Упорядник: Клюніна Н. В., Скирта В. С. Інформаційно-аналітичний бюлетень ІІ-IV етапи Всеукраїнської учнівської олімпіади з іноземних мов. 2012-2013 н р. – Суми: рвв соіппо, 2013. – 112 с. Рецензенти: Гиря О. О icon

Упорядник: Клюніна Н. В., Скирта В. С. Інформаційно-аналітичний бюлетень ІІ-IV етапи Всеукраїнської учнівської олімпіади з іноземних мов. 2012-2013 н р. – Суми: рвв соіппо, 2013. – 112 с. Рецензенти: Гиря О. О




НазваУпорядник: Клюніна Н. В., Скирта В. С. Інформаційно-аналітичний бюлетень ІІ-IV етапи Всеукраїнської учнівської олімпіади з іноземних мов. 2012-2013 н р. – Суми: рвв соіппо, 2013. – 112 с. Рецензенти: Гиря О. О
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Listening Comprehension

11-th Form


Eurorailing


Thanks to their extended summer vacations, students are in the enviable position of being able to travel round Europe by rail and see the sights on the cheap. This article points out some of the pros and cons of travelling by train.
The sense of freedom offered by rail travel is unrivalled by any other, except perhaps the less safe option of hitchhiking. Trains are also a great way to meet local people and, compared with other long-distance modes of transport, the Greenest you can get. Rail travel allows you to explore the hidden corners of the continent, especially areas where rural lines are still open and trains are still the most common form of public transport. It's also a relaxing way to travel, whether you're using it as a cheap bed for the night, or as a ring-side seat for a series of stunning views.
The first step before you go is to choose one of the Eurorail schemes available. After that, there are a few tips to bear in mind before you leave. Budgeting always causes headaches and it's worth finding out which are the 'expensive’ and the 'cheap' countries. It's sensible to take some cash, but you should take most of your money in traveller's cheques. Choose a well-known brand and buy small denominations.
Your most important piece of equipment is your backpack, and it's worth choosing one that's comfortable and light, sits just above your hips, is 'high' rather than ‘wide’ when full. A day-pack is useful for sightseeing, and a pair of comfortable walking shoes is vital, along with dark, hard-wearing clothes. As a general rule, put out everything you want to take - then halve it. Some things, however, should not be left behind. An alarm clock (so you don't miss those early trains); a scarf to cover your shoulders or legs for visits to churches or mosques; photocopies of all your important documents - best packed separately or given to a travelling companion; toilet paper, soap and a universal plug; a Swiss army penknife; numerous plastic bags; a water bottle and a small first aid kit.
The fun really starts once you're out there, of course - hunting for a hostel at 10 p.m., being ripped off by a taxi driver who claims there are no buses to your campsite or being turned away from a famous tourist attraction for wearing shorts. There are compensations for these frustrations (which make the best stories afterwards, anyway!), but many problems can be avoided if you're aware of the potential pitfalls before you leave.
The golden rule is not to try to cram too much into the time available. Trying to see the whole of Europe in a month, by spending every night on a train and an afternoon in each capital city will result in an unsatisfactory blur of shallow impressions. It is also a recipe for disaster, as you will be tired, grumpy and unreceptive for most of your trip. Instead, try to vary your route, mixing visits to cities with relaxing spells on the beach or in the countryside.
These ideas are really just common sense, but it's amazing how often they're overlooked. But the most important tip of ail is - have fun!


^ I True/False

1 The sense of freedom offered by rail travel is unrivalled by any other.

2 Travelling by rail allows to see the hidden places of the continent.

3 Saving money always causes headaches.

4 The most important piece of equipment is trainers.

5 A backpack should be rather “wide” than “high” when full.

6 Dark, hard-wearing clothes are vital for travelling.

7 You could be turned away from a famous tourist attraction for wearing shorts.

8 It is better to stay at home to avoid problems while travelling.

9 The golden rule is to see as much as possible in the time you have.

10 To have fun is the most important tip of all.


^ II Сhoose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text:

11 The main purpose of this text is to
A highlight the problems associated with rail travel
B emphasize the many advantages of rail travel.
C give advice to students about rail travel.
D promote and advertise rail travel.


12 The writer advises students to take
A no cash.
B money in more than one form.
C only traveller’s cheques.
D a credit card.


13 ^ When they are packing for a rail holiday, the writer advises students to
A include only small objects.
B take more than they think they'll really need.
C take less than they really want to.
D leave behind nothing they think they may need.


14 ^ One of the examples of bad experiences on holiday mentioned in the text is:

A being ripped off by a taxi driver.

B being ripped off by a bus driver.

C being lost.

D being robbed.


15 According to the writer, the best thing about bad experiences on holiday is that you
A forget about them later.
B may receive compensation after wards.
C can learn something  useful for the future.
D can tell people about them later.


^ Writing Task

11-th Form


Since the beginning of the world, millions of species of animals have died out. Despite our efforts species go extinct every day, some even before we discover them. Is it important for humanity to make sure more species don’t die out? What would happen to the world if we stopped protecting animals? What would this mean for nature and for humans? What are the benefits of biodiversity?


^ Reading Comprehension

11-th Form

Text1 With Updated Hubble Telescope, Reaching Farther Back In Time

Astronaut repairmen had hardly finished tightening the last stubborn bolts on the Hubble Space Telescope last summer when astronomers set the controls on the refurbished telescope to the dim and distant past. The result was a new long-distance observing record. Astronomers announced in a series of papers over the fall and in a news conference last week that Hubble had recorded images of the earliest and most distant galaxies ever seen, blurry specks of light that burned brightly only 600 million to 800 million years after the Big Bang.

The specks are clouds only one-twentieth the size of the Milky Way galaxy and only 1 percent of its mass, and seem to show the lingering effects of the first generation of stars to form in the universe in that they get bluer the farther back you go in time. The new galaxies, along with other recent discoveries like the violent supernova explosion of a star only 620 million years after the Big Bang, take astronomers deep into a period of cosmic history known as the dark ages, which has been little explored. It was then that stars and galaxies were starting to light up vigorously in larger and larger numbers and that a fog of hydrogen that had enveloped space after the Big Bang fires had cooled mysteriously dissipated.

Richard Ellis of the California Institute of Technology, one of many astronomers who have been working with the observations, said, “We’re reaching the beginning where galaxies formed for the first time.” The universe is about 13.7 billion years old, cosmologists agree, meaning that the light from these galaxies has been on its way to us for 13 billion years.


Statements 1 through 10 (circle + if the statement is true, - if it is false)

  1. Last summer, the Hubble was renovated in space by astronauts.

  2. The Hubble is a microscope that looks deep into space and sends back images to Earth.

  3. The images recently taken with the Hubble recorded galaxies 600-800 million years after the Big Bang.

  4. The images taken by Hubble are the farthest images ever recorded from Earth.

  5. The age astronomers call the “cosmic age” has been little explored until now.

  6. The images Hubble sent back to Earth consisted of specks of clouds and light.

  7. The clouds documented by Hubble are one-twentieth the size of the galaxy we live in, the Milky Way.

  8. Richard Ellis believes that astronomers are seeing back to the beginning where galaxies formed for the first time.

  9. The light from Hubble’s images is believed to be 13 billion years old.

  10. It is believed by many cosmologists that the universe is less than 13 billion years old.



Text 2 On Wanting to Have Three Walls up Before She Gets Home

He is building a small house in the backyard for when their baby is old enough to use it as a fort or clubhouse or getaway, and he wants to have three walls up before his wife gets home. She is at her mother's house because her mother has slipped on the ice – a skating party, Christmas-themed – and needs help with preparations for her holiday party, planned before the accident. It's snowing lightly, and the air is cold enough to see. He is working on the small house with a new drill he's bought that day. It's a portable drill, and he marvels at its efficiency. He wants to prove something to his wife, because he doesn't build things like this often, and she has implied that she likes it when he does build things, and when he goes biking or plays rugby in the men's league. She was impressed when he assembled a telescope, a birthday gift, in two hours, when the manual had said it would take four. So when she's gone during this day, and the air is gray and dense and the snow falls like ash, he works quickly, trying to get the foundation done. Once he's finished with the foundation, he decides that to impress her – and he wants to impress her in some way every day and wants always to want to impress her – he will need at least three walls up on the house by the time she gets home.


Circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D:

  1. The purpose of the small house is to …

    1. allow the man a fort to escape to.

    2. appease the man’s wife who is forcing him to the build it.

    3. provide a clubhouse for the man’s child.

    4. make the man’s wife happy.




  1. His wife likes it when he does all of the following EXCEPT:

    1. building things

    2. skating

    3. biking

    4. assembling telescopes




  1. From the text, we can infer that to marvel is to:

    1. admire

    2. question

    3. examine

    4. use




  1. He wants to build the small house quickly because …

    1. he must build it as quickly as he built the telescope.

    2. he told his wife he would complete it while she helped her mother.

    3. he wants to impress his wife.

    4. he wants to finish it before the weather gets worse.




  1. We can assume that …

    1. the husband and wife are competitive.

    2. the husband and wife like to spend time apart.

    3. the wife thinks the husband is fat.

    4. the husband and wife like to do things for each other.



Text 3 Virgin Galactic’s Space-Grazing Aircraft is Ready for Liftoff


Fifty thousand feet over the Californian desert, the world is a vast expanse of blue with a drab carpet of khaki far, far below. Pilot Peter Siebold sets the craft’s trim to 18 degrees, pushes the stick forward, and counts down: “Three. Two. One. Release.”

The mother ship rises above us as we drift downward for a few seconds. Siebold pulls the yoke back and flips a toggle on the center console. Then: Bang! The hybrid rocket motor ignites and we’re a missile shooting toward the stars at more than three times the speed of sound. The sky becomes black. Then it gets weirder: Siebold flicks the yoke and the vehicle whips around 180 degrees. We’re still heading straight up, but the ship is flying backward. It’s like looking out the windshield of a car thаt’s floored in reverse, except my view is 1,500 miles in each direction, from the Sea of Cortez to San Francisco Bay.

My attention wanders for a split second and the verisimilitude evaporates – seeing walls and ceiling and my blue jeans jerks me back to reality. I’m not in the sky but in a hangar at the headquarters of Scaled Composites in Mojave, California, sitting in a flight simulator for the firm’s latest spacecraft, SpaceShipTwo. If all goes well, SpaceShipTwo will be the commercial version of the radical rocket that won the $10 million X Prize in 2004 after it made two flights to the edge of space in a 14-day period. Richard Branson licensed the technology for Virgin Galactic, his space tourism gambit, which aims to start regular visits to the thermosphere by 2012.

After all of the prize money and media coverage, routine space tourism – this grand flight of human fancy – seems about to happen. SpaceShipTwo will be carried aloft by a mother ship, WhiteKnightTwo, which has been flying for nearly a year. The first SS2 is under construction and slated to begin flight tests in early 2010. Virgin has already sold $60 million in tickets to its first 300 passengers, аnd a taxpayer-funded spaceport is under construction near Las Cruces, New Mexico.


Circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D:

  1. Carl Hoffman flew …

    1. 50,000 feet over the California desert.

    2. to the edge of space.

    3. in a simulation of space travel.

    4. at more than three times the speed of sound.




  1. The pilot counted down …

    1. before taking off from the ground.

    2. before reaching 50,000 feet.

    3. before separating from the mother ship.

    4. before turning backwards.




  1. The strangest part for him was …

    1. when the sky turned black.

    2. realizing that he was wearing jeans.

    3. flying faster than sound.

    4. flying in reverse.




  1. SpaceShipTwo …

    1. has been making flights into space since 2004.

    2. will be the commercial version of a rocket that won a $10 million dollar prize.

    3. will make flights for only a year.

    4. cost $60 million dollars per flight.




  1. The first SS2

    1. was being made when the article was written.

    2. has already been tested.

    3. has sold out of tickets.

    4. will cost $60 million dollars.



Text 4 October, 1964


The Yankee players themselves had come to believe in their invincibility. They were not merely the best, they were the toughest players as well: they almost always won the big games, and because they had played in so many big games, they were therefore better prepared for the terrible pressures of a pennant race or a World Series. It was simply part of being a Yankee. All the best young players, it was presumed, wanted to play for this, the most celebrated sports franchise in America, not only because of the pride of playing with the best but also because of the lure of so many World Series bonus checks. In 1963, after Steve Hamilton joined the Yankees as a relief pitcher, Clete Boyer, the third basemen, showed him his World Series ring. As Hamilton admired it, Boyer said, “Listen, Steve, the good thing about the Yankees is that you don’t just get a ring for yourself. You get yours the first year, then you get one the next year for your wife, and the year after that for your oldest kid, and after that for your other kids.” Boyer himself already had four World Series rings. Just as Boyer predicted, Steve Hamilton got his first ring that year. The rings, along with the World Series checks, were built into the expectations of being a Yankee in those years. It was part of the lore of the team. Charlie Silvera, the Yankee backup catcher for much of that period, cashed seven World Series checks for some $50,000 (the actual total was $46,337.45) - a huge amount of money in that era, particularly for someone who had played in only one World Series game. Silvera would come to refer to the lovely house he bought in suburban San Francisco as “the house that Yogi built,” after the Yankee catcher whom he had played behind all those years.


Circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D:

  1. Young players wanted to be a Yankee because …

    1. they wanted to earn money by being invincible.

    2. they wanted to play with Steve Hamilton.

    3. they wanted to give their World Series rings to their friends.

    4. they wanted to play for the best team and earn bonus checks.




  1. The word invincible does NOT mean:

    1. indestructible

    2. unbeatable

    3. invisible

    4. invulnerable

  2. Charlie Silvera bought a house he referred to as “the house that Yogi built.” Who was Yogi?

    1. A manager

    2. A pitcher

    3. A third basemen

    4. A catcher




  1. The Yankees believed they were the toughest because …

    1. they often won the World Series.

    2. they made so much money.

    3. they were the most popular baseball team in America.

    4. they had so much experience winning games under pressure.




  1. Charlie Silvera played in …

    1. one World Series game.

    2. seven World Series games.

    3. no World Series games.

    4. four World Series games.



Text 5 A Pound Тоо Dear

Small boats loaded with wares sped to the great liner as she was entering the harbour. Before she had anchored, the men from the boats had climbed on board and the decks were soon covered with colourful rugs from Persia, silks from India, copper coffee pots, and beautiful hand-made silverware. It was difficult not to be tempted. Many of the tourists on board had begun bargaining with the tradesmen, but I decided not to buy anything until I had disembarked.

I had no sooner got off the ship than I was assailed by a man who wanted to sell me a diamond ring. I had no intention of buying one, but I could not conceal the fact that I was impressed by the size of the diamonds. Some of them were as big as marbles. The man went to great lengths to prove that the diamonds were real. As we were walking past a shop, he held a diamond firmly against the window and made a deep impression in the glass. It took me over half an hour to get rid of him.

The next man to approach me was selling expensive pens and watches. I examined one of the pens closely. It certainly looked genuine. At the base of the gold cap, the words 'made in the U.S.A.' had been neatly inscribed. The man said that the pen was worth £10, but as a special favour, he would let me have it for £8. I shook my head and held up a finger indicating that I was willing to pay a pound. Gesticulating wildly, the man acted as if he found my offer outrageous, but he eventually reduced the price to £3. Shrugging my shoulders, I began to walk away when, a moment later, he ran after me and thrust the pen into my hands. Though he kept throwing up his arms in despair, he readily accepted the pound I gave him. I felt especially pleased with my wonderful bargain - until I got back to the ship. No matter how hard I tried, it was impossible to fill this beautiful pen with ink and to this day it has never written a single word!


Circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D:

  1. The author was on a …

    1. commercial fishing boat.

    2. cruise ship.

    3. ferry.

    4. tradesmen’s ship.




  1. The author got off the boat to …

    1. look for a copper coffee pot.

    2. look for a pen.

    3. look for a diamond ring.

    4. look for souvenirs.




  1. The diamond seller …

    1. scratched the glass of a shop.

    2. showed him fake diamonds.

    3. didn’t leave for over an hour.

    4. was selling long strings of diamonds.




  1. The author started bargaining for the pen at …

    1. 10 pounds.

    2. 8 pounds.

    3. 3 pounds.

    4. 1 pound.




  1. The title of this story is ‘A Pound Too Dear’ because …

    1. the author only had one pound to spend.

    2. it shows the importance of the pound.

    3. even one pound was too much for the pen.

    4. the pen was very important to the author.



Speaking Tasks


1. Vegans are people who do not eat meat, dairy, or any animal products at all, including eggs. What reasons might a person have for becoming vegan? Do you think veganism is a good lifestyle choice? Why or why not? Imagine a vegan friend is coming to dinner. What would you serve?


2. One of the main reasons people study foreign languages is so they can travel around the world.

What word or phrase do you think is the most important to know when travelling in a foreign country? Why? What is the biggest challenge for a traveller who does not speak the local language? How do people communicate when they don’t speak each other’s language?


3. Young people play computer games now more than ever. Some people say that computer games can be bad for a child’s development. Do you agree with this opinion? What are the advantages and disadvantages of playing computer games? Do you think parents should limit the amount of time their children play on the computer?


4. Most scientists around the world believe that global warming is caused by the actions of humans. However, there are a few people who say global warming is not caused by humans. What would you say to those people? Are you convinced that global warming is a serious problem? What do you think caused global warming, and why?


5. A foreign visitor has only one day to spend in your country. Where should this visitor go on that day? What dishes should he or she eat? What souvenirs should the visitor take back to his or her country?


6. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. How have humans affected this natural resource? Can the situation be improved or has too much damage been done already? Defend your opinion.


7. Characters like Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny are popular among children in the United States. What magical creatures did you believe in as a child? Who told you these creatures weren’t real, and what was your reaction? Is it good for children to believe in magical creatures? Why or why not?


8. “Look before you leap” is a popular saying. Is it important to think before you act in every situation? In which situations is it most difficult to think before you act? Describe a time in your life when you did not follow this advice, and explain the consequences.


9. Many people have exotic animals as pets–everything from birds to tigers. Are the dangers of owning exotic pets greater than the danger of keeping ordinary pets? Is it cruel for people to own exotic animals as pets? Should there be laws limiting the types of animals people can own as pets?


10. Many people dream of being famous musicians. If you could be a famous musician, what instrument would you play? What genre of music would you play? What kind of audience would you write your music for?


11. People often wish to be someone else. Have you ever wanted to be someone else, even for one day? Who and why? Do you think that other people ever want to be you? Explain? Does wishing to be someone else make your life better or worse? Explain.


12. Some would say it is important to have many friends, while others would argue that it is better to have a small group of friends. What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a large group of friends? What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a smaller group of friends? Do you feel it is more important to have many friends or few? Why?


13. Imagine that Ukraine has decided to colonize a new planet and you have been selected as one of five Ukrainians to go into space. If you could take only five things with you, what would you take? What would you miss most about Ukraine? What are the first three things you would do on the new planet?


14. Imagine you are in possession of a time machine that allows you to travel ONLY back in time. To what period of history would you travel? What would you do there? If your presence could change the course of events, what would you want to change and why?


15. School uniforms are becoming more popular in both Ukrainian and American schools, but students don’t always seem to like them. In your opinion, why are more and more schools requiring uniforms? What effects do uniforms have on students, teachers, and education? Why do people in certain professions have to wear uniforms? Is this a good or bad thing and why?


16. Many people play sports because they are fun and help us stay in shape. What do you think are the two best reasons to play sports? What can we learn from playing sports, either on a team or individually? What life lessons have you learned from playing sports?


17. Talk about a holiday that is celebrated in another country. What are the most important or interesting parts of this holiday? Is the holiday celebrated in Ukraine as well? How is it the same or different? If not, why. Is there a similar holiday in Ukraine?


18. Books have a positive influence on many peoples’ lives. What childhood books influenced you most? What do you think are the most important elements of a good story? If you could be any character from literature, who would you be and why?


19. Many school subjects are considered more important than others. What do you think they are, and how do students benefit from taking these classes? Are physical education and art considered to be important? Why or why not? What new subjects would you like to have introduced at your school?


20. Many young people have role models they admire. Who do you think is a good role model for young people in your country? Why? Would you consider yourself to be a role model? Explain. Do you consider your role model to be successful? Does success depend on individual effort or on luck? Why?


21. Imagine you are friends with a time traveller. Your friend has just arrived in 2010 from 100 years ago. What will be the biggest surprises for your new friend? How will you help guide your friend through modern life? Explain. What challenges will you and your friend face?


22. You have been chosen to create a new musical group. You will be in charge of creating the group’s image and sound. What kind of music will your group perform? Why? How will you select your performers, and where will you find them? What will you call your new group?

23. In the Harry Potter fantasy series, pupils at Hogwarts School are separated into four houses by a magical hat that can see into their minds. The bravest are sent to Gryffindor, the cleverest to Ravenclaw, the hardworking and loyal to Hufflepuff, and the cunning and resourceful to Slytherin. Do you think any of the above characteristics are better or worse than the others? Is one house ‘the best’? If you were to try on the hat, in which house do you think you would fit? Why? If everyone in your school was sorted like this, how would that change the divisions of class groups?


24. Many people think that parents are the most important role models. Are your parents your role models? If not, who are your role models? What qualities do you feel are important in a good role model? What responsibilities do role models have?


25. Imagine that you are the owner of a new restaurant. What type of restaurant would you like to own? For what three dishes would your restaurant be known? What issues do you have to keep in mind when owning and operating a restaurant?


26. Imagine that in your city an old, historical building is being considered for demolition in order to make way for a modern facility. Should your city try to preserve its old, historic building or replace it with a modern building? Would the city benefit more from an old building or a modern facility? How much importance should be given to historical sites?


27. “People behave differently when they wear different clothes.” Do you agree or disagree with the above statement? What kinds of different clothes do you wear, and does it influence your behaviour? How can someone’s appearance affect the way people judge them?


28. Holidays are an important time to spend with friends and family. What is your favorite holiday? How do you celebrate this holiday? What traditions do you and your family, and/or friends, have?


29. Eating organic food (food grown without chemicals) has become very popular. Why do people prefer organic food to inorganic food? How have supermarkets and fast food restaurants responded to this trend? Do you think this trend will last? Why or why not?


30 Many people have a ‘dream profession,’ or a job that they would love to have throughout their lives. What is your ‘dream profession’? Why would you choose this profession over others? What steps would you have to take to become a member of this profession?


31. Some people argue that the content of mainstream media such as TV, movies, video games, and the Internet has a negative influence on young people. Do you think that mainstream media negatively influences young people? What are some positive and negative aspects of the content of these media? If there are negative effects, what can we do to combat them?


32. Because of increasing globalization, many cultures have started to lose some of their own traditions while gaining those of others. What do you think about this phenomenon? How important are your cultural traditions to you? What are the disadvantages of losing your own cultural traditions? What are the advantages of knowing the culture and traditions of others?


33. The film industry is currently releasing a series of new films, many of which were originally books. Some say that a picture is worth a thousand words, but others believe that nothing can replace a good book. Do you think that classic books should be made into films? How do books benefit from being made into films? What do they lose?


34. You probably have a mobile phone, but your parents probably did not have mobile phones when they were teenagers. How do you think technology has changed communication throughout history? Do you think that technology is capable of changing personal relationships? In what directions do you see telecommunications technology and human interactions moving in the future?


35. You are appointed the director of your school for a day. What issues might you face as a director? What changes, if any, would you make to your school and your school’s routine? Do you think that being a school director is an easy or difficult job? Why or why not?


36. A ‘Round the World’ ticket is a special deal most major airlines offer. With it, a passenger can choose multiple destinations and fly between them for one set price as long as he or she travels in one direction. Design your own trip and choose three to five destinations. Why would you want to go to these places? What are the advantages of seeing them all in one trip? What would you need to take with you?


37. You interact with teachers on a daily basis. What do you think of teaching as a profession? Is it important or not? Is it hard or easy? What position do teachers occupy in society? How do you think the profession of teaching will change in your lifetime?


38. “Money doesn’t grow on trees.” How do you interpret this American saying? What does it mean to you? What would life be like if money did grow on trees?


39. There are some popular stories about humans being much smaller or much larger than normal. If you had to, would you rather be a miniature person or a giant? What would you do differently when you were your new size? What kind of emotions would you feel?


40. Being an immigrant nation, America is very obviously diverse and multicultural. Ukraine may have fewer visible differences among its citizens, but Ukrainians are certainly not identical. In what ways is Ukraine diverse? How does diversity help or hurt a country? Do you wish Ukraine was more diverse, or less? Why?


41. Online journals and blogs are becoming increasingly popular. Often, people who publish online diaries write about personal events and feelings, and allow anyone on the Internet to read them. What is the appeal of online journals? What are the consequences of publishing personal thoughts online instead of in a private diary? Do you keep a diary, online or otherwise? If not, which format would appeal to you more, and why?


42. Television shows like “American Idol” and “Fabrika Zirok” have become incredibly popular in recent years. Ordinary people present their talents before judges and a viewing audience, and if they are well-received, they have a chance at becoming stars. What does it mean to be a ‘celebrity’ today — is talent the most important thing? Are shows like these a good way to discover unknown talent? Do all talented people have an equal chance at fame, regardless of looks, age, or status?


43. Many actors’ and musicians’ lives take place in the spotlight. Do you believe that the public should have access to the lives of celebrities? Why? Which celebrities do you feel are the most interesting? How do celebrities influence your life and the lives of pupils at your school?


44. The Internet has provided the world with a wonderful tool for communication. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet? How has the Internet allowed people from different cultures to interact? In what ways has the Internet changed society?


45. A utopia is described as an ideal community or society. Describe your ideal society. Who would be invited to live in your society? Who would be excluded from your society?


46. Imagine that you have been asked to write a travel guide for Ukraine. What clothing items would you suggest travelers pack? What cities would you recommend, and what attractions should people see in these cities? Do you think it is important that visitors to Ukraine also experience life in a village? Why? Why not?


47. The level of medical care today is much higher than it was in the past. Doctors continue to acquire more knowledge that helps them treat patients effectively. In your opinion, what is the biggest medical advancement that has been made in the last one hundred years? In contrast, what is the biggest medical problem currently facing the world? Describe a time when you or someone you know benefited from a high level of medical care.


48. The Olympics were held this year in Vancouver, Canada. What are your favorite Olympic events? What role do the Olympics play in international relations? Historically, have the Olympics been effective in their role?


49. New York is called “The City That Never Sleeps.” Paris is renowned as “The City of Light.” Bangkok is known as “Sin City.” Choose one of these cities and explain why the city has such a nickname. What are the benefits for a city to be known worldwide by a nickname? Pick a city in Ukraine, give it a nickname, and explain your choice.


50. Mother Teresa said, “Do not wait for leaders; do it alone, person to person.” How are young people in Ukraine involved in improving their communities? What challenges do young Ukrainians face when they try to improve things person to person? What do you personally do to improve the lives of the people around you?

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