pensioners get some satisfaction from the possibility of even minimal participation in public life, the transfer of political and life experiences of young people.
In the process of political socialization, the role of the media. Modern media can influence the maximum number of people in a short period of time. In a sense, the media - the shortest path of political socialization.
The political socialization of all the components are important, all intermediaries. At the same time in different countries, these mediators may differ in degree of influence on this process. Thus, there is a persistent tendency to increase the role of television and computer technology in political socialization, in some countries reduced the number of persons employed in batches, in some states because of the increased price of the newspaper are not available for certain segments of the population.
(Polish politician): "Different people go their separate ways, forming its image."
1. The activists - well-informed people who seek power and are active for this
2. Competent observers, interested in politics, understand the political process, but do other things (writers, scientists)
3. Competent critics - with extremely negative attitude to political processes
4. Passive citizens, sometimes participate in the political process, refer to the policy of a neutral or negative.
5. Alienated apolitical people, fundamentally not interested in politics and do not participate in political processes.
Absenteeism, avoidance of political involvement and political apathy.
Political behavior is the collection of reactions to the activities of the political system.
Political participation is not equal to political activities
Political participation and political activity. Characterizes the shape of the individual regardless of their motivations and modalities of implementation, political participation, specifically the influence of citizens on the functioning of political system on the formation of certain political institutions and political decision-making.
Political action = political behavior only if they purposeful, understood and implemented specifically in political space.
Each actor has a certain political role, which is caused by coercion or interest.
By the nature of political participation can be autonomous and mobilization.
Standalone is the free activity of individuals to achieve personal or group interests.
Mobilization - always coercive pressure by certain polit.sil and incentives.
Antonym of politics is the political immobility (with the exception of the action)
-From the low level of self-development
- As a result of organization of the political system (alienation)
- Political apathy as a rejection of the political system, political boycott.
Conditions of political participation.
Macro causality-state's ability to enforcement, the profession, sometimes age
Micro causality-sense of threat to their society, rationality, the threat of loss of social status, desire for success in life and recognition, awareness of civic responsibilities, the realization of their rights, their own motivation (level of intelligence, religion, psychological type of entity)
The motives of political activity, selfish, selfless, compensatory
Types of political participation.
1. Delegation of authority - the process of distribution of the electorate to certain interest groups
2. Militant activities aimed at supporting specific political parties and their candidates
3. Participation in the activities political parties.
4. Political protest, appears where the state action "ineffective" and is "material" - disgruntled social status groups, the opposition government, terrorist association, the threat of the crowd.
- Demonstrations, rallies, strikes, if legalized
- Shadow Power (kriptokratiya)
- Political terrorism, opposition activities of extremist organizations or individuals whose purpose is systematic (or single) use of violence (or threat) to intimidate the government and the public.
Political actors, which were recorded in the Guinness Book of Records
Yaye Jammeh's youngest president in the world. At age 31, was elected President of the Gambia in September 1996.
Pedro Laskurayn President of Mexico - 1 hour. February 18, 1913 nazanchil successor, and went into retirement
Benazir Bhutto, Prime Minister Pakestana, who was elected 98.48% of votes
George Bush the most expensive inauguration $ 30 million
Lithuanian President Adamkus Valdus 1998, who lived in the country until the election less than a year (Illinois, Chicago)
President Boris Yeltsin, who most often was in the hospital from 1991 to May 1999 officially 13 times.
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|Object – quantitative calculation||Key concepts: need, personality structure, social intelligence, target model, need location, Streszczenie|
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К. “Coping behavior” in the system of concepts of psychology of personality // Psychological journal. – 1997. – Book. 18. – № – pp....