Electronic absorption spectra of blood plasma of patients with various forms of goiter icon

Electronic absorption spectra of blood plasma of patients with various forms of goiter




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Electronic absorption spectra of blood plasma of patients with various forms of goiter.


O.G. Ushenko1, I.Yu. Poliansky2, S.G. Guminetsky1, A.V. Motrich1, Ya.V. Hyrla2


  1. Correlation Optics Department, Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubinsky Str., 58012 Chernivtsi, Ukraine, e-mail: motrich@gmail.com

  2. Correlation Optics Department, Bukovinian State Medical University, 2 Theatrical area, 58001 Chernivtsi, Ukraine, e-mail: yanas08@mail.ru


Abstract


The results of absorption spectra of blood plasma in the ultraviolet and visible areas of the spectrum using the technique of spherical photometer. Possibilities of using these spectra to detect the diseases - diffuse toxic goiter and nodular euthyroid goiter and to control the surgical treatment of this pathology.


Keywords: absorption spectra, spherical photometer, oscillation absorption spectra.



INTRODUCTION

In the biomedical literature describes a number of different methods of thyroid diseases in pre-and postoperative stages (biochemical 1,2, immunologic, ultrasound, stsyntihrafiya, cytological and histological 3, 4, 5). All of them are complex and usually long-term and expensive.

Therefore, being the search for new, cheaper and accessible methods of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of thyroid diseases. These include optical methods: a method of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma 6,7 and spekrophotometric and polarimetric methods in literature are almost absent.

The subject of the given work is to evaluate the possibilities of using the spectrophotometric method for these purposes.


^ Objects characteristic and the methodic of research

The object of research was venous blood plasma of 11 patients with diffuse toxic goiter and 10 patients with nodular euthyroid goitre, who admitted to the Chernivtsi Regional Hospital for surgery on the thyroid gland. Blood plasma, obtained in 15 healthy donors, was served as the control. In patients before surgery and in various periods after, for research took 5 ml of blood through the ulnar vein puncture from which plasma was isolated.

Since blood plasma is optically inhomogeneous environment, in spectrophotometric researches to determining the value of its optical absorption and light scattering was used to account for spherical photometer method as an attachment to classical spectrophotometer, which is described in 8, 9, 10.

Installation spectral resolution is 1,5-2,0 nm in studied spectrum range nm. Transmittance of spectra were studied every 5-10 nm with subsequent calculation of optical density with developed program using equations and installation of digital data that are given in 10. For studies in spectral range nm blood plasma was diluted with distilled water at a ratio , in spectral range nm no dilution was made. Relative error of the obtained values at these experimental conditions in range of nm - does not exceed 4,5 % and not more than 3 % in range of nm 8, 9. All measurements were conducted on fresh made samples (up to 3 days), which are being stored at low temperature (near C) before studying.


The results of study absorption spectra of blood plasma in UV-region

Research conducted by us in previous years [11, 12] have shown that in absorption spectrum of blood plasma are observed two maximums: at nm and nm.

Found that in area of nm with progressing of acute diseases of internal human organs increases plasma density compared with controls (donors), at the same time on nm changes in the value are minor. Therefore, our study of the absorption spectra of blood plasma of patients with various forms of goiter were merely in the range of nm (just around 280 nm). In Table 1 are given value of optical density only for typical nm for 15 donors.


Table 1

Optical density donors blood plasma at nm.


№ donors

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15



0.587

0.609

0.586

0.588

0.627

0.454

0.504

0.570

0.607

0.615

0.609

0.488

0.669

0.644

0.546




Figure.1. Absorptionspectra ofbloodplasmaofpatientnumber 4 withdiffusetoxicgoiter: 1 - beforesurgery, 1 - 3 daysaftersurgery, 5 - 7 daysaftersurgery.


We see that these values ​​differ among themselves, that is an individual feature of each donor. The average density for the group of donors.

Average optical density was calculated as


, (1)

where - amount of donors.

On Figure. 1 for the example given absorption spectra ofblood plasma of patient number 4 with diffuse toxic goiter in different stages of the test.


Table 2

Value of D at nm for patients with diffuse toxic goiter.


№ Patient

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

21

Before surgery



0.589

0.758

0.997

0.807

0.670

0.643

0.728

0.658

0.696

0.641

0,785

1-3 days after surgery



0.463

0.749

0.871

0.762

0.670

0.615

0.652

0.660

0.682



0,407

5 day’s after surgery









0.709





0.643

0.617



0.633



7 day’s after surgery











0.667

0.641

0.676

0.614

0.673





30 day’s after surgery









0.665







0.640








Table 3

Value of D at nm for patients with nodular goiter.


№ Patient

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Before surgery



0.673

0.718

0.721

0.730

0.603

0.471

0.615

0.656

0.689

0.649

3 days after surgery





0.701

0.676

0.444

0.242

0.633



0.656

0.783

0.634

5days after surgery















0.583







7 days after surgery



0.622

0.520

0.473
















We see that the biggest changes in the value of optical densities observed at the maximum at nm, as in the case of internal diseases 11, 12, and for this patient, even one month after operative treatment the optical density at nm does not reach for donors.

We investigated the dynamics of change of absorption spectra of blood plasma in the postoperative period for all patients. The results of this studies for nm given in Table 2 in the case of diffuse toxic goiter and in the Table 3 in case of nodular nontoxic goiter.

With digital material from tables we can make the following conclusions:

  • Before surgery optical density on nm for all patients (except patient number 16) is higher than the average for donors;

  • After surgery (3-days after) optical density decreases (except for patient number 8, 16, 19) and largely continues to decrease further (5 th, 7 th day after surgery), but remained higher than the averagefor healthy patients in case of diffuse goiter, and for some patients with nodular euthyroid (№ 12, 13 and 17) is approximately equal, or even less than for donors.


Absorption spectra of blood plasma of patients with various forms of goiter in the spectral interval nm

Studies carried out similarly as in the UV region, but only with undiluted plasma, because in that region its absorption is negligible, as it follows from 13 and Figure 1. Control served absorption spectra of blood plasma of 6-donors, one of which, for example, shown in Figure 2. Others have a similar appearance. We see that in the absorption spectrum observed two characteristic wavelengths: nm, on which falls minimum in absorption and nm, for which respectively accounted maximum absorption in the spectrum.





Figure 2. The absorption spectrum of blood plasma of donor number 1.


and for various donors have some differences among themselves, which is characteristic for each of them. That is clear from the data resulted in the Table 4. In it we represent averages and for group of6 studied donors and ratio value of for each donor. It’s average value for indicated group of donors.

Investigated the absorption spectra of blood plasma of 11 patients with diffuse toxic goitre and 10 patients with nodular euthyroidgoitre in the specified spectral interval nm both before surgery and after different terms of post-surgical period. As an example, in Fig. 3, the blood plasma absorption spectra of patient number 7 are given for a more detailed examination.

We see that, as for donors, there are two characteristic wavelengths nm and nm, for which the optical density changes are most significant.


Table 4

value for nm and nm and correlation for donors blood plasma


№ Donor




1

2

3

4

5

6

Average value



0.551

0.645

0.553

0.496

0.501

0.523

0.553



0.984

1.010

0.741

0.936

0.859

0.725

0.876



1.790

1.560

1.340

1.890

1.710

1.390

1.580






Figure 3. Absorption spectra of blood plasma of patient number 7 with diffuse toxic goiter: 1 - before surgery, 2 - 3 days after surgery, 3 - 5 days after surgery.


Also investigated the dynamics of change of the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the spectral range nm. Results of this researches for the characteristic wavelengths nm and nm given in the table. 5 in case of diffuse toxic goiter and in the table.6 in case of nodular nontoxic goiter.

Analysis of Table 5 and Table 6 gives opportunity to make the following conclusions:

  • Before surgery value of blood plasma of patients with diffuse toxic goiter for nm and nm can be greater than for the corresponding for donors (Table 4) or less, but their correlation greater than for donors (except patient number 21); in case of nodular nontoxic goiter before operation correlation aremostlylower (exceptforpatientsnumber 18 and 19) fromtheaverage valueofthis correlation fordonors;


Table 5

value for nm and nm of blood plasma of patients with diffuse toxic goiter.

№ Patient

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

21

Before surgery



0.880

0.529

0.460

0.393

0.367

0.514

0.517

0.871

0.357

0.517

0,395



1.475

0,908

0.776

0.666

0.622

0.866

0.910

1.605

0.794

0,926

0,626



1.680

1.720

1,690

1.690

1.690

1.680

1.760

1.840

2,110

1,790

1,580

1-3 days after surgery



0.520

0.246

0.459

0.388

0.337

0.443

0.499

0.779

0.298

-

0,309



0.990

0.436

0.776

0.675

0.716

0.659

0.714

1.660

0.585

-

0,474

5day’s after surgery



-

-

-

0.343

-

-

0.358

0.393

-

0.463

-



-

-

-

0.497

-

-

0.634

0.741

-

0.791

-

7 days after surgery



-

-

-

-

0.337

0.455

0.340

0.385

0.283

-

-



-

-

-

-

0.626

0.678

0.408

0.655

0.420

-

-




Table 5

value for nm and nm of blood plasma of patients with nodular euthyroid goiter.

№ Patient

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Before surgery



0.608

0.519

0.520

0.415

0.529

0.465

0.453

0.509

0.589

0.658



0.820

0.579

0.529

0.588

0.613

0.649

0.716

0.891

0.971

0.947



1.350

1.110

1.020

1.400

1.160

1.390

1.550

1.750

1.640

1.430

1-3 days after surgery



-

0.453

0.695

0.840

0.512

0.395

-

0.607

0.666

0.479



-

0.680

0.731

0.924

0.580

0.567

-

0.910

0.757

0.626

5day’s after surgery



-

-

-

-

-

-

0.346

-

-

-



-

-

-

-

-

-

0.624

-

-

-

7 days after surgery



1.110

0.785

0.908

-

-

-

-

-

-

-



1.230

0.884

1.010

-

-

-

-

-

-

-




  • In case of diffuse toxic goiter in the postoperative period there is a general tendency prevailing drop of optical density on 5 - 7 th day after surgery for both characteristic wavelengths nm and nm that not observed in the case of nodular nontoxic goiter such laws are not observed.


CONCLUSIONS

With the help of spectrophotometric method of analysis absorption spectra of blood plasma of patients with various forms of goiter can be distinguished from diffuse toxic goiter nodular nontoxic goiter:

  • Before surgery in 70-80% of cases, using the ratio of optical densities ;

  • In post-surgery period in 80-90% of cases using changes in dynamic features of optical density values on nm on different stages of treatment and evaluate the effectiveness of surgical treatment.

  • In addition, almost 95% of cases, optical density for patients with various forms of goiter on nm is higher han the average value for donors.




REFERENCES

  1. Bodnar P. M. “Endocrinology”, Vinnytsia. Nova book. p. 344 (2007).

  2. Makar R. D., Safonova, O.V., Chernoff N. V. “Functional diagnosis in clinical tyreoyidolohiyi: A guide for physicians”, Lviv. p. 64 (2006).

  3. Bastagli A., Pasquale L. “Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid: usefulness of extemporaneous histological study of frozen sections”, Ann. Ital. Chir. 3, p. 283 – 286 (2001).

  4. Jonas J., Blaich S., Nagel A. “Hemitheroidectomy on principle in cases of uncler fine nedlle biopsy and findings”, Zentrabl. Chir. 12, p. 964 – 968 (2001).

  5. Shakhtarin V.V Cub A.F., Parshkov E. M. “Incidence children with thyroid cancer and adolescents of Russia after the Chernobyl catastrophe: remote catamnesis, the verification of the diagnosis, evaluation epidemilogicheskaya”, Problems of Endocrinology. Vol. 45, 2, p. 10 – 17 (1999).

  6. Smith S. R. “Before surgery differential diagnosis of surgical diseases of the thyroid gland by means of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma”, Surgery of Ukraine.2, p. 46-50 (2007).

  7. Smith S. R., Kravchenko A. I. “Features of laser correlation spectroscopy (LCS) of blood plasma in the diagnosis of surgical diseases of the thyroid gland”, Bulletin of Marine Medicine.1, p. 43-45 (2001).

  8. Sakhnovski M. Y. “On the possibilities of the use of an integral in spherical photometer measurements difuznogo reflect the absolute method”, Opt. 62, p.692-697 (1987).

  9. Guminetsky S. G. “The method of reflection coefficient measurements of objects on the device in the form of coupled photometric balls”, Opt. 78, p. 496-501 (1995).

  10. Motrich A. V. “Spektropolyarymetriya biological fluids and tissues: PhD in Phys. Math. Science: optics, laser physics.”, Chernivtsi. p. 172 (2009).

  11. Guminetsky S. G., Reshetkin I.V., Grigorishin P. M., Hnatiuk I. E. “Spectrophotometric properties of proteins and blood elements”, Scientific Bulletin of Chernivtsi University: Collected Works. Physics. Electronics. 22, p. 61-69 (1998).

  12. Guminetsky S. G., Motrich A.V. “Spectrophotometric study of biological objects”, Scientific Bulletin of Chernivtsi University: Collected Works. Physics. Electronics. 261, p. 37-43 (2005).

  13. Ushenko O.G., Guminetsky S.G., Grinchuk F.V., Grigorishin P.M. “Determination of albumin/plasma ratio hlobulinovoho healthy and sick patients spectrophotometric method”, / / / Scientific Bulletin of Chernivtsi University: Collected Works. Physics. Electronics. 344, p. 65-70 (2007)/


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