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V.N.Aleksandrovskaya, V.J.Belousova


Bases of the economic theory

Methodical instructions for seminar classes

For students

(Medical faculty)


Donetsk - 2008


ББК 60.5.73.

УДК 316 (075.8)


V.M.Aleksandrovskaya, V.J.Belousova


Methodical instructions contain the materials necessary for students during preparation for seminars at the rate "Basis of the economic theory". They include the justification of an urgency that and the purposes of seminar employment, theoretical questions to them, the list of the basic and additional literature, the column of logic structure that, a complex of learning tasks, determinations of new concepts, that of abstracts, tables and schemes, the characteristic of methodical forms of carrying out of employment.


Reviewers: M.I.Shutov, д. The house-keeper. н., the prof. каф. The organisations of higher education, management of health protection and эпидемиологии ФПО


It is confirmed at session

Academic council of DonNMU _________________. (The report № __________).


©V.N.Aleksandrovskaya, V.U.Belousova

© DonNMU


Theme 1.

The commodity organisation of production. Money and inflation.


^ 1. IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

One of the major not only economic, but also social tasks - reduction of a part of manual labour in production. It demands essential changes in living conditions and work of the person, increase of its cultural, educational and professional level. The capability of the person to work puts a part of its importance. Near to economic, to the person inherent and spiritual activity. Therefore development of the person influences not only technics and technology enhancement though the last and is an outstanding indicator thanks to which process of intellectualization of work amplifies. Together with it the social sphere and social living conditions should improve. Growth of requirements of the person became a consequence of development of a social production.


2. The training purposes

Basic aim:

To be able to analyze social production forms.

Particular purposes:

To be able:

- To give reason for a role of the person in economic system;

- To specify change of a place of the person in production;

- To characterise properties of the goods;

- To prove laws of origin of money, their essence and functions;

- To analyze advantages and lacks of inflationary tendencies and event of their prevention.

3. Content of the training

Theoretical questions

1. The Person in economic system.

2. Social production Forms.

3. The Goods and dual character of work.

4. Money, their functions.

5. The Law of monetary turnover. Inflation.


^ APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES:

1. Mochernij S.V. the Economic theory. - К: Publishing centre "Academy", 1999. - With. 83-96; 429-439; 96-135.

2. Башнянин Г І., the Azure of Item Ю, Medvedev V. S. Political economy. - К:Nikacentre, Elga, 2000. - With. 112-164.

3. Galchinsky Ampere-second., Eshchenko P. S, Palkin Ju.I.Bases of economic knowledge. - К: the Higher school, 2002. - With. 115-149; 400-404.

The additional literature

1. Economy / Under the editorship of Ampere-second. Булатова. - М: БЕК, 1999. - With. 2-14; 69-106.

2. Zadoja A. A, Petrunja J. E. Bases of economy. - К: the Higher school - Knowledge, 1998.-with. 8-23.

3. The Economic theory / Under the editorship of N.I.Bazyleva, S. P.Gurko. - Minsk:BGEU, 1997.-with. 5-46.

4. Juhimenko I., Leonenko P.M. History of economic doctrines. - К: Knowledge-pres. 2001.-514 with.

5. Nestorenko O.P.Istorija economic study.-to.: МАУП, 2000. - 132 with.





4. An approximate basis of activity

New terms

The economic category - concept that in an abstract kind displays the essential parties of separate economic events, processes.

^ Economic laws - relationships of cause and effect between the social and economic phenomena, essential communications between economic processes.

Production of goods - production of material benefits and granting of material services, accomplishment of building, repair, assembly, earthen and other works.

Reconstruction - constant renewal, continuous repeating of process of production. Differentiate a reconstruction idle time when production scales do not change, and expanded when the volume of output grows.

^ Scientific and technical progress - evolutionary and gradual development of a science and technics in their close interaction which is accompanied by respective alterations of other elements of a technological method of production and is used for increase of efficiency of a social production.

Scientific and technical revolution - basic changes in interaction of the person and the nature, and also, in system of productive forces and their material form.

Themes for research works

1. The Economic science in modern conditions.

2. History of economic thought in Ukraine

3. The Economic science in modern conditions.

4. National wealth of Ukraine, its structure and growth problems.

5. Modern medical technologies: granting of services and a reconstruction.


Table 1.1

History of economic doctrines

Stage


The stage characteristic


Representatives, historical monuments


The basic ideas


Antique

Economic ideas in general philosophical products and concepts


Aristotle Ksenofont Platon


The first analysis of labour division, costs, money, a capital heap


Middle century


Economic ideas in theological doctrines


Foma Akvinsky


State strengthening through availability of manufactured goods, award of trading profit and lihvarskogo percent


New time


The first economic doctrines



B.Davanzatti's T.Men's mercantilism Fiziokratija A. Monkreten



Riches basis - money (gold, silver).

Source of growth of riches


Nower days



Scientific studying of economic problems


Keynesianism Monetarism


State regulation of economy Development only for economy laws



Table 1.2

Types of economic growth

^ The extensive Facts of Growth


Intensive type of growth


Methods


Intensive type of growth

Forms



1. Increase in volume of investments and preserving of an existing technological level.

2. Increase in quantity of workers.

3. Growth of volumes of raw, materials and so forth


1. Introduction of new technics and the technology which basis is process of investment of production.

2. Increase of qualifying level of workers.

3. An intensification of use of production assets.

2. Improvement and introduction of new forms of the organisation of production and work.

3. Business activization.

4. Introduction of new information technology, economic activities information.


1. Labour care : the identical amount of works is performed by smaller quantity working the top skills.

2. Financially - and resource-care: uses more economic objects of the labour.




Table 1.3

Resources, factors and types of income in production

^ Kinds of resources


Production factors


Type of income


The natural

The material

The financial

The information

The labour


The Earth

Rent

Work


The capital

Percent

The salary




5. Target training tasks

The task 1.

As object of the economic theory as sciences production of goods acts. What is a subject of the economic theory?

A.Zakony and laws of development of production of goods.

V.Neobhodimost of production of goods.

With. Structural elements of production of goods.

D.Kategorii of production of goods.

E.Vidy of the economic property.


The task 2.

Each economic school has the basic object of research. In what theory for the first time as object of research production has acted directly?

A.Monetarizm.

V.Torgovogo balans.

S.Fiziokrati.

D.Kejnsianstvo.

E.Marzhinalizm.


The task 3.

As object of the economic theory as sciences production of goods acts. What is a subject of the economic theory?

A.Zakony and laws of development of production of goods.

V.Neobhodimost of production of goods.

With. Structural elements of production of goods.

D.Kategorii of production of goods.

E.Vidy of the economic property.


The task 4.

Productive forces incorporate some structural elements. What of them represents itself as the main thing?

A.Predmety truda.

V.Orudija truda.

S.Rabochaja sila.

D.Tehnologii.

E.Sredstva proizvodstva.


The task 5.

Production of goods is process of interaction of the person and surrounding environment. In what objective necessity of production of goods consists?

A.Priroda does not give in a ready kind of means for life.

To the person the aspiration to work is inherent in V.Estestvenno.

S.Neobhodimo to develop personal skills of use of natural substance.

D.Chelovek in the course of work has dialogue possibility.

E.Cheloveka is satisfied not always with subjects that the nature for consumption gives.


The task 6.

The property rights are determined by statutory acts. What includes the property right?

A.Pravo of use of useful qualities of the blessing for itself.

V.Pravo to solve, who and as will provide blessing use.

S.Pravo on blessing transfer behind the inheritance.

D.Pravo of the exclusive physical control over the blessing.

Е. All answers are correct.


The task 7.

The production purpose is profit reception. On what phase of a social production the profit should be got?

A.Proizvodstvo.

V.Obmen.

S.Potreblenie.

D.Raspredelenie.

E.Realizatsija of the goods.


^ 6. Short methodical instructions for work on practical class

Carrying out technique

The form of carrying out of employment - two-hour seminar employment. There is an acquaintance of the teacher to group then discussion of questions of the plan, decisions of problem situations begins. It is provided заслушивание and discussion abstract speech


Тheme 2. The finance, the credit and monetary turnover

^ 1. IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

The financial part is an important part of economic system as a whole which cannot function without the normal organised movement of funds. It is the factor of development and the indicator of position of national economy, welfare. Together with credit system it can be compared to system of blood circulation for a human body. As subjects of financial relations the enterprises and organisations, public organisations, the population act the state. With society development will become complicated also a financial system.

2. The training purposes


Basic aim:

To be able to open essence and the mechanism of functioning of financial and credit systems.

Particular purposes:

To be able:

 To make determination of the finance and a financial system;

 To open essence of the government budget and a role of a tax policy of the state;

 To analyse a state credit policy;

 To show value of system of insurance;

 To specify a role of securities and stock market in economy;

 To characterise functions and the basic controls at economic, branch, territorial levels, in particular, in a health care system.


Content of the training


Theoretical questions

1. The Finance and a financial system.

2. The Government budget and a state tax policy.

3. Banks and credit system. A state Credit policy.

4. Insurance System.

5. Securities and stock market.





^ 3. APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES:

1. Mochernij S.V. the Economic theory. - К: Publishing centre "Academy", 1999. - With. 96-103; 441-452; 130-140.

2. Bashnjanin G. I, the Azure of Item Ю, Medvedev V. S. Political economy. - К:Ника-центр, Elga, 2000. - With. 142-164.

3. Galchinsky Ampere-second., Eshchenko P. S, Palkin Ju.I.Osnovy of economic knowledge. - К: the Higher school, 2002. - With. 145-159; 419-424.

4. System of learning tasks

4. An approximate basis of activity

New terms

The person - a biosocial being in which natural (biological beings, its accessory to natural forces, lines are optimum combined with physiologic and ecological requirements) and social beings (as set of public relations, with social, including economic, political both other requirements and interests) in their dialectic interaction.

^ Population employment - activity of citizens, is connected with satisfaction personal and public requirements that, as a rule, brings in their the income in monetary or other form.

Subsistence economy - production of all necessary products for existence in each concrete economy.

^ Commodity production - the organisation of a public economy when separate products are produced by the separated manufacturers, and for satisfaction of public requirements are necessary purchasing-sale of these products which become the goods, in the market.

Social and economic essence of the person - an organic combination social (that is as set of public relations) and economic essence of the person (the person - the worker, the person - the owner) thanks to which the biological aspect of essence of the person appears in dialectically removed kind.

^ Money supply - volume of the released paper bank notes (bank and treasury notes), metal coins and depositary money (money funds on current accounts in banks).

Monetary system - the form of the organisation of monetary turnover that has historically developed in the country and fixed in the national legal system.

Inflation - depreciation of money as a result of overflow of channels of circulatuion by paper money. Leads to proof excess of an aggregate demand over aggregate supply.

Devaluation - official decrease in a rate of national monetary unit in the relation to foreign exchanges.

Revaluation - increase of a rate of national monetary unit in relation to exchange rates of other countries.

Stagnation - falling of volumes of a social production as consequence of sustained inflation.

Themes of research works

1. Demographic problems of Ukraine.

2. History of origin and development of money.

3. History of the Ukrainian grivna.

Table 2.1

Simple and capitalist commodity production

Lines


Simple commodity production


Capitalist commodity production


Modern production


Origin time


After the first public labour division (department of cattle breeding from agriculture)


XVI centuries


Boundary of 19640-50th in developed countries (the USA, Canada, west European the countries, Japan)


Development conditions


The second and the third Public sections of work (craft and brainwork department)



Manual operation distribution, initial mechanisation of work, introduction of the steam

The engine, the railway; wide use of the electrotechnical

And heavy mechanical engineering


^ SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION


Pattern of ownership

Mutual relations of the owner of means of production and the manufacturer


Individual, labour, private

The same physical person


Individual, kollek-tivnaja, the big private property.

The owner and proizvo-ditel (hired labour) different physical persons.


Private, collective th, state


The production purpose


Satisfaction of own requirements


Profit reception


Profit reception thanks to ecologically safe technologies


The relation of the manufacturer to results of work


The manufacturer is the owner of results of work


Alienation of the manufacturer from results of its work


There is no direct connection of the manufacturer with results of work


The form regulation


Traditions owners-misters


The market, the state


The market, the state; other institutions


Table 2.2

Money and their essence

Line


The characteristic


Functions


Currency, instrument of payment, measure of value, store of value, world money


Kinds of money



Coins, banknotes, check contributions


Elements of monetary system


Availability of the basic monetary unit the Established kinds of money Issue system




5. Target training tasks

The task 1.

In the goods abstract and concrete work is embodied. What consequences the increase in expenses of abstract work has?

A.Rastet consumer cost.

V.Rastet a salary of the manufacturer.

S.Rastet volume of developed goods.

D.Snizhenie stoimosti of resources and production factors.

E.Rastet the commodity unit price.

The task 2.

Commodity production has the lines and differences. What line characterises only commodity production?

And. Public labour division.

V.Universalizatsija of work.

S.Ekonomicheskie svjaz between production and consumption опосредствованы money.

D.Vozmozhnost to specify that as well as for whom to produce.

E.Proizvoditel and the owner of means of production is the same person.

The task 3.

In modern conditions of economic globalisation the role of world money amplifies. What exactly plays a role of world money in modern conditions?

And. Gold ingots.

V.Elektronnye dengi.

S.Rezervnye valjuta.

Д. Gold coins.

E.Svobodno konvertiruemaja valjuta.

The task 4.

Scientific and technical revolution has the consequences economic and social progress in a society. What represents itself as an indicator of economic and social progress?

A.Uvelichenie of working hours part in cumulative time of a society.

V.Sokrashchenie of working hours expenses.

S.Uvelichenie of a free time part in cumulative time of a society.

D.Sokrashchenie of a free time part in cumulative time of a society.

E.Umenshenie of the prices for the goods.

The task 5.

Inflation yields losses to the population. Who has the greatest losses in the conditions of inflation?

A.Predprinimateli.

V.Litsa which receive the fixed incomes.

S.Litsa which receive incomes of loans in credit system.

D.Litsa which receive securities gains.

E.Litsa which receive social benefits.


TASK 2.1

The medical institution renders services to foreign citizens. Payment occurs through the organisation currency account.


The name of services


The sum, thousand hrn


1.Diagnostics


70


2.Preparations


10


3.Operation carrying out


60


4.Postoperative servicing


12


5.Insurance services


3




The task. To specify medical attendance cost in transfer currency if its rate to native currency corresponds as 1:6.

^ ALGORITHM OF THE DECISION OF THE TASK:

Step 1. To specify total cost of medical services in native currency:



Step 2. To specify cost of services in foreign exchange:

Sин = Sнац/K

To - a foreign exchange rate in native currency.

6. Short methodical instructions to work on practical employment

Carrying out technique The form of carrying out of employment - 2 two-hour seminar employment. On the first employment there is a discussion of first three questions. The especial attention is necessary for turning for discussion of these problems in modern Ukraine, besides, from this point of view health cares to contemplate a problem of a reconstruction of the population. On the second employment - illumination of theoretical problems of last questions of the plan. In the end of the second employment passes the test control.


Theme 3. Market economy, the enterprise. Marketing bases

^ 1. IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT


The theme acquaints students with theoretical bases of housekeeping in the conditions of market economy which are based on principles of reasonable use of the limited resources. Efficiency of business in market economic system is reached thanks to interrelation of expenses on production which determine a production price and a price level which are institute of achievement by the profit enterprise. The theme urgency is determined also by that it should find out essence of money, the capital, the labour, separate kinds of profit.


2. The training purposes

Basic aim:

To be able to analyse organisation and conducting indicators predprinima-telskoj activity, to specify their interrelations and interference in the conditions of market economy; to prove the mechanism of formation of separate forms of profit, and also necessity and tendencies of development of business in Ukraine.

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