Міжнародний соломонів університет кафедра мов англійська мова навчальні завдання icon

Міжнародний соломонів університет кафедра мов англійська мова навчальні завдання




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МІЖНАРОДНИЙ СОЛОМОНІВ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

КАФЕДРА МОВ


АНГЛІЙСЬКА МОВА


Навчальні завдання

для студентів I-II курсів юридичного факультету


Київ 2001

Упорядники:

В.В. Салій, А.І. Секан


Рецензент

Л.М. Саєнко, старший викладач англійської мови КДУ


Затверджено кафедрою мов МСУ

(протокол № 10 від 5.06.2000р.)

Друкується в редакції упорядників

Навчальні завдання з англійської мови для студентів I -II курсів юридичного факультету / Упорядн.: В.В. Салій, А.І. Секан. – К.: МСУ, 2001. - 51 с.


ВСТУП




У зв'язку з розширенням наукових зв'язків з закордонними країнами зростає необхідність у професіональному спілкуванні, для успішного здійснення якого важливе значення має практичне володіння фахівцями іноземною мовою.

Навчальні завдання призначені для навчання перекладу, засвоєння правової лексики, розуміння необхідності закону, особливостей англійської правової системи і відмінних рис романо-германської системи права від англосаксонської, розвитку навичок монологічного та діалогічного мовлення.

Завдання складаються з 6 розділів, у яких міститься активний лексичний матеріал із фахової тематики. У кожному розділі подаються вправи, що допомагають опрацювати, активізувати та закріплювати лексику, а також контролювати розуміння прочитаних текстів. Наведені тексти – це тексти з правової літератури Великобританії та США. Кожний розділ завершується контрольними запитаннями, які подані у формі комунікативних ситуацій. Це дозволяє використовувати їх як основу для завершуючих дискусій із відповідних тем.

Навчальні завдання містять такі основні теми, як: право, розвиток права, англійське право, право справедливості, прецедентне право, дві головні правові системи сучасності.

Розраховані на студентів юридичних факультетів вищих навчальних закладів, які володіють основним граматичним матеріалом.


U N I T 1

L A W



Assignment 1. Check to see if you know the meanings of these key words and

expressions for discussion:


body of

judicial opinions

rules to enforce

regulations to promote human dignity

penalties to pass the law

remedies to make the law

property law to obey

contract law to inhibit / to prohibit / to forbid

legislation to promote / to facilitate / to contribute to

legislature to resolve disputes

authorized body to maintain an orderly society

empty law to provide

law in process // to find in constitutions

law in force to assure / to ensure / to guarantee

statute to vary

matters to improve the quality of life

judicial backing to limit

natural law to influence sb./sth. //

influence on // impact on to impact on

in a civilized fashion(way, manner)

means of social control

lawmaker

by means of / by way of / through

crime

court

powers of government

coercive power of the state


Assignment 2. Find English equivalents for the following sentences in the reading:

  1. Право - сукупність правових норм і правил, які закріплюються в конституціях, законах, судових практиках тощо.

  2. Суть та функції права змінювалися протягом історії.

  3. Він (закон) підтримується примусовою силою держави, що забезпечує дотримання закону через відповідні засоби правового захисту (санкції).

  4. Закони проти злочинів допомагають підтримувати мирне, упорядковане, відносно стабільне суспільство.

  5. Суди, вирішуючи спори цивілізованим шляхом, сприяють стабільності в суспільстві.

  6. Право власності і договірне право сприяють підприємницькій (діловій) діяльності та приватному плануванню.

  7. ... в різні часи закони приймалися, щоб перешкоджувати соціальній дискримінації та підвищувати рівень життя особистості стосовно здоров’я, освіти та добробуту.

  8. ...якщо звичай або норма забезпечується судовою підтримкою, це є діючий закон.

  9. З іншого боку, закон, якому не підкоряються і який не застосовується, є недіючий.

* * *

Law is a body of official rules and regulations, which are generally found in constitutions, legislation, judicial opinions, and the like. It is used to govern a society and to control the behavior of its members. The nature and functions of law have varied throughout history. In modern societies, some authorized body such as a legislature or a court makes the law. It is backed by the coercive power of the state, which enforces the law by means of appropriate penalties or remedies.

Formal legal rules and actions are usually distinguished from other means of social control and guides for behavior such as mores, morality, public opinion, and custom or tradition. Of course, a lawmaker may respond to public opinion or other pressures. A formal law may prohibit what is morally unacceptable.

Law serves a variety of functions. Laws against crimes, for example, help to maintain a peaceful, orderly, relatively stable society. Courts contribute to social stability by resolving disputes in a civilized fashion. Property and contract laws facilitate business activities and private planning. Laws limiting the powers of government help to provide some degree of freedom that would not otherwise possible. Law has also been used as a mechanism for social change, for instance, at various times laws have been passed to inhibit social discrimination and to improve the quality of individual life in matters of health, education, and welfare.

Some experts believe the popular view of law emphasizes its formal, coercive aspects. They point out that if a custom or norm is assured of judicial backing, it is, for practical purposes, law. On the other hand, a statute that is neither obeyed nor enforced is empty law. Social attitudes toward the formal law are significant part of the law in process.

Law is not completely a matter of human enactment; it also includes natural law. The best-known version of this view, that God’s law is supreme, has had considerable influence in the United States and other Western societies. The civil rights movement, for example, was at least partially inspired by the belief in natural law. Such a belief seems implicit in the view that law should serve to promote human dignity, as for instance, by the enforcement of equal rights for all.

^ Text notes: guides for behavior норми поведінки

mores нрави

business activities підприємницька / діловадіяльність

private planning приватне планування

civil rights movement рух за цивільні права

popular view of law загальнопоширений погляд на право


Assignment 3. Match the following words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

I.

1. judicial opinions 1. сукупність правових норм і правил

2. authorized body 2. договірне право

3. body of rules and regulations 3. природне право

4. law in force 4. судова практика (судові рішення)

5. remedies 5. право власності

6. judicial backing 6. уповноважений орган

7. powers of government 7. засоби правового захисту

8. penalties 8. судова підтримка

9. property law 9. діюче право (закон)

10. natural law 10. повноваження уряду

11. contract law 11. міри покарання (санкції)

II.

  1. to enforce the law 1. приймати закон

  2. to resolve disputes 2. підтримувати людську гідність

  3. to pass a law 3. запроваджувати закон

(забезпечити дотримання закону )

4. to promote human dignity 4. сприяти підприємницькій (діловій)

діяльності

5. to make the law 5. перешкоджувати соціальній

дискримінації

  1. to find in legislation 6. вирішувати спори

  1. to inhibit social discrimination 7. зберігати упоряджене суспільство

8. to facilitate business activities 8. закріплювати у законах

9. to maintain an orderly society 9. творити закони

Assignment 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:

I.

legislation; legislature; rules and regulations; a body of; authorized body; judicial opinions; judicial backing; coercive power; remedies; penalties; matters; empty law; natural law; powers of government; business activities; court; human dignity; enforcement; property law; legal rules; means of social control; guides for behavior; custom; lawmaker; statute; law in process, law in force; mores; human enactment.


II.

to govern a society; to control the behavior; to vary; to make the law; to pass a law; to enforce a law; to serve functions; to maintain an orderly society; to contribute to social stability; to resolve disputes; to facilitate; to promote human dignity; to limit the powers of government; to assure judicial backing; to provide freedom; to improve the quality of life; to obey a law; to respond to; to prohibit social discrimination.

Assignment 5. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

запроваджувати, забезпечити дотримання; примусова сила держави; судова практика; підтримувати людську гідність; правові норми та правила; міри покарання, санкції; законодавство, закони; приймати закон; уповноважений орган; засоби правового захисту; право власності; договірне право; законодавчий акт, статут; соціальний розвиток (зміни); загальнопоширений погляд на право; забороняти; сприяти підприємницькій (діловій) діяльності; приватне планування; нрави; вирішувати спори; забезпечити судову підтримку; діючий закон; зберігати відносну стабільність; упоряджене суспільство; цивілізованим шляхом; законодавчий орган; засоби соціального контролю; повноваження уряду; вплив на; закріплювати в конституції; законодавець; правові дії; норми поведінки; рух за цивільні права; природне право.


Assignment 6. Use the Passive Voice:

  • Law in force (to assure) of judicial backing.

  • The civil rights movement (to inspire) the belief in natural law.

  • Human dignity (to promote) law.

  • Law (to back) the coercive power of the state.

  • The law (to make) some authorized body such as a legislature or a court.

  • Law (to use) to govern a society and control the behavior of its members.

  • Legal rules (to distinguish) from other means of social control.

  • Disputes (to resolve) courts in a civilized fashion.

  • Freedom in a society (to provide) laws limiting the powers of government.


Assignment 7. Read the text again carefully and decide if the following statements are true or false. Add some other information:

  • Law is a body of rules and regulations.

  • Law is used to govern a society.

  • A court makes the law.

  • Law is backed by remedies.

  • Laws against crimes help to maintain a relatively stable society.

  • Laws limiting the powers of government provide freedom in a

society.

  • Courts resolve disputes in a civilized way.

  • Law in force is a statute which is neither obeyed nor enforced.

  • Empty law is assured of judicial backing.

  • Law is a matter of human enactment.


Assignment 8. Use the information given in the text to answer the following questions.

Discuss your answers with other members of the class:



  • What is law?

  • What is law used for?

  • Which body makes the law?

  • What is law backed by?

  • What are functions of law?

  • What is empty law?

  • What is law for practical purposes?


Assignment 9. Read the text and try to find the main points in it.

Swap the information with other members of the class.

L A W


LAW is the set of enforced rules under which a society is governed. Law is one of the most basic social institutions - and one of the most necessary. No society could exist if all people did just as they pleased, without regard for the rights of others. Nor could a society exist if its members did not recognize that they also have certain obligations toward one another. The law thus establishes the rules that define a person’s rights and obligations. The law also sets penalties for people who violate these rules, and it states how government shall enforce the rules and penalties. However, the laws enforced by government can be changed. In fact, laws are frequently changed to reflect changes in a society’s needs and attitudes.

In most societies, various government bodies, especially police agencies and courts, see that the laws are obeyed. Because a person can be penalized for disobeying the law, most people agree that laws should be just. Justice is a moral standard that applies to all human conduct. The laws enforced by government have usually had a strong moral element, and so justice has generally been one of the law’s guiding principles. But governments can, and sometimes do, enforce laws that many people believe to be unjust. If this belief becomes widespread, people may lose respect for the law and may even disobey it. However, in democratic societies, the law itself provides way to amend or abolish these unjust laws.


Assignment 10. Complete the sentences using the information in the text:

  • Law is ......................

  • No society could exist if .................

  • The law establishes .................

  • The law sets ...............

  • The law states ...............

  • Laws are changed .............

  • Laws enforced by government have .............

  • One of the law’s guiding principles is ...........

  • Sometimes governments enforce ............

  • People may lose .............

  • The law itself provides ............


Assignment 11. Read the text and say what may happen to people in the society without the law. Discuss your ideas in small groups, then exchange opinions with the whole class.


THE NEED FOR LAW

Mr. Jones, having murdered his wife, was burying her in the garden one night, when his neighbour, hearing the noise, asked him what he was doing.

«Just burying the cat», said Mr. Jones.

«Funny sort of time to bury a cat», said the neighbour.

Now it is obvious to everyone that, in a community such as the one in which we live, some kind of law is necessary to try to prevent people like Mr. Jones from killing their wives. When the world was at a very primitive stage, there was no such law, and, if a man chose to kill his wife or if a woman succeeded in killing her husband, that was their own business and no one interfered officially.

But, for a very long time now, members of every community have made laws for themselves in self-protection. Otherwise it would have meant that the stronger man could have done what he liked with the weaker, and bad men could have joined together and terrorized the whole neighbourhood.

If it were not for the law, you could not go out in broad daylight without the fear of being kidnapped, robbed or murdered. There are far, far more good people in the world than bad, but there are enough of the bad to make law necessary in the interests of everyone.

There is no difficulty in understanding this but it is just as important to understand that law is not necessary just because there are bad people in the world. Even if we were all as good as we ought to be, laws would still be necessary. We should still require a set of rules of behaviour, in other words, laws to enable us to live in any kind of satisfactory state.

How is one good man in a motor-car to pass another good man also in a motor-car coming in the opposite direction, unless there is some rule of the road? People sometimes hover in front of one another when they are walking on the pavement before they can pass, and they may even collide. Not much harm is done then, but, if two good men in motor-­cars going in opposite directions hover in front of one another, not knowing which side to pass, the result will probably be that will be two less good men in the world.

So you can see that there must be laws, however good we may be. Unfortunately, however, none of us are always good and some of us are bad, so the law has to provide for all kinds of possibilities. Suppose you went to a greengrocer and bought some potatoes and found on your return home that they were mouldy, or even that some of them were stones, what could you do if there were no laws on the subject? In the absence of law you could only rely upon the law of the jungle. You could go back to the shop, demand proper potatoes and hit the shopkeeper on the nose if he refused to give them to you. You might then look round the shop to try to find some decent potatoes. While you were doing this, the shopkeeper might hit you on the back of the neck with a pound weight. Altogether it would not be a very satisfactory morning’s shopping.

Every country tries, therefore, to provide laws, which will help its people to live as safely and as comfortably as possible. This is not at all an easy thing to do, and no country has been successful in producing laws, which are entirely satisfactory. But we are far better off with the imperfect laws which we have, than with none at all.


Assignment 12. Choose at least two of the following points, which interest you and prepare to talk about your ideas. Discuss your ideas in pairs and then exchange opinions with the whole class. Use the information in the unit above:

  1. A society which has no laws.

  2. Law is one of the most necessary social institutions.

  3. Laws should be just.

  4. It’s necessary for any society to have laws.


Assignment 13. Work in pairs:

Suppose you have a friend who thinks that people don’t need laws at all, they are made only for lawyers.

Try to persuade him that he is mistaken.

U N I T 2

^ DEVELOPMENT OF LAW


Assignment 1. Check to see if you know the meanings of these key words and

expressions for discussion:

initially

tribe // tribal

kinship

worship of

legislature

a blend of

visible authority to be revealed (in)

ultimate authority to supersede

ruler / chief / head to end in

priest to begin with / to start with

revelations to exist

sacrilege to recognize

breach of tribal custom to emerge

ridicule to demand

hostility to involve the courts in lawmaking

sacrifice to be met with sanctions

expulsion to take shape

wrath of the gods to lay down rules

theft to appease gods (in)

adultery to operate under the laws

failure to repay a debt to revenge (oneself) upon sb. for sth.

revenge to avenge sth. (up)on sb.

legal system

legitimacy

appropriate compensation for

damage to persons

under a single set of laws

subtleties of judicial interpretation

concerning

in law / by law / under the law

source of law

judicial precedent

wrongs against individuals

wrongs against a tribe

wrongdoer

judiciary

magistrates

victim


Assignment 2. Find in the text English equivalents for the following sentences in the reading:

  1. Найпростіші суспільства були племінні.

  2. Первіснo члени племені були пов’язані спорідненністю та поклонінням тим самим богам.

  3. Навіть у вітсутності судів та законодавчого органу існувало право - поєднання звичаю, моралі, релігії та магії.

  4. Реальним органом влади був правитель (вождь), але вважалось, що первинними (головними) органами влади були боги, чия воля проявлялась в силах природи і в одкровеннях вождя племені або жреця.

  5. Спричинення шкоди племені такої, як блюзнірство або порушення звичаю племені, супроводжувалось санкціями, до яких відносились висміювання та ворожість, і, як гадали члени племені, гнівом богів.

  6. Богів заспокоювали ритуальними церемоніями, які, мабуть, закінчувались жертвопринесенням та вигнанням порушника.

  7. За спричинення шкоди особі такої, як вбивство, крадіжка, перелюбство (шлюбна зрада) чи неспроможність сплатити борг, мстила родина жертви.

  8. Вони (Закони ХІІ таблиць) були, в значній мірі, проголошенням існуючого звичаю щодо власності, сплати боргів і відповідної компенсації чи інших мір покарання за нанесення шкоди особам.

  9. Англонорманські правителі створили систему централізованих судів.

  10. Вони діяли на підставі єдиної системи законів, які витіснили правові норми, встановлені більш ранніми суспільствами.

  11. Ця правова система, відома як звичаєве право Англії, виникла із загальновизнаних звичаїв, але з часом вона залучила суди до законотворення, що відповідало змінам в суспільстві.

  12. В країнах цивільного права (романо-германського права1) по мірі залучення судів у значні аспекти законотворення все більше визнаються тонкощі судового тлумачення і значення судових прецедентів.


* * *

Law develops as society evolves. Historically, the simplest societies were tribal. The members of the tribe were bonded together initially by kinship and worship of the same gods. Even in the absence of courts and legislature there was law - a blend of custom, morality, religion and magic. The visible authority was the ruler, or chief; the ultimate authorities were believed to be the gods whose will was revealed in the forces of nature and in the revelations of the tribal head or the priest. Wrongs against the tribe, such as sacrilege or breach of tribal custom, were met with group sanctions including ridicule and hostility and, the tribesmen thought, with the wrath of the gods. The gods were appeased in ritualistic ceremonies ending perhaps in sacrifice or expulsion of the wrongdoer. Wrongs against individuals, such as murder, theft, adultery, or failure to repay a debt, were avenged by the family of the victim. Revenge of this kind was based on tribal custom, a major component of early law

Tribal society gradually evolved into territorial confederations. Governmental structures emerged, and modern law began to take shape. The most significant historical example is Roman Law, which influenced most of the legal systems of the world. In the 8th century BC the law was still largely a blend of custom and interpretation by magistrates of the will of the gods. The magistrates later lost their legitimacy because of gross discrimination against the lower (plebeian) class. The threat of revolution led to one of the most significant developments in the history of law: the Twelve Tables of Rome, which were engraved on bronze tablets in the 5th century BC. They were largely a declaration of existing custom concerning such matters as property, payment of debts, and appropriate compensation or other remedies for damage to persons. The Twelve Tables serve as a historical basis for the widespread modern belief that fairness in law demands that it be in written form. These tables and their Roman successors, concluding the Justinian Code, led to civil-law codes that provide the main source of law in much Europe, South America, and elsewhere.

The common-law systems of England, and later of the U.S., developed in a different manner. The Anglo-Norman rulers created a system of centralized courts. They operated under a single set of laws that superseded the rules laid down by earlier societies. This legal system, known as the common law of England, began with common customs, but over time it involved the courts in lawmaking that was responsive to changes in society.

Modern legislatures and administrative agencies produce a much greater quantity of formal law, but the judiciary remains very important because of the continued vitality of the common-law approach even in matters of constitutional and statutory interpretations. Increasingly in civil-law countries, the subtleties of judicial interpretation and the weight of judicial precedents are recognized as involving the courts in significant aspects of lawmaking.


Assignment 3. Match the following words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

I.

  1. common-law system 1. спричинення шкоди племені

  2. a single set of laws 2. судові тлумачення

  3. remedies for damage 3. правові системи

  4. judicial precedents 4. кодекси цивільного права

  5. system of centralized courts 5. вигнання правопорушників

  6. statutory interpretation 6. система звичаєвого права

  7. expulsion of wrongdoers 7. країни цивільного права

(романо-германського права)

  1. judicial interpretations 8. судові прецеденти

  2. civil-law countries 9. засоби відшкодування шкоди

  3. civil-law codes 10. єдина система законів

  4. legal systems 11. система централізованих судів

  5. wrongs against the tribe 12. тлумачення законів

II.

  1. to be met with sanctions 1. втрачати законність

  2. to develop in a different manner 2. залучати суди до законотворення

  3. to operate under laws 3. розвиватися в територіальні

конфедирації

  1. to involve courts in lawmaking 4. розвиватися по-іншому

  1. to end in sacrifice of wrongdoers 5. супроводжуватися санкціями

  1. to evolve into territorial 6. закінчуватися жертвопринесенням

confederations порушників

  1. to lose one’s legitimacy 7. діяти на підставі законів (за законами)


Assignment 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions:

I.

tribe; kinship; worship of the same gods; in the absence of; a blend of custom and morality; forces of nature; visible authorities; ultimate authorities; revelations; tribal head; tribal society; common custom; priest; wrongs against individuals; sacrilege; breach of tribal custom; ridicule; hostility; wrath of gods; expulsion of wrongdoers; murder; theft; adultery, victim; governmental structures; modern law; Roman Law; legal systems; common-law systems; system of centralized courts; judiciary; common-law approach; statutory interpretations; subtleties; judicial interpretation; a single set of laws; failure to repay debts; judicial precedent; remedies for damage; civil-law codes; common law; court; legislature.

II.

to involve the courts in lawmaking; to emerge; to develop in a different manner; to avenge; to supersede the rules; to lay down the rules; to produce laws; to recognize judicial precedents; to evolve into territorial confederations; to be revealed in the forces of nature; to be met with sanctions; to appease the gods; to end in sacrifice; to operate under laws; to influence legal systems; to take shape.


Assignment 5. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

тонкощі судових тлумачень; Кодекс Юстініана; гнів богів; залучати суди до законотворення (нормотворення); вбивство; власніть; діяти на підставі єдиної системи законів; закінчуватися жертвопринесенням; вигнання правопорушника; супроводжуватися санкціями; неспроможність сплатити борг; правова система; країни звичаєвого права; племя; встановлювати правові норми; порушення звичаю; жрець; помста; первинний (головний) орган влади; реальний орган влади; гнів богів; висміювання; шлюбна зрада, перелюбство; крадіжка; заспокоювати (втихомирювати) богів; богохульство, блюзнірство; втрачати законність; кодекси цивільного права; тлумачення законів; судові прецеденти; Закони ХІІ таблиць; римське цивільне право; засоби відшкодування шкоди; спричинення шкоди особі.

Assignment 6. Read the text again carefully and decide if the following statements are

true or false. Add some other information:

  1. There was law in the simplest societies.

  2. The simplest societies were tribal.

  3. The tribal authorities were rulers and priests.

  4. All kinds of wrongs were met with the wrath of the gods.

  5. Wrongdoers were often avenged by the whole tribe.

  6. Gradually modern law began to take shape.

  7. The Twelve Tables of Rome were a declaration of existing custom.

  8. The earliest codes provide the main source of law in Great Britain.

  9. The Norman magistrates created a system of centralized courts.

  10. Courts operated under the rules laid down by earlier societies.

  11. The judiciary were always involved in lawmaking.



Assignment 7. Use the information given in the text to answer the following questions.

Discuss your answers in the class:

  1. How does law develop?

  2. What were the simplest societies?

  3. How were the members of the tribe bonded together initially?

  4. What was law in tribal societies?

  5. What kinds of authority were there in the tribe?

  6. What way were the gods appeased in?

  7. How did the tribesmen fight against wrongs?

  8. What was one of the most significant developments in the history of law? Why?

  9. What is the significance of Roman law for modern law?

  10. How did the common-law system of England develop?

  11. What is the role of the judiciary in modem society?

  12. What is the difference between civil-law and common-law systems?


Assignment 8. Discuss your ideas in pairs and then exchange opinions with the whole class:

  1. law at the earliest stage of social development;

  2. significant development in the history of law;

  3. civil-law and common-law systems.


Assignment 9. Read the texts consulting a dictionary where necessary and try to

make out the main points in them.

Swap the information with other members of the class:

^ ROMAN LAW

The earliest Roman code of laws, the Law of the Twelve Tables, was written between 451 BC1 and 449 BC. Tradition has it that its authors were a council of ten men who had been selected to rule the Roman state. The Law of the Twelve Tables covered all citizens. It was inscribed on twelve bronze tablets set up in the Forum for everyone to see. The Law of the Twelve Tables remained in use for over 1000 years, though the bronze tablets were destroyed when Rome was sacked in 410 AD2

The second great set of Roman laws, the Justinian Code, was compiled under the direction of Justinian, Emperor of Rome from 483 to 565 AD. Justinian was concerned with elimination of corruption and making justice available to everyone. He established a commission to consolidate the mass of early Roman law. The resulting Code consisted of four works:

  1. all the imperial edicts;

  2. the Digest, the decision of the great Roman jurists;

  3. the Institutes, which served as a hand-book for law students;

  4. the Novels, or «new laws», passed by Justinian himself.

By 100 AD, the Roman empire had spread over much of Europe. It remained intact until the fifth century AD. As a result, the laws of all European countries, including France and England, were much influenced by the two Roman codes. However, each experienced other influences as well. The law of France underwent further changes in the late eighteenth century, when Napoleon Bonaparte compiled the Code of Napoleon.

England was ruled by Rome from 55 BC until the early fifth century AD. Therefore, the English system also has Roman law as part of its hereditary roots.

^ Text notes: 1 Before Christ [kraist] до нашої ери / до нашого часу / до нової ери

2 Anno Domini [’ænou ‘dominai] нашої ери

edicts ['i:dikts] едикти, укази

the Digest Дигести

the Institutes Інституції

the Novels Новели

Napoleon [nэ'pouliэn]

^ THE CODE OF HAMMURABI

One of the earliest known collections of codified laws is the Code of Hammurabi. Hammurabi was King of Babylon from about 1728 BC to 1686 BC. He had about three hundred laws that existed in his time systematically arranged.

The Code of Hammurabi reveals that the ancient kingdom was a thriving commercial centre. Among other business practices, the laws regulated price-fixing, interest changes, the practice of medicine, and the ownership of slaves. The Code reflected the customs of the period. For example, the sun-god Shamash, who was also the god of justice, was named as the source of the laws, to give them more authority.

Text notes: the Code of Hammurabi Кодекс законів Хамурапі

price-fixing встановлення цін

interest changes норми відсотку (проценту (%)


^ MOSAIC LAW

Another code of early law is the Code of Hebraic, or Mosaic Law of about 1400 BC. This Code is set out in great detail in the first five books of the Old Testament, which are called the Torah, meaning «law» or «guidance». These books recount the forty-year-long wandering of Moses and the tribes of Israel from Egypt across the Sinai desert to the Promised Land of Canaan. While in the desert, Moses was summoned to the top of Mount Sinai by God, and was given the tablets of the Ten Commandments. Like the Babylonians, the Hebrew compilers believed that their laws were based on the will of God

Unlike the commercially-oriented Code of Hammurabi, the Mosaic Law reflects the agrarian community over which Moses presided. As a chief law-giver1 and magistrate, Moses was both a legislator and a judge in the modern sense. The Ten Commandments still hold a central position today in the teachings of both the Hebrew and the Christian faiths. As well, the Mosaic Law forms an important part of the laws of many countries today.

^ Text notes: a legislator законодавець; законотворець

the Code of Hebraic [hi:’breiik] // Закони Моісея

Mosaic Law

the Old Testament Старий (Ветхий) завіт

the Torah ['torэ] Тора

the Sinai desert [’sainai] Сінайська пустеля

the Promised Land of Canaan [’keinэn] Обітована Земля Ханаана

the Ten Commandments [kэ’ma:ndmэnts] Десять Заповідів

the Hebrew faith [’hi:bru:] іудейська віра


Assignment 10. Using the information in the unit above, discuss the following:

1. There was always law in the community.

2. Influence of the earliest codes on modern law.


Assignment 11. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian:

ROMAN LAW

Traditionally, the study of Roman law is divided into five parts: the laws of persons, of property, of succession, of obligations, and of actions.
^

The Law of Persons1


In early Roman law it was especially important to establish one’s status—free or slave, citizen or alien, male or female, parent or child, and so on—because only then could legal rights and duties be determined. At first it was status in respect to the family that was most important. But as Roman jurists came into contact with other cultures or fell under the influence of Greek philosophy status based on birth gave way in importance to contractual relations. The Romans also created the juristic person or corporation, a fictitious person endowed by the state with the rights of natural persons.
^

The Law of Property2


Property law defined what items could and could not be owned by individuals, described the methods of acquisition and transfer that the legal system would recognize and defend, and noted the extent to which one person’s rights in property might be modified or limited by the claims of another individual.
^

The Law of Succession3


The law of succession treated, in cases of intestacy, the passage of property to heirs whose rights depended on their relationship to the deceased. It also regulated the making of wills. As the Roman sense of equity and humanity developed, the right of a testator completely to disregard natural heirs was severely limited.
^

The Law of Obligations4


The law of obligations concerned the rights and duties that rose from commercial pursuits or contracts and also from a number of illegal acts—torts or delicts—which obliged the offender to recompense the injured person.

The Law of Actions5


The law of actions contained the procedures to be followed in disputes. It evolved from a considerable dependence on self-help by the plaintiff in the earliest days to an almost complete dependence, from summons to execution, on the state.
^

Influence of Roman Law


By the time of Justinian most of Western Europe was in the hands of barbarian kings who administered a mixture of their own Germanic Law and earlier Roman law. But in the 11 century Italian scholars rediscovered and began to study and teach the Corpus Juris Civilis6 . This happened at the very time that expanding trade and commercial activity made the law of a universal state more appropriate than any other. Thus Roman law became the basis of the law of all Western Europe, with the exception of England. It spread to the New World and is basic in South and Central America, Louisiana, and Quebec; it was adopted in South Africa and Sri Lanka and plays a role in the codes of emerging states. Through Byzantium it reached Russia, where it still furnishes part of the law. The Roman jus gentium (law of the peoples), developed in the republic to govern relations with non-Romans, became the basis of much of modern commercial law.


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