Международный соломонов университет icon

Международный соломонов университет




НазваМеждународный соломонов университет
Сторінка1/5
Дата05.09.2012
Розмір0.89 Mb.
ТипДокументи
  1   2   3   4   5

МЕЖдуНАРОДНыЙ СОЛОМОНоВ УНиВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА языков



английский язык

методические задания

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТоВ
іі-ііі курсов

ФАКУЛЬТЕТА ИУДАИКИ























































КИеВ • 2002












^







Составитель:

Л. В. Гуминская



Рекомендовано

кафедрою языков Международного Соломонового университета

^

(протокол № 19 от 3.07.2001.)



Печатается

в редакции составителя





Английский язык: Методическтие задания для студентов II-III курсов факультета иудаики / Составит.: Гуминская Л. В.– К.: МСУ, 2002.– 67 c.

^



© Международный

Соломонов

университет, 2002









^





Учебно-методическое

издание

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

МЕТОДИЧЕСКТИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ

^

II-III КУРСОВ ФАКУЛЬТЕТА ИУДАИКИ







Подписано к печати 04.07.02. Формат 60´84/16.

^

Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура Тип Таймс.

Уч.-изд. л. 3,38.

Тираж изготовлен

Международным Соломоновым университетом

01135, г. Киев, ул. Шолуденко, 1Б


PREFACE

In this manual we are fulfilling the need for a work for students of the Judaica Faculty who are learning English at the Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate levels.

It includes the authentic materials which require students not only to understand the information, but also to interpret and to evaluate it as well. It is intended to develop our learners’ language skills and to simultaneously make them more knowledgeable in the doctrine and the practice of Judaism, the basic principles of this religion.


CONTENTS

1. What kinds of museums does this museum complex include? 46

2. Who designed the Israel Museum? 46

The sabbath service 61

The fortress of Masada 62

Western (Wailing) Wall of Jerusalem 62

Banyas 63

PART I
^ THE JEWISH RELIGION


UNIT 1
JUDAISM – THE RELIGION OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE


Exercise 1. Read the text for detailed comprehension using the glossary below.

Judaism, the religious culture of the Jews is one of the world's oldest continuing religious traditions.

The terms Judaism and religion did not exist in premodern Hebrew. The Jews Spoke of the Torah, God's revealed instruction to Israel, which mandated both a world view and a way of life (Halakah); the «way» by which to walk—Jewish law, custom, and practice. Premodern Judaism, in all its historical forms, thus constituted (and traditional Judaism today constitutes) an integrated cultural system encompassing the totality of individual and communal existence. It is a system of sanctification in which all is to be subsumed under God's rule, that is, under divinely revealed models of cosmic order and lawfulness. Christianity originated as one among several competing Jewish ideologies in 1st-century Palestine, and Islam drew in part on Jewish sources at the outset. Because most Jews, from the 7th century on, have lived in the cultural ambit of either Christianity or Islam, these religions have had an impact on the subsequent history of Judaism.

Judaism originated in the land of Israel (also known as Palestine) in the Middle East. Subsequently, Jewish communities have existed at one time or another in almost all parts of the world, a result of both voluntary migrations of Jews and forced exile or expulsions. In the early 1990s the total world Jewish population was about 12.8 million, of whom about 5.5 million lived in the United States, more than 3.9 million in Israel, and nearly 1.2 million in the Soviet Union, the three largest centers of Jewish settlement. About 1.2 million Jews lived in the rest of Europe, most of them in France and Great Britain. About 356,700 lived in the rest of North America, and 32,700 in Asia other than Israel. About 433,400 Jews lived in Central and South America, and about 148,700 in Africa.


continuing

непрерывный

revealed instruction

святое учение

instruction

обучение, преподавание

revelation

откровение

to mandate

передавать по поручению

world view

точка зрения на устройство мира

custom

обычаи (собир.)

practice

установленные нормы

to constitute

составлять

integrated

всеобъемлющий

to encompass

заключать

totality

совокупность, вся сумма целиком

communal existence

общинная, общественная жизнь

sanctification

освещение, посвящение

to subsume under smth

относить к чему-л., включать во что-л.

divinely

божественно

cosmic

упорядоченный, находящийся в гармонии, космический

models of cosmic order and lawfulness

законы вселенского устройства мира и законности

to originate

брать начало, возникнуть

to draw in part on

черпать частично из

at the outset

вначале

cultural ambit

культурное окружение

impact on

влияние на

Jewish communities

еврейские общины

at one time or another

в то или иное время

voluntary migration

добровольное переселение

forced exile or expulsion

принудительная ссылка или изгнание

centers of Jewish settlement

центры еврейского поселения


Exercise 2. Distinguish between the usage of each word.

Jew, Israelite, Israeli, Hebrew, Yiddish.

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps in the text.

Torah is God's ____________to Israel, which._________________ and a way of life — Jewish ______________ and ____________. Traditional Judaism today __________________ an _______________ cultural system encompassing the totality of _________________. It is a system of sanctification in which all is to be ________________ God's rule, that is, under divinely revealed _________________. Because most Jews, from the 7th century on, have lived in the ________________ of either Christianity or Islam, these religions have had an ______________________ on the _____________________________ history of ______________._____________________ have existed at one time or another in almost all parts of the world, a result of both ______________________ of Jews and _______________________.

Exercise 4. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B.

continue

Beginning, start.

instruction

Superhuman, godlike.

integrate

Relating to the universe.

encompass

Remain in a state, capacity or place.

subsume

The effect or impression of one thing or another.

cosmic

Lesson or something learned

outset

Make into a whole, unify

ambit

External boundary, sphere.

impact

Place in a broader or more comprehensive category

divine

Constitute or include

Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. What is understood under the term «Judaism»?

  2. What does Judaism encompass?

  3. What is the place of Judaism among other modern religions?

  4. When did Judaism originate?

  5. What are the main reasons for Jewish communities to be found all over the world?

  6. Where are the main centres of Jewish settlement?

Exercise 6. Correct the false statements in pairs.

  1. The Torah and Judaism are different things.

  2. Judaism is a young religion.

  3. Judaism originated in Europe.

  4. All the Jewish population is located in Israel.

UNIT 2
^ BASIC DOCTRINES AND SOURCES OF JUDAISM


Exercise 1. Read the text for detailed comprehension using the glossary below.

Basic Doctrines and Sources As a rich and complex religious tradition, Judaism has never been monolithic. Its various historical forms nonetheless have shared certain characteristic features. The most essential of these is a radical monotheism, that is, the belief that a single, transcendent God created the universe and continues providentially to govern it. Undergirding this monotheism is the teleological conviction that the world is both intelligible and purposive, because a single divine intelligence stands behind it. Nothing that humanity experiences is capricious, everything ultimately has meaning. The mind of God is manifest to the traditional Jew in both the natural order, through creation, and the social-historical order, through revelation. The same God who created the world revealed himself to the Israelites at Mount Sinai. The content of that revelation is the Torah («revealed instruction»), God's will for humankind expressed in commandments (mitzvoth) by which individuals are to regulate their lives in interacting with one another and with God. By living in accordance with God's laws and submitting to the divine will, humanity can become a harmonious part of the cosmos.


monolithic

монолитный

to share

разделять

features

черты

radical monotheism

монотеизм, единобожие

transcendent

превосходящий всякое бытие, совершенный

universe

вселенная

providential

ниспосланный богом, судьбой, проведением

undergird

поддерживать, укреплять

teleological conviction

телеологическое убеждение

intelligible

доступный для понимания

purposive

служащий для определенной цели

single divine intelligence

единый божественный разум

capricious

случайный, бессмысленный

ultimately

в конечном итоге

mind of God

(помыслы) воля божья

manifest

явный, очевидный

natural order

естественный порядок

social-historical order

социально-исторический порядок

Israelites

израильтяне

will for humankind

воля божья посланная человечеству

commandments

заповеди

to regulate

упорядочить, регламентировать

to interact with one another

взаимодействовать, ладить друг с другом

in accordance with

согласно, соответственно

to submit to the divine will

покориться божьей воле

harmonious part of the cosmos.

гармоничная часть Вселенной

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps in the text.

Judaism has never been _________________. Its various historical forms nonetheless have shared certain ________________. The most essential of these is the belief that a single, _________________. God created the_________________ and continues to govern it. The world is both _________________ and purposive, because a ______________________stands behind it. Nothing that humanity experiences is _____________ everything ultimately has ______________. The same God who _________ the world _________________ himself to the Israelites at _______________.

The content of that revelation is _______________, God's __________________expressed in ____________________ by which individuals are to regulate their lives in __________ with one another and with God. By living in accordance with __________ and submitting ____________________, humanity can become a _______________ of the cosmos.

Exercise 3. Arrange the words in the correct order to make sentences.

is a Jews religious of the culture Judaism.


is one the traditions It world's continuing religious oldest of.


the drew on Jewish sources at ^ Islam outset in part.


ambit Jews lived in the cultural of either Most Christianity or have Islam.


Middle land originated in the Judaism of Israel in the East.


of existed communities in all parts the almost have Jewish world.


never monolithic been has Judaism.


The traditional mind of is manifest to the Jew God.


Exercise 4. Find terms for the following definitions.

The human race




Precept spoken by God to Israel or delivered to Moses




Jewish or pertaining to Israel




Capable of being understood




The world or universe as an embodiment of order and harmony




Superior or supreme




Made of single block of material




The totality of existing or created things, all creation




The doctrine or belief that there is but one God




To subject oneself to conditions imposed




Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. Have there been any different forms or trends in Judaism?

  2. What is Judaism's most characteristic feature?

  3. Why is it believed that the world is intelligible and purposive?

  4. Where is God's will manifest?

  5. Where is God's will for humankind expressed?

Exercise 6. Imagine your partner has little idea of Judaism. Acquaint him or her with the Basic Doctrines and Sources.

Exercise 7. Listen to the quotations from «Reflections on Being a Jew» by Abraham Joshua Heschel. Answer the questions:

  1. What are the leading principles of human existence you can derive from the text?

  2. What is religion in the author’s view?

  3. What is the meaning of God?

  4. From these selections, what sort of picture do you derive of the author?

Exercise 8. Discuss your own ideas of what you’ve listened to.

UNIT 3
^ THE MAJOR BRANCHES OF JUDAISM


Exercise 1. Read the text for detailed comprehension. Use your dictionary to check new words and expressions.

The Major Branches of Judaism.

Beginning in 19th century Germany a movement arose which questioned the need to follow every Jewish rite and ritual as they had been prescribed more than 3.000 years earlier. This led, first, to the creation of a branch of Judaism which has been called Reform or Liberal Judaism and, later, to another branch which came to be known as Conservative Judaism. The traditional observance came to be known as Orthodox Judaism. Today, Orthodox, Conservative and Reform Judaism represent the three main branches of Judaism.

Orthodox Judaism believes that God revealed Himself completely on Mount Sinai. Then and there Moses received His Law in both its written and oral forms. It is divine and contains the final revelation of God. It is unalterable for all times and of equal value in each of its parts. To live according to it is the Jew's supreme duty. If the Law is truly understood and interpreted, it offers the answer to every situation in life.

^ Reform Judaism reinterprets ancient tradition and rabbinical law for present-day circumstances. To make religion understood and relevant to the modern generation is one of its main endeavours. Reform Judaism sees in early religious documents not only divine inspiration but also human elements conditioned by the limitations of time when they were written. Reform stresses the spiritual aspect. Symbolic of its aspirations and teaching is the name chosen for its American headquarters: The House of Living Judaism.

Exercise 2. Match the English words and expressions with their Russian equivalents.

  1. to question the need

  2. Jewish rite

  3. traditional observance

  4. to alter

  5. unalterable

  6. rabbinical law

  7. relevant

  8. endeavour [in'deve]

  9. to condition

  10. aspiration

  1. обусловливать, определять

  2. уместный, относящийся к делу

  3. попытка, старание, усилие

  4. талмудистский закон

  5. сомневаться в необходимости

  6. традиционное соблюдение

  7. стремление, сильное желание

  8. неизменный

  9. изменять, вносить изменения

  10. еврейский обряд

Exercise 3. Distinguish between the usage of each word in the following groups.

  1. differentiate, distinguish

  2. alter, altar

  3. arise, rise

  4. though, although

Exercise 4. Write the correct questions to the following
answers.



1. In 19th century Germany.


2. It questioned the need to follow every Jewish rite and ritual.


3. Orthodox, Conservative, Reform Judaism.


4. To live according to the Law.


5. No, it is not possible to develop or alter the Law.


6. It reinterprets ancient traditions and rabbinical law for present-day circumstances.


7. To make religion understood and relevant to the modern generation.


8. The House of Living Judaism.

Exercise 5. Discuss the following with your partners:

  1. The main branches of Judaism and their origin.

  2. What are the basic principles of Orthodox Judaism?

  3. The peculiarities of Reform Judaism.

UNIT 4
^ THE MAJOR BRANCHES OF JUDAISM


Exercise 1. Read the text for detailed comprehension.

The Major Branches of Judaism

Conservative Judaism (also described as traditional historic Judaism) was born as a result of the search for a middle road between the old and the new. Considering Jewish Law of divine origin, it continues to observe many of the Orthodox customs. Nevertheless, it shares with Liberalism (Reform) a belief in the need of adapting the ancient tradition to modern times by developments and modifications, but insists that these have to be introduced slowly and in moderation. «When it is not necessary to change, it is necessary not to change» could describe its philosophy. The aim to conserve as much of the tradition as possible explains its name. Conservatism in its modern form owes its existence to Professor Solomon Schecher, who arrived in America from England in 1902.

Reconstructionism1 was founded by M. Kaplan, a graduate and teacher of the Conservative Jewish Theological Seminary of New York. It emphasizes that Judaism is more than a religion; it is a complete civilization. It contains within it religion, laws and ritual, language, history, culture and folklore. And like any civilization, Judaism has evolved over the years. As such, Jews should accept the new scientific knowledge available and discard those aspects of Jewish doctrinal belief that stem from the supernatural.

Though these various branches of Judaism thus differ in interpretation of revelation, they share all essentials: the fundamental teaching of Judaism, the consciousness of mission and the purity of faith.

Exercise 2. Check the meaning of the following words and expressions. Fill in the chart. Memorize them.

  1. divine origin




  1. to share a belief




  1. to share essentials




  1. to adapt the ancient traditions to modern times




  1. to insist




  1. in moderation




  1. to owe one's existence to




  1. to emphasize




  1. complete civilization




  1. to evolve




  1. available




  1. to discard




  1. to stem from




  1. to differ in




  1. consciousness of mission




  1. purity of faith




Exercise 3. Distinguish between the usage of each word in the following groups:

1. adapt, adopt, adept

2. conscious, conscientious

3. supernatural, preternatural

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps in the text:

Reform Judaism began in _______in the early part of the __________.

It __________ the need to follow every Jewish _____________and ritual.

The traditional ________is know as ________ Judaism. Conservative Judaism has sought to define a middle road between _________ and ________ Judaism. Reconstructionism emphasizes that Judaism is more than religion, it is a ____________. «The Law is ____________ for all times says – Judaism. It is neither necessary ____________ possible to develop or _____________ it».

One of the main principles of ___________ Judaism is to make religion understood and _____________ to the modern generation.

______________Judaism shares with Liberalism _________in the need of the ancient tradition to _______ times. But it _________ that the developments and modifications have to be introduced _____________. These various _______ of Judaism share all ________: the fundamental teaching of _________, the ________of mission and ________ of ______.

Exercise 5. Read the following description of the ritual and define what sections of Judaism they belong to

All branches of Judaism differ in interpretation of revelation and in appreciation and emphasis of the ritual of the synagogue.

Read the following descriptions of the ritual and define what sections of Judaism they belong to.

  1. They strictly observe the Sabbath.

In the synagogue men and women are separated, the women usually sitting either in the balcony or behind or to the side of the men. The reasons are for the purposes of modesty and to emphasize the male role in prayer in Judaism. The religious service is conducted in Hebrew. Men wear a tallis1 and a yarmulke2. The children usually attend religious day schools.

  1. In the synagogue, men and women are seated together, the men wear a yarmulke and tallis, a large portion of the religious service is conducted in Hebrew, and there is often a choir. The Sabbath and dietary laws may or may not be strictly observed, but all holidays are, of course, celebrated. Religious day schools exist and offer classes on Jewish religion, history and customs (in addition to the full range of secular academic subjects).

  1. English (in English – speaking countries) is the language of the greater part of the religious service, but a number of prayers are recited in Hebrew. Men and women are seated together in the synagogue, the men without yarmulke or tallis, the women without a sheitel3. A choir and organ accompany the service.

Emphasis is placed on Jewish cultural values, and traditions and holidays are celebrated, but there is usually no attempt made to follow the Sabbath, daily prayer, regular study of the Talmud. In recent years women have graduated from rabbinical seminaries and are serving as rabbis4.



Exercise 6. Here is a short summary of the major movements that we have studied, along with some of the strengths of each movement’s ideas. Listen to it, take notes on it, and fill in the diagram.



PART II
^ THE GREATEST JEWISH BOOKS


UNIT 1
THE BIBLE, THE TALMUD, THE SIDDUR


Exercise 1. Read the text for comprehension. Use your dictionary to check new words and expressions.

The Greatest Jewish Books.

They are three: the Bible, the Talmud, the Siddur.

Without the first, there would be no Jewish people.

Without the second, there would be a vast gap in Jewish scholarship and learning.

Without the third, there would be no bridge of prayer uniting many centuries of Jewish happiness and despair, fears and hopes.

The Bible is the main source of Judaism, its very foundation. The word ‘Bible’ is of Greek origin and means simply ‘The Book’.

It stands as the Book, because no other book ever produced has been read by so many people or played so significant part in the history of humanity. It has been translated from Hebrew into over a thousand languages and dialects. The Bible didn’t suddenly appear. It was created by force of historical circumstances. At least one hundred authors wrote the Bible. They included priests and prophets, social revolutionaries and conservative aristocrats. They all shared a passionate faith in God and an unshakable determination to establish His Kingdom on earth. The Bible tells the early story of the Jewish people. Yet it is totally different from all other history books. It is a book of complete and unvarnished truth, which gives the Bible its special greatness.

It is a book of religion.

The Hebrew Bible, as it know today, consists of 39 books divided into 3 sections:

  1. The Five Books of Moses (Torah)

1. Genesis

2. Exodus

3. Leviticus

4. Numbers

5. Deuteronomy

  1. The Prophets

  2. The Writings.

The Talmud is the second foundation of Judaism. The word simply means ‘ «learning». It is a university in writing. It counts more than 3 million words and took five centuries to compile (from before the time of Jesus to the sixth century). It's a book written by two thousand authors. The book deals not with one specific subject, but with every aspect of life. It expresses real religion, which must never be anything apart from life, but a guide and inspiration to the totality of existence. «By three things is the world preserved: by truth, by judgment and by peace.» «When a poor man stands at your door, God Himself stands at his right hand.» Charity is not merely a matter of philanthropy, but a command. Utter honesty in thought and action is demanded. «God condemns a person who says one thing with his mouth and another in his heart.»

Its language is Aramaic, with Greek, Latin and Persian words interspersed.

Learned by heart, it was called the «Oral Law». Tradition claimed that when God handed Moses the Five books on Mount Sinai, He also simultaneously revealed this oral tradition yet today it is written down. This is a paradox with historical explanation. The Talmud consists of two separate parts. One part is the Mishnah. It contains all the Jewish laws that had been handed down since the time of the Bible.

The other part is The ^ Gemara. It is an explanation of the Mishnah.

The Siddur is the prayer book.

It became a rich collection of Jewish literature. Its passages show the development of Jewish life.


Exercise 2. Match the English words and expressions with their Russian equivalents.

  1. scholarship

  2. learning

  3. prayer

  4. origin

  5. priest

  6. prophet

  7. to share a passionate faith

  8. unshakable determination

  9. to compile

  10. to deal with

  11. simultaneously

  12. to intersperse

  13. to hand down

  14. passage

  15. wisdom

  1. одновременно

  2. передавать

  3. разделять страстную веру

  4. мудрость

  5. молитва

  6. часть, отрывок

  7. образованность, ученость

  8. происхождение

  9. учение, наука

  10. священнослужитель

  11. проповедник, пророк

  12. непоколебимая решимость

  13. рассматривать

  14. составлять

  15. пересыпать

Exercise 3. Note the meaning of the suffix- ship.

Use the words in sentences of your own.

scholarship

citizenship

friendship

partnership

relationshi

pExercise 4. Memorize the meaning of the following expressions with gap.

credibility gap- кризис доверия

experience gap- недостаток опыта

generation gap- конфликт поколений

ideological gap- расхождение во взглядах

reading gap- недостаточная начитанность

sensitivity gap- отсутствие чувственности, такта, сочувствия

technological gap-отставание в области техники

gender gap- расхождение в политических взглядах, между муж. и женщинами.

Exercise 5. Distinguish between the usage of each word in the following groups.

1.) historic, historical

2.) politics, political, politic, polity, policy

3.) economy, economics, economic, economical

4.) compile, compose

Exercise 6. Comprehension check.

1) What do these numbers refer to?

3; 1000; 39; 3000000; 2000; 2.

  1. Are the following statements true or false?

Correct the false ones

1. The Bible is the main source of Judaism.

2. The word ‘Bible’ is of Latin origin.

3. At least one thousand authors wrote the Bible.

4. The authors shared a passionate faith in God and an unshakable determination to establish His Kingdom on earth.

5. The Hebrew Bible consists of 39 books divided into 5 sections

6. The word ‘Talmud’ means ‘scholarship’

7. The Talmud deals with one specific subject

8. The language of the Talmud is Persian

9. The Talmud was called ‘Oral Law’

10. The Mishnah and the Gemara are two separate parts of the Bible

11. The Siddur is a rich collection of Jewish literature.

Exercise 7. Discuss the following with your partner. Then report back to the whole class.

1. Why were the Jewish people called ‘The people of the book’?

2. Why has the Bible been their «portable fatherland»?

Exercise 8. Listen to the quotations from «Reflections on Being a Jew» by Abraham J. Heschel and comment.

UNIT 2
^ THE TORAH


Exercise 1. Read the text for detailed comprehension.

The Greatest Jewish Books.

First in the order of the Bible and importance stand ‘the Five Books of Moses’, known as the Torah: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy1.

They contain the fundamental ideas of Judaism. They describe the beginning of the world and the formative history of the Jewish people. There we find the Jewish declaration of faith in the one God and the Ten Commandments.


Genesis discusses many subjects. How did the world begin? Why did man have to work so hard to earn a living? How did murder enter the world to mar God’s beautiful plan? When did the idea of wearing clothes begin? Where did man get the idea of fashioning tools and instruments with his hands? It answers these questions in the language and thought of long ago. It is not a ‘Book of Knowledge’, however, it’s chief purpose is to tell us how God wants us to live in His World. The Hebrew name for Genesis is B’reshist and comes from the first word of the book which means ‘in the beginning’.

Exodus tells us about the hardship of the Israelites in Egypt and their escape from slavery under the guidance of Moses. It describes how the Jewish people received The Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. It pictures the very first Passover celebration. Step by step it details the building of the Sanctuary. It sings the praises of freedom. This book receives its name from the departure or exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. Its Hebrew name is Shemot (names) because it begins with a list of the names of Israel’s sons in Egypt.

Leviticus takes up many important matters dealing with the Jewish nationhood. What kind of judges and courts were to be established? The proper attitude of a Jew toward his parents, his duties toward charity, the poor, the widow and the orphan; festivals and fasts; dietary laws are also discussed. It is called Va- Yikra in Hebrew, meaning ‘And He called (to Moses)’

^ Numbers tells us what happened to the Israelites from the time they left Mount Sinai until they reached the borders of Canaan. After forty years of wandering the Jewish people were now prepared to enter the Promised Land. This book is named in Hebrew Be- Midbar, from its first important word meaning ‘In the wilderness’.

Deuteronomy reviews the history and the law contained in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. It closes with the great song and blessing of Moses just before the teacher and leader died. The Hebrew name is Debarim or ‘Words’ and comes from its first verse which reads ‘There are the words which Moses spoke’.

Exercise 2. Check the meaning of the following words and expressions from the text. Fill in the chart. Memorize them.

  1. to mar God’s beautiful plan

  2. chief purpose

  3. hardship

  4. an escape from slavery

  5. under the guidance

  6. step by step

  7. Sanctuary = Tabernacle

  8. to take up

  9. nationhood

  10. proper attitude

  11. fast

  12. to reach the borders of

  13. to wander

  14. the Promised Land

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

Exercise 3. Note the meaning of the suffix- hood. Use the words in sentences of your own.

nationhood falsehood motherhood

neighbourhood childhood

brotherhood priesthood

Exercise 4. Distinguish between the usage of each word in the following groups.

  1. include, consist, compose, comprise, constitute

  2. ancient, antique, antiquated

Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps in the text.

The Torah ________of the Five book of Moses

They are ___________________________________

The Hebrew name for Genesis is _________which means ‘__________’

Exodus tells us about __________of the Israelites in Egypt and ________ from slavery under _____________of Moses.

It describes how the Jewish people received _____________on Mount Sinai.

It details the building of______________

Leviticus ____________ many important matters dealing with _______________.

Numbers tells us what happened to the ____________ from the time they left ______until they __________of Canaan.

The Jewish people were prepared to enter _____________.

Deuteronomy reviews __________and __________ contained in the Books of________, ____________________, ___________________________.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions to the text.

  1. What are the Five Books of Moses?

  2. What’s the chief purpose of Genesis?

  3. What does Exodus tell us about?

  4. Where did the Jewish people receive the Ten Commandments?

  5. Where is the very first Passover celebration described?

  6. What Book of Moses details the Jewish nationhood?

Exercise 7. Discuss the following with your partners:

The importance of the Greatest Books for the Jewish people.

Exercise 8. Listen to the text and complete the gaps:

  1. The remains of the monastic settlement are situated on the north west shore of the … Sea, in ….

  2. It was inhabited by ….

  3. They were an ancient … ….

  4. They lived there in … style between the second century … and … A.D.

  5. Their doctrines and rites were similar to those of the early ….

  6. They lived a life of … and ….

  7. Their founder was called «… …».

  8. They studied ….

  9. Meals had a … character.

  10. It was quite extraordinary to purify the dining room with water because of the extreme … of the area.

  11. A clever network of … and … provided water to all parts of the settlement.

  12. Rooms were identified: …, …, …, a refectory and the scriptorium.

  13. The famous … … Scrolls were written in ….

  14. They contain … …, Deuterocanons, the Apocripha, and ….

  15. The rules and rites of the Qumran community were described in ….

  16. The language of the manuscripts is … and ….

Exercise 8. Listen again to check your answers.

Exercise 9. Describe your imaginary participation in a large archeological expedition in Qumran.

Say, how it made you more knowledgeable and experienced in the field.

Exercise 10. Work in pairs.

Student A is a famous archeologist; Student B is a journalist who are going to interview him for the article about the Essenes.

UNIT 3
^ THE SANHEDRIN


Exercise 1. Read the text for detailed comprehension.

The Sanhedrin

The Torah was meant to be a dynamic force guiding an entire people for all times, and therefore it needed a body entrusted with its interpretation. This body was the Sanhedrin, which for over 1600 years served as both supreme court and legislative body of the Jews. Until it was abolished by Roman repression some 1600 years ago, it was the final interpreter and legislating body of Jewish law. To some extent, it was the abolishment of the Sanhedrin that eventually led to the necessity of putting the Talmud down in writing.

The authority of the Sanhedrin is derived from the Torah itself. This body had a twofold authority. First of all it was the keeper of the Oral Torah and was changed with its interpretation. As such, it functioned as the supreme court of Jewish law. Secondly, it had the authority to legislate religious law. Since this authority was derived from the Torah itself, it was as binding as Biblical law. Once legislation was passed, it could only be repeated by the Sanhedrin itself.

Such legislation was most often aimed at maintaining the spirit, as well as the letter of the law. A prime rule given to the Sanhedrin was «to make a fence around the Torah».

Exercise 2. Match a word in A with its meaning in B to find the definition in C. Memorize them.

A

B

C

1. supreme

издавать законы

put an end to

2. authority

упразднять

have a source or origin

3. to legislate

верховный

power or right to control, give order and make others obey

4. to abolish

возлагать, вверять

highest in rank or authority

5. twofold

происходить

make laws

6. maintain

власть, полномочие

trust a person to complete or look after smth.

7. to entrust

ограда

keep up, support

8. fence

двойной

doubly

9. to derive from

сохранять, поддерживать

barrier made of wood or metal

Exercise 3. Distinguish between the usage of each word in the following groups:

1. authority, authoritative, authoritarian

2. extant, extinct, extent

3. legislation, legislature

4. lawyer, attorney, solicitor, barrister, advocate.

Exercise 4. Arrange the words in the correct order to make sentences.

Force a dynamic guiding the people Torah an for was all entire times.

  1   2   3   4   5

Схожі:

Международный соломонов университет iconКурс лекций по протозоологии издательско-полиграфический центр "Международный Соломонов университет"
Охватывают хлоропласты, окружая их, таким образом, двумя дополнительными мембранами. Наружная мембрана ядра простейших может также...
Международный соломонов университет iconПерлова Юлия Дмитриевна
Сертифицированный профессиональный коуч (pcc), Международный Эриксоновский Университет, Канада
Международный соломонов университет iconЛекция Введение международный научно-технический университет имени академика ю. Бугая кафедра компьютерных наук и информационных систем

Международный соломонов университет iconЛекция Реляционная алгебра международный научно-технический университет имени академика ю. Бугая кафедра компьютерных наук и информационных систем содержание

Международный соломонов университет iconЛекция Архитектура баз данных международный научно-технический университет имени академика ю. Бугая кафедра компьютерных наук и информационных систем

Международный соломонов университет iconЛекция Сетевая модель данных международный научно-технический университет имени академика ю. Бугая кафедра компьютерных наук и информационных систем

Международный соломонов университет iconTempus project
Николая Гоголя, Кировоградский государственный педагогический университет имени Владимира Винниченко, Малардаленский университет...
Международный соломонов университет iconЛекция Реляционная структура данных международный научно-технический университет имени академика ю. Бугая кафедра компьютерных наук и информационных систем
Порядок значений атрибутов в кортеже не фиксирован (он определен схемой отношения)
Международный соломонов университет iconЛекция 12. Целостность данных международный научно-технический университет имени академика ю. Бугая кафедра компьютерных наук и информационных систем содержание
Возможность поддержания переходов из одного состояния в другое (статичные, динамичные)
Международный соломонов университет iconМеждународный союз машиностроителей донецкий национальный технический университет институт международного сотрудничества
Девиз проекта: Комплексное повышение качества машин на всех этапах их жизненного цикла на основе новых принципов и подходов
Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Документи


База даних захищена авторським правом ©zavantag.com 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації
Документи