^ Lonely Planet Armenia
Armenian cuisine is a national treasure, a delicate mix of lightly spiced meats, fresh salads, lots of chewy light lavash bread and home-made specialities dating back centuries. It combines elements of the cuisines of all its historic neighbours—Arabic, Russian, Greek and Persian—but remains distinctive. Scientists believe that the first wheat was grown on the southern flanks of historic Armenia, south of Lake Van, while the Romans dubbed the apricot prunus armeniaca, or Armenian prune.
Broadly speaking, western Armenian cuisine is more similar to Lebanese and Turkish cooking, while eastern Armenian has more Russian and Georgian influences. Besides khoravats, staples include dolmas (rice wrapped in vine leaves), soups, vegetable stews and lavash fresh from the oven. Armenians aren’t afraid to throw in garlic and salt by the handful to boost the flavour. Hors d’oeurves include cold salads, salty cheese and dips such as jajik (yogurt with cucumbers and fennel). Tan abour is yogurt soup sprinkled with parsley and fennel, much admired for its curative qualities. Pastries appear everywhere, such as Georgian khachapuri (cheese pies) and bourek (flaky pastry with salty cheese and spinach). Cured meats include sujukh or yeghchick (dark, cured spicy sausage) and basturma (finely cured ham). Desserts included honey-drenched baklava and sweetly crunchy kedayif (dessert pastry), though thick chocolate cakes and tortes are popular in the region too.
The most popular drink is soorch (Armenian coffee), also claimed by Georgians, Greeks, and Arabs; a potent, finely ground cup of lusciously rich coffee, with thick sediment at the bottom. It goes well with honeyed pastries such as baklava. Tea is also popular, as are local soft drinks like Hay Cola. There is an interesting array of mineral and table waters, ranging from salty, volcanic Jermuk to lighter Noy and Dilijan waters. Fruit juices are cheap and delicious.
There are hundreds of fine meat-free dishes in the Armenian cookbook, but at restaurants the options might only be salad, grilled vegetables, bread and cheese. Tomatoes, rice, aubergines, courgettes and a profusion of herbs and spices have created a wealth of vegetarian dishes. Western Armenian cuisine has hummus, tabouleh and other dishes associated with Lebanese cuisine, and there are lots of home-made ratatouilles made from beans, carrots and onions with olive oil. Kartofel (pilaf rice) is a buttery mix of dried raisins, apricots and other spices.
Circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D:
What does “dubbed” in the first paragraph most nearly mean?
having altered the dialogue of a movie or song into another language
having given a name to something
having mistakenly thought something
having refused to eat something
Which two words from the text are near synonyms?
“staples” and “potent”
“dolmas” and “pastries”
“an array” and “a profusion”
“soft drinks” and “desserts”
Armenian cuisine seems:
diverse and natural
unwholesome and boring
limited and bland
spicy and repetitive
According to the text, all of the following dishes are also found in other cultures EXCEPT:
Based on the cuisine, what can you deduce about Armenia’s history?
Armenia has probably been isolated from other cultures for hundreds of years.
There were probably many religions in Armenia that forbade the eating of meat.
They used to have a king who was allergic to herbs and spices.
Armenia has had many cultural exchanges with other countries.
Speaking Tasks 9,10, 11 Form
Vegans are people who do not eat meat, dairy, or any animal products at all, including eggs. What reasons might a person have for becoming vegan? Do you think veganism is a good lifestyle choice? Why or why not? Imagine a vegan friend is coming to dinner. What would you serve?
One of the main reasons people study foreign languages is so they can travel around the world.
What word or phrase do you think is the most important to know when travelling in a foreign country? Why? What is the biggest challenge for a traveller who does not speak the local language? How do people communicate when they don’t speak each other’s language?
Young people play computer games now more than ever. Some people say that computer games can be bad for a child’s development. Do you agree with this opinion? What are the advantages and disadvantages of playing computer games? Do you think parents should limit the amount of time their children play on the computer?
Most scientists around the world believe that global warming is caused by the actions of humans. However, there are a few people who say global warming is not caused by humans. What would you say to those people? Are you convinced that global warming is a serious problem? What do you think caused global warming, and why?
A foreign visitor has only one day to spend in your country. Where should this visitor go on that day? What dishes should he or she eat? What souvenirs should the visitor take back to his or her country?
Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. How have humans affected this natural resource? Can the situation be improved or has too much damage been done already? Defend your opinion.
Characters like Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny are popular among children in the United States. What magical creatures did you believe in as a child? Who told you these creatures weren’t real, and what was your reaction? Is it good for children to believe in magical creatures? Why or why not?
“Look before you leap” is a popular saying. Is it important to think before you act in every situation? In which situations is it most difficult to think before you act? Describe a time in your life when you did not follow this advice, and explain the consequences.
Many people have exotic animals as pets–everything from birds to tigers. Are the dangers of owning exotic pets greater than the danger of keeping ordinary pets? Is it cruel for people to own exotic animals as pets? Should there be laws limiting the types of animals people can own as pets?
Many people dream of being famous musicians. If you could be a famous musician, what instrument would you play? What genre of music would you play? What kind of audience would you write your music for?
People often wish to be someone else. Have you ever wanted to be someone else, even for one day? Who and why? Do you think that other people ever want to be you? Explain? Does wishing to be someone else make your life better or worse? Explain.
Some would say it is important to have many friends, while others would argue that it is better to have a small group of friends. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a large group of friends? What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a smaller group of friends? Do you feel it is more important to have many friends or few? Why?
Imagine that Ukraine has decided to colonize a new planet and you have been selected as one of five Ukrainians to go into space. If you could take only five things with you, what would you take? What would you miss most about Ukraine? What are the first three things you would do on the new planet?
Imagine you are in possession of a time machine that allows you to travel ONLY back in time. To what period of history would you travel? What would you do there? If your presence could change the course of events, what would you want to change and why?
School uniforms are becoming more popular in both Ukrainian and American schools, but students don’t always seem to like them. In your opinion, why are more and more schools requiring uniforms? What effects do uniforms have on students, teachers, and education? Why do people in certain professions have to wear uniforms? Is this a good or bad thing and why?
Many people play sports because they are fun and help us stay in shape. What do you think are the two best reasons to play sports? What can we learn from playing sports, either on a team or individually? What life lessons have you learned from playing sports?
Talk about a holiday that is celebrated in another country. What are the most important or interesting parts of this holiday? Is the holiday celebrated in Ukraine as well? How is it the same or different? If not, why. Is there a similar holiday in Ukraine?
Books have a positive influence on many peoples’ lives. What childhood books influenced you most? What do you think are the most important elements of a good story? If you could be any character from literature, who would you be and why?
Many school subjects are considered more important than others. What do you think they are, and how do students benefit from taking these classes? Are physical education and art considered to be important? Why or why not? What new subjects would you like to have introduced at your school?
Many young people have role models they admire. Who do you think is a good role model for young people in your country? Why? Would you consider yourself to be a role model? Explain. Do you consider your role model to be successful? Does success depend on individual effort or on luck? Why?
Imagine you are friends with a time traveller. Your friend has just arrived in 2010 from 100 years ago. What will be the biggest surprises for your new friend? How will you help guide your friend through modern life? Explain. What challenges will you and your friend face?
You have been chosen to create a new musical group. You will be in charge of creating the group’s image and sound. What kind of music will your group perform? Why? How will you select your performers, and where will you find them? What will you call your new group?
In the Harry Potter fantasy series, pupils at Hogwarts School are separated into four houses by a magical hat that can see into their minds. The bravest are sent to Gryffindor, the cleverest to Ravenclaw, the hardworking and loyal to Hufflepuff, and the cunning and resourceful to Slytherin. Do you think any of the above characteristics are better or worse than the others? Is one house ‘the best’? If you were to try on the hat, in which house do you think you would fit? Why? If everyone in your school was sorted like this, how would that change the divisions of class groups?
Many people think that parents are the most important role models. Are your parents your role models? If not, who are your role models? What qualities do you feel are important in a good role model? What responsibilities do role models have?
Imagine that you are the owner of a new restaurant. What type of restaurant would you like to own? For what three dishes would your restaurant be known? What issues do you have to keep in mind when owning and operating a restaurant?
Imagine that in your city an old, historical building is being considered for demolition in order to make way for a modern facility. Should your city try to preserve its old, historic building or replace it with a modern building? Would the city benefit more from an old building or a modern facility? How much importance should be given to historical sites?
“People behave differently when they wear different clothes.” Do you agree or disagree with the above statement? What kinds of different clothes do you wear, and does it influence your behaviour? How can someone’s appearance affect the way people judge them?
Holidays are an important time to spend with friends and family. What is your favorite holiday? How do you celebrate this holiday? What traditions do you and your family, and/or friends, have?
Eating organic food (food grown without chemicals) has become very popular. Why do people prefer organic food to inorganic food? How have supermarkets and fast food restaurants responded to this trend? Do you think this trend will last? Why or why not?
Many people have a ‘dream profession,’ or a job that they would love to have throughout their lives. What is your ‘dream profession’? Why would you choose this profession over others? What steps would you have to take to become a member of this profession?
Some people argue that the content of mainstream media such as TV, movies, video games, and the Internet has a negative influence on young people. Do you think that mainstream media negatively influences young people? What are some positive and negative aspects of the content of these media? If there are negative effects, what can we do to combat them?
Because of increasing globalization, many cultures have started to lose some of their own traditions while gaining those of others. What do you think about this phenomenon? How important are your cultural traditions to you? What are the disadvantages of losing your own cultural traditions? What are the advantages of knowing the culture and traditions of others?
The film industry is currently releasing a series of new films, many of which were originally books. Some say that a picture is worth a thousand words, but others believe that nothing can replace a good book. Do you think that classic books should be made into films? How do books benefit from being made into films? What do they lose?
You probably have a mobile phone, but your parents probably did not have mobile phones when they were teenagers. How do you think technology has changed communication throughout history? Do you think that technology is capable of changing personal relationships? In what directions do you see telecommunications technology and human interactions moving in the future?
You are appointed the director of your school for a day. What issues might you face as a director? What changes, if any, would you make to your school and your school’s routine? Do you think that being a school director is an easy or difficult job? Why or why not?
A ‘Round the World’ ticket is a special deal most major airlines offer. With it, a passenger can choose multiple destinations and fly between them for one set price as long as he or she travels in one direction. Design your own trip and choose three to five destinations. Why would you want to go to these places? What are the advantages of seeing them all in one trip? What would you need to take with you?
You interact with teachers on a daily basis. What do you think of teaching as a profession? Is it important or not? Is it hard or easy? What position do teachers occupy in society? How do you think the profession of teaching will change in your lifetime?
“Money doesn’t grow on trees.” How do you interpret this American saying? What does it mean to you? What would life be like if money did grow on trees?
There are some popular stories about humans being much smaller or much larger than normal. If you had to, would you rather be a miniature person or a giant? What would you do differently when you were your new size? What kind of emotions would you feel?
Being an immigrant nation, America is very obviously diverse and multicultural. Ukraine may have fewer visible differences among its citizens, but Ukrainians are certainly not identical. In what ways is Ukraine diverse? How does diversity help or hurt a country? Do you wish Ukraine was more diverse, or less? Why?
Online journals and blogs are becoming increasingly popular. Often, people who publish online diaries write about personal events and feelings, and allow anyone on the Internet to read them. What is the appeal of online journals? What are the consequences of publishing personal thoughts online instead of in a private diary? Do you keep a diary, online or otherwise? If not, which format would appeal to you more, and why?
Television shows like “American Idol” and “Fabrika Zirok” have become incredibly popular in recent years. Ordinary people present their talents before judges and a viewing audience, and if they are well-received, they have a chance at becoming stars. What does it mean to be a ‘celebrity’ today — is talent the most important thing? Are shows like these a good way to discover unknown talent? Do all talented people have an equal chance at fame, regardless of looks, age, or status?
Many actors’ and musicians’ lives take place in the spotlight. Do you believe that the public should have access to the lives of celebrities? Why? Which celebrities do you feel are the most interesting? How do celebrities influence your life and the lives of pupils at your school?
The Internet has provided the world with a wonderful tool for communication. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet? How has the Internet allowed people from different cultures to interact? In what ways has the Internet changed society?
A utopia is described as an ideal community or society. Describe your ideal society. Who would be invited to live in your society? Who would be excluded from your society?
Imagine that you have been asked to write a travel guide for Ukraine. What clothing items would you suggest travelers pack? What cities would you recommend, and what attractions should people see in these cities? Do you think it is important that visitors to Ukraine also experience life in a village? Why? Why not?
The level of medical care today is much higher than it was in the past. Doctors continue to acquire more knowledge that helps them treat patients effectively. In your opinion, what is the biggest medical advancement that has been made in the last one hundred years? In contrast, what is the biggest medical problem currently facing the world? Describe a time when you or someone you know benefited from a high level of medical care.
The Olympics were held this year in Vancouver, Canada. What are your favorite Olympic events? What role do the Olympics play in international relations? Historically, have the Olympics been effective in their role?
New York is called “The City That Never Sleeps.” Paris is renowned as “The City of Light.” Bangkok is known as “Sin City.” Choose one of these cities and explain why the city has such a nickname. What are the benefits for a city to be known worldwide by a nickname? Pick a city in Ukraine, give it a nickname, and explain your choice.
Mother Teresa said, “Do not wait for leaders; do it alone, person to person.” How are young people in Ukraine involved in improving their communities? What challenges do young Ukrainians face when they try to improve things person to person? What do you personally do to improve the lives of the people around you?
Catherine now ran the inn, and the work there had helped her cope with her husband’s death.
Yet, in the nine months since the bridge tragedy, she still believed that some day the door would open and Ed would cheerfully call, “Where are my girls?” Sometimes she found herself listening for the sound of her husband’s voice.
Now, in addition to all the shock and grief, her finances had become an urgent problem. Two years earlier, Catherine had closed the inn for six months, mortgaged it and completed a massive renovation and redecoration project.
One Friday afternoon Catherine was in the house, getting ready to go to the inn for the dinner hour. The insurance people were expected soon. But, when the two gloomy looking executives arrived, it was not to begin the process of payment. “Mrs. Collins”, the older of the two said, “I hope you will understand our position. We sympathize with you and understand the situation you are in. The problem is that we cannot authorize payment on your husband’s policies without a death certificate and that is not going to be issued”.
Catherine stared at him. “You mean it’s not going to be issued until they have absolute proof of his death? But suppose his body was carried down the river clear into the Atlantic?”
Both men looked uneasy. “All the other bodies have been recovered. There isn’t so much as wheel or engine part of a Cadillac in the riverbed below the accident site”.
“Then you’re saying…” Catherine was finding it hard to form words.
“We are saying that the executive report on the accident categorically states that Edwin Collins could not have perished in the bridge tragedy that night. The experts feel that even though he may have been in the vicinity of the bridge, no one believes Edwin Collins was a victim. We believe he was in none of the cars involved in the accident and took advantage of that favourable happening to make the disappearance he was planning. We think he reasoned he could take care of you and your daughter through the insurance and go on to whatever life he had already planned to begin in South America or somewhere else.”