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Particular purposes:

To be able

 To specify signs and features of activity of the enterprise, its form, a condition of origin and activity in market economy;

 To track process of accumulating of expenses in a production price, to offer ways of its decrease;

 To finish a role of the prices in a market mechanism, to analyse their kinds and functions;

 To open interrelation of concepts of profit and profitability in the course of increase of overall performance of the enterprise;

 To open the mechanism of formation of additional value;

 To calculate rate of return, a ground rent;

 To give reason for a variety of patterns of ownership and business.


3. Content of the training


Theoretical questions

1. Business. Forms and a business essence, living conditions.

2. Conditions of origin and activity of the enterprises in market conditions.

3. Kinds of expenses in the course of the production organisation.

4. The Production price and ways of its decrease.




^ APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES:

1. Makonell K.R., Brju S.L.Ekonomiks: principles, problems and a policy.: in 2 т. - the Lane with English / Under общ. редакторша Porohovsky And. А - Tallinn, 1995. - т. 1. - With. 150-172, 45-57; Т. 2. - with. 105-108.

2. Modern economy. A popular training course. - Rostov н/Д.: mzd-in "Phoenix", 1999. - With. 322-341.

3. Mochernij S.V. the Economic theory. - К: Publishing centre "Academy", 1999. - With. 232-306.

4. Ilin S.S., Vasileva T.I.economy. A directory for the student. - М: the Philological society "Word", Open Company firm "nuclear heating plant Publishing house", 1999. - With. 207-240

4. An approximate basis of activity

New terms

The enterprise - the independent subject who provides systematic production of the majority of the goods and services, performs research, a business activity for the purpose of assignment of the income (profit).

^ Production expenses - expenses of production factors that are used for production and realizable activity.

The cost value - expenses on production of a unit of production (granting of services). The Salary - term of money of cost, the price and partially productivity of functioning of labour.

^ Labour collective - the subject of economic relations, first of all property relations, and also the cumulative worker who provides rational uses of available is material-material resources for creation and income assignment.

The price - term of money of cost of the goods.

Profit - a remainder of a receipt of the goods over capital expenses.

Themes of research works

1. Business in medical institutions: advantages and lacks.

2. Medical services: cost for the population.

3. The Salary and a social level of living in Ukraine.


The table 4.1

Structural elements of production assets of the enterprise.




^ Table 4.1

Kinds of expenses in the course of the production organisation (granting of services)


Kinds of expenses


The maintenance of expenses


Constants


Depreciation, payment of attendants, insurance, advertising, payments for credits and others.


Variables


Expenses on raw, materials, fuel, payment of workers which are occupied in production and others.


General


Cumulative general expenses which consist of constants and variable expenses.


The made


Normal profit of the businessman.


On realisation


Transportation of finished product, carrying out of marketing researches and advertising shares.


Neproduk-tivnye


Penalties, the indemnification, connected with default of treaty obligations, absenteeisms of workers and so forth.


The limiting


Expenses on production of the additional unit of production, connected with change of volume of release, namely variable expenses.




5. Target training tasks

The task 1.

In the conditions of market economy especial value acquires independent organizational-economic innovation on the basis of use of different possibilities for release of the new or old goods by new methods, opening of new sources of raw, market outlets and so forth for reception of profits and self-realisation of own purpose. What category it is possible to specify this phenomenon?

A.Nakoplenie of the capital.

V.Proizvodstvo or granting of services.

S.Predprinimatelstvo.

D.Menedzhment.

Е. Scientific and technical progress.


The task 2.

In market economy for achievement of success in business businessmen search for ways to production price decrease. What gives the chance to the businessman to get profit which is planned, and to win in competitive struggle?

A.Poisk of new market outlets.

V.Vozmozhnosti of price reduction.

S.Differentsiatsii of goods.

D.Snizhenie of taxes.

E.Uvelichenie of volume of output.


The task 3.

Market economy conditions are based on realisation of acts of purchasing - sale of the goods (services). Behind which there are purchasing-sale contracts?

A.Optovoj;

V.Svobodnoj;

S.Ravnovesnoj;

D.Dempingovoj.

E.Roznichnoj.


The task 4.

Profitability of its goods is one of the basic indicators who show efficiency of economic activities. What from resulted below analytical determinations characterises this indicator?

A.Otnoshenie between profit of firm and its general expenses;

V.Raznitsa between general profit and general expenses;

S.Raznitsa between economic profit of firm and taxes to its activity;

D.Otnoshenie between general expenses and production total amount;

E.Summa of constants and variable expenses.


The task 5.

Provision of certain level of social protection of citizens is one of the main functions of the state. What is the basic method of introduction of a state policy concerning population social protection?

A.Sbor dannyh concerning persons to whom the public assistance is necessary;

V.Realizatsija of corresponding government programs;

S.Pereraspredelenie of a public product among the population;

D.Organizatsija on the basis of state structures of the power of divisions concerning social protection.

E.Rasprostranenie in mass media of the data about work of state structures of the power concerning population social protection.

Task 1

The medical institution renders services that is connected with expenses of different kinds. The data about overall performance of the enterprise is given in the table.





^ The indicator name



The sum, thousand hrn.


1


Variable expenses


70


2

Constant expenses


10


3

Incomes of goods realisation


60


4

Incomes of additional types of activity


12


5

Passive incomes


3



The task. To specify profit and profitability of work of organisation.

^ ALGORITHM OF THE DECISION OF THE TASK

Step 1. Determination of the purposes and tasks. Shortly to write down statements of the problem.

Step 2. To calculate cumulative expenses under the formula:

AND = В12

Where: В1- constant expenses

В2 - Variable expenses

Step 3. To calculate cumulative incomes under the formula:

Д = Д123 + Д4

Where: Д1 - the income of goods realisation

Д2 - The income of additional types of activity

Д3 - Passive incomes

Д4 - позареализационные incomes

Step 4. To calculate organisation profit under the formula:

П = Д - IN

Where: Д - cumulative incomes

In - cumulative expenses

Step 5. To calculate profitability of goods under the formula:

Р = П/В

Where: П - profit

In - cumulative expenses


TASK 2

The worker of the enterprise for a month has received following incomes:






^ The indicator name


The sum, грhrn.


1

Salary on the core local works


200,00


2

The award


50,00


3

Holiday money



90,00


4

Advance


100,00




The task. To specify the sum of incomes of the worker to issue.

^ ALGORITHM OF THE DECISION OF THE TASK

Step 1. Determination of the added income under the formula:

Дн = To + Dd +В ± Pr

To - the basic income, the salary

Дд - the additional income

In - a holiday money

П - recalculation under incomes of the previous periods.

Step 2. Determination of charges on PHOTOS:

Нп - charge in a pension fund (32 %):

Нп = ФОТ/100*32

Нтвп - charge in social insurance fund on time loss of working capacity (2,5 %):

Нтвп = ФОТ/100*2,5

Нфссб - charge in social insurance fund on an unemployment case (2,5 %):

Нфссб = ФОТ/100*2,5

Нфнсп - charge in fund of social insurance from labour accidents

Нфнвв =ФОТ/100*К

To - it is appropriated by representations of fund depending on level of a possible injury rate on production.

Step 3. Determination of maintenances from incomes of citizens:

Уп - the maintenance in a pension fund:

Уп = Dn*K

^ TO

Application condition

1 %

Дн <150,00 грн.

2 %

Дн> 150,00 грн.

Утвп - the maintenance in social insurance fund on time loss of working capacity:

Утвп = Dn*DO2

TO

Application condition

0,25 %

Дн <150,00 грн.

0,5 %

Дн> 150,00 грн.

Уфссб - charge in social insurance fund on an unemployment case:

Уфссб = Dn*K3

^ TO

Application condition

0,25 %

Дн <150,00 грн.

0,5 %

Дн> 150,00 грн.

Step 4. Incomes tax calculation under the formula:

Software = ((Dn - Up - Utvp - Ufssb) - software) *13 %

Where: software - the tax concession.

Step 5. Determination of a total sum of maintenances under the formula:

In = Up + Utvp + Ufssb +ПП

Step 6. Income determination to payment under the formula:

Двип = Dn - In

6. Short methodical instructions to work on practical employment

Carrying out technique.

The form of this employment - двухчасовый a seminar which passes according to plan. During consideration of questions problem tasks are untied. Students are offered to make calculation of the cost value (medical) services and a salary. In the end of employment the test control is carried out.


Theme 4. An essence and market economy basic elements

^ 1. IMPORTANCE OF THE SUBJECT

Theme studying allows students to familiarise with essence of the market as economic category, its kinds, functions, structure and origin and existence conditions. Studying of the basic market laws and the mechanism of functioning of the market is a prominent aspect of forming of economic thinking at students.

Also, the theme urgency determines studying of forms and methods of forming of the state-regulated is social-focused market economy in the postsocialist countries, and in particular, in Ukraine. It is considered tax and a state credit policy, as the tool of the state influence on creation of conditions of development of market mutual relations between the enterprises of industries of a national economy of the country.


2. The training purposes


Basic aim:

To be able to characterise the market as an economic category and the form of the organisation of a social production. To be able to reveal a state role in creation of bases of market economy.

Particular purposes:

To be able:

 To specify objective bases of origin of the market, its characteristic features;

 To specify main principles of market economy;

 To analyse functions, structure and features of the basic markets;

 To finish essence of the basic economic laws of functioning of a market mechanism;

 To open concept of a competition and exclusive regulation of the market;

 To analyse concepts of privatisation and privatisation and their role in transition to market economy.


3. Content of the training


Theoretical questions

1. The Market: characteristic features, living conditions, structure and functions.

2. Kinds of the markets, features of their functioning.

3. The Market mechanism: functioning organic laws.

4. Monopolies and a competition. Antimonopoly regulation of the market.

5. Market and planned regulation by economy.

6. Features of market grouping in the postsocialist countries.

7. A state Role in creation of conditions of development of market economy: privatisation and privatisation.





^ APPLICABLE REFERENCE SOURCES:


1. Makoonell K.R., Brju S.L.Ekonomiks: principles, problems and a policy.: in 2 т. - the Lane with English / Under общ. редакторша Porohovsky And. А - Tallinn, 1995. - Т. 1. - With. 62-75, 94-101.

2. Modern economy. A popular training course. - Rostov н/Д.: mzd-in "Phoenix", 1999. - With. 78-96, 228-242.

3. Mochernij S.V. the Economic theory. - К: Publishing centre "Academy", 1999. - With. 161-170, 378-398.

4. Ilin S.S., Vasileva T.I.economy. A directory for the student. - М: the Philological society "Word", Open Company firm "nuclear heating plant Publishing house", 1999. - With. 39-60, 113-144,

5. Seleznev V. V of a market economy basis. - К: Ника - the Center, Elga, 2000. - With. 165-204, 474-495

4. An approximate basis of activity

New terms

The market - sphere of potential exchanges where there are interests of the seller and the buyer concerning purchasing-sale of the goods (services).

Demand - weight of the goods and services which consumers are ready and to acquire in a condition at determined price from the possible prices during a certain time horizon.

^ The demand law: at an invariance of all other parametres price reduction leads to corresponding growth of size of demand.

The offer - weight of values which the manufacturer wishes also capable to produce and offer to sale.

The offer law: at an invariance of all other parametres price growth leads to corresponding growth of size of the offer.

Elasticity - an indicator of dependence of change of volume of demand (offer) at change of level of the price.

Themes for research works

1. Taxes: essence, kinds and social value.

2. Medical services: demand, the offer and their elasticity.

3. The Credit policy in Ukraine.


The table 5.1

Demand, the offer and their balance in market conditions









The Demand schedule of the Drawing of the offer; Market balance

Table 5.1

Determinants which influence changes in demand and offers

Demand


The offer


The purchasing price


The sale price



Not price determinants


Tastes of consumers


The prices for resources


Quantity of buyers


Technological level


Level of incomes of potential buyers


Taxes and grants


The prices for the connected goods


The prices for other goods


Expectation


Expectation


Expectation




Table 5.2

^ Economic functions of the government

Function


The realisation purpose


Provision of legal base and public atmosphere


Assistance to effective functioning of market system


Competition protection


Strengthening and modifications of functioning of market system


Income and riches redistribution


Reduction of an inequality of incomes in a society


Adjustment of distribution of resources


Changes in national product structure


Economy stabilisation



Anti-inflationary policy, struggle against unemployment




5. Target training tasks

The task 1.

In the conditions of modern market economy calculations between counterparts of purchasing-sale are performed by money or finished product. What concept characterises calculations in the natural form?

A.Eksport.

V.Import.

S.Barter.

D.Lizing.

E.Demping.

1   2   3

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