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Contents World History Degtyarev S. І




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Visnyk of Luhansk National Taras Shevchenko University: Рedagogical Sciences. – № 1 (260), P. 1., 2013.


Contents


World History


Degtyarev S. І. Professionalization of the bureaucratic apparatus of the Russian Empire in the context of the creation of the education system (the first quarter of the ХІХ cr)


Ladyga O.I. The occupation activity of the Hungarian troops in the territory of Ukraine in during the war with the USSR, 1941 – 1944


Svyaschenko Z. V. The role and importance of the peasant community in the project of agrarian reform Drafting Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire


Topical issues of international relations


Burian M. A. Russian-Turkish War of 1877–1878: battleground in the South Caucasus


Naboka O. V. Ch. Le Gendre and the US policy towards Taiwan, 60–70th of XIX cr.


^ Pylypenko V. V. Henry Kissinger about the Iran's role for the implementation of the U.S. foreign policy during the "Cold War" (1946 – 1979)


Sosyukina O. O. Cultural relations between Ukraine and China during the 1950–1960th


Kharkovskyy R. G. An Anglo-French Treaty of 1890 and aggravation of colonial rivalry in Africa


History of Ukraine


Bezeha T. M. Features of Economic Development of the Carpathian Ukraine


Zabudkova O. A. Sugar manufacturers’ associations of the 70 – 80th of the XIX cr as a precondition for the monopolization of the sugar industry


^ Katsero V. O. Political forces and charity in Ukraine at the turn of the XX and XXI cr (in terms of "Social Security" foundation)


Korotkovа Е. A. Legal and material bases of social change in the Ukrainian village during the agrarian reform of 1906 – 1917


^ Levytska N. N. Humanitarian students in the fight for their rights and freedoms (second half of XIXth cr)


Petrykiv V. I. Structure, society, social and economic evolution of Dovhe (Hirske) settlement in XVI – XVIII cr


Polyakov A. V. Constitutional development of the Ukrainian People's Republic during the period of the Directory (November 1918 – early 1921)


Chumak O. T. The influence of German migrants on social-economic development of the South Part of the Russian Empire (1820 – 1914)


Historiography. Sources study


Krasnikova O. V. The Khazarian Khaganate and formation of the Kievan State during IX – X cr


Krukov V. G. The logic and dialectics of understanding of the ethnonym «burgan» in the works of «descriptive genre» of Arabic geographical tradition during the early Middle Ages


Mashevskiy O. P. Вlack Sea Straits factor in international relations: Western historiography of the issue


^ Nefyodov D. V. The Resistance Movement in the South of Ukraine in the domestic historiography of 1990th


Tupchiienko-Kadyrova L. Some aspects of classification of letters (on the example of the archival oeuvre of composer U. Meytus)


Contents


World History


Degtyarev S. І. Professionalization of the bureaucratic apparatus of the Russian Empire in the context of the creation of the education system (the first quarter of the ХІХ cr)

Article deals with the attempt to trace the complex actions of the Government of the Russian Empire in the first quarter of the XIX cr, which should contribute to the professionalization of civilian officials and were closely associated with the development of the education system. Special attention is paid to the organization of special educational establishments for future bureaucrats. It is emphasized that in spite of changes for the better in educational sphere during the reign of Alexander I, educational establishments could solve the problem of meeting the requirement of state bureaucratic apparatus in good educated specialists.

Keywords: official, juridical education, civil public service, the bureaucracy, the gymnasium, the university.


^ Ladyga O.I. The occupation activity of the Hungarian troops in the territory of Ukraine in during the war with the USSR, 1941 – 1944

In the article there are materials which are prepared on the basis of new scientific breakthroughs of the Ukrainian and foreign scientists and also on the base of the archives documents. The new aspects of the participation of the Hungarian troops in the war with the Soviet Union are considered in the article. The last are occupational activity of the Hungarian units, activity of the Hungarian technical military units etc.

It is proved that the use of the Hungarian security divisions in «peace making» actions against the soviet partisans had the aim to plunder civilians. It is also helped to increase the combat capability of Wehrmacht and provided an opportunity to focused strike force on the main axis.

Keywords: USSR, Europe, Hungary, war, battlefront.


Svyaschenko Z. V. The role and importance of the peasant community in the project of agrarian reform Drafting Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire

The paper investigates positions concerning the role and importance of the peasant community in the project of agrarian reform Drafting Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century. Attempts to justify the legal nature of the peasant allotments at the same time ignoring the concept of "private property" are took up. Special attention is paid to the eclectic nature of the proposed Commission legislative initiatives. This gave rise to censure of last mentioned proposals by the ruling circles of the Russian Empire.

Keywords: the Russian Empire, farming community, agrarian reform, Editorial Committee, allotments.


Topical issues of international relations


Burian M. A. Russian-Turkish War of 1877–1878: battleground in the South Caucasus

The article analyzes the international situation that has arisen during the period from the Paris (1856) till Berlin (1878) peace congresses. Particular attention is paid to the foreign policy of the Russian Empire after the defeat in the Crimean War (1853–1856) and to victory in the Russian-Turkish war (1877–1878). The causes and conditions worsening of the conflict between empires are found. Pointed out that the Balkan theater of war was the main. It is also possible to state that, in our opinion, it were events in the South Caucasus which had an exceptional importance not only for a victory of the Russia, but also to strengthen its position in the South Caucasus. The contribution of national Caucasian irregular troops to defeat the Turks in Georgia and Adjara are emphasized. The acquisitions and losses of Russia in the South Caucasus at the Berlin Congress are analyzed.

Keywords: Alexander I, Russia, Turkey, South Caucasus, the Paris Congress, Congress of Berlin, the war.


^ Naboka O. V. Ch. Le Gendre and the US policy towards Taiwan, 60–70th of XIX cr.

In article examines the activities of the American consul in Amoy Charles Le Gendre during 60–70 of XIX cr aimed to capture the island of Taiwan. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the activity of this diplomat during the crisis caused the murder of American sailors from the ship "Rover" by Taiwanese aborigines in 1867. Also consider the activity of the Le Gendre as advisor of the Japanese government during the Japanese attack on Taiwan in 1874. On the basis of the analysis of the sources, the author comes to the conclusion that, despite some progress, the activity of the Le Gendre was failed. His program was not accepted by the White House.

Keywords: Taiwan, Le Gendre, USA, China, Japan.


^ Pylypenko V. V. Henry Kissinger about the Iran's role for the implementation of the U.S. foreign policy during the "Cold War" (1946 – 1979)

In this article the opinions and thoughts of former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger about Iran's role in the U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East during the "Cold War" are investigated. Analysis of works of the diplomat helped to ascertain that Iran was strategically important country for the United States, without which the Washington's Middle East strategy was not possible to implement. This is why the Iran during the "Cold War" was the main object and country to rely on of the U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East in the face of the Soviet threat during the period of 1946 – 1979.

Keywords: the USA, Iran, Henry Kissinger, "Cold War".


Sosyukina O. O. Cultural relations between Ukraine and China during the 1950–1960th

In the article the author investigates the history of the Ukrainian-Chinese cultural relations during the 19501960th. The experience of the Soviet-Chinese cultural connections in the sphere of art, education, scientific and technical cooperation is analyzed in the article. The are two stages of the development of the Ukrainian-Chinese cultural relations – 1950–1956 and 1956–1964, which concur with periods of peak activity in cooperation in the sphere of culture. Relations in the sphere of culture were stopped in 1965 because of political contradictions between the USSR and China.

Keywords: China, USSR, policy, culture, conflict, humanitarian sphere.


^ Kharkovskyy R. G. An Anglo-French Treaty of 1890 and aggravation of colonial rivalry in Africa

The article is devoted to research of the main reasons of the aggravation of antagonisms between the rival European Powers in Africa at the end of XIX cr. The main preconditions and consequences of an Anglo-French Treaty of 5 August, 1890, are analyzed. According to this Treaty the British and the French spheres of influence in Africa has been delimited. It is ascertained that ruling circles of the Britain and France had come to the conclusion about the importance of meeting the territorial rivalry concluding a union in situation when the Germany made its colonial expansion in Africa more active in the end of XIX cr.

Keywords: Great Britain, France, Germany, Africa, colonial rivalry.


History of Ukraine


Bezeha T. M. Features of Economic Development of the Carpathian Ukraine

The article examines the economic component of Carpatho-Ukraine, which was incorporated in 1919 to the Czechoslovak Republic as autonomy. The author concludes that being a member of Czechoslovak Republic, which was well economically developed, democratic, and has Slavonic national composition of the population, our region gave all the opportunities for a higher socio-economic development if compare with being a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The difficult complex of internal and external problems prevented the realization most of plans of the Carpatho-Ukraine’s government as to the social-economic development are also analyzed.

Keywords: Carpatho-Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, economy.


^ Zabudkova O. A. Sugar manufacturers’ associations of the 70 – 80th of the XIX cr as a precondition for the monopolization of the sugar industry

In article the activity of sugar manufacturers’ associations of post-reform period, their role in the process of sugar industry monopolization is analyzed. Agreements in the area of incorporation, insurance and crediting of the sugar refining enterprises are considered. The special attention is given to events which directly preceded the creation of syndicate. The conclusion about the impossibility of recognition the early sugar manufacturers’ associations as purely monopolistic is formulated; they would rather be considered as a basis for further monopolization of the industry.

Keywords: monopolization, sugar manufacturers’ associations, syndicate.


^ Katsero V. O. Political forces and charity in Ukraine at the turn of the XX and XXI cr (in terms of "Social Security" foundation)

The article gives a brief description to the process of political forces’ participation in charitable activities in Ukraine at the turn of XX – XXI cr. As a typical example of such participation charitable foundation "Social Protection" is chosen. The author investigates mechanisms of providing charity through the charitable foundation, and accentuates on its cooperation with political forces and local governments. The statute and operating documents of the foundation, its charitable activities, basic focus-groups, and cooperation with different organizations are studied.

Keywords: charity, charitable foundation, political party.


^ Korotkovа Е. A. Legal and material bases of social change in the Ukrainian village during the agrarian reform of 1906 – 1917

The changes of the legal status of the Ukrainian peasantry during the agrarian reform, the establishment of civil and legal relations of the capitalist type are considered in the article. The features of the processes of material differentiation and social stratification of the Ukrainian peasantry are defined. The main factors of changes of peasants’ welfare during the transition to the «hamlet» and «cut forms» of management, factors of demographic changes in the Ukrainian village under the Stolypin agrarian reform 1906 – 1917 years are considered in the article.

Keywords: social change, legal status, material differentiation, welfare, demographic, agrarian reform.


^ Levytska N. N. Humanitarian students in the fight for their rights and freedoms (second half of XIXth cr)

The article analyzes the struggle of students for their academic rights and freedoms. The place and role of students in public and political life simultaneously with the development of the students’ movement in the second half of the nineteenth century are described. The processes of comprehension the students’ unrest, their main social reasons and purpose that they sought to achieve are analyzed. Each cause of students’ unrests and the consequences of these disturbances are characterized in details. The influence of the students’ movement on the public conscience of the Russian Empire is stressed.

Keywords: students, academic movement, «March Movement», the strike, tsarism.


^ Petrykiv V. I. Structure, society, social and economic evolution of Dovhe (Hirske) settlement in XVI – XVIII cr

In article are considered different aspects of a village life of Dovhe (Hirske) settlement since the first written mention till the end of the XVIII cr. Different versions of the circumstances and the dates of founding of the village are analyzed. Based on documentary evidences the administrative, legal, and economic systems of the village are recreated. The social composition of the Dovhe (Hirske) settlement, level of development of its economic structure are defined. The influence of social-political processes that took place in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the middle of XVII – early XVIII cr are ascertained.

Keywords: Dovhe (Hirske) settlement, micro history, study of a region.


^ Polyakov A. V. Constitutional development of the Ukrainian People's Republic during the period of the Directory (November 1918 – early 1921)

The article deals with a complete picture of the constitutional development during the period of the Directory of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Based on an analysis of the constitutional acts and unrealized Constitution drafts, the development of constitutional formation in the Ukrainian People's Republic in November 1918 – early 1921 and the effect on this process of various objective and subjective factors are investigated. It is ascertained that statesmen of the Directory realized the ultimate significance of the Constitution for further development of the Ukrainian State and necessity of democratic way of its approval. There were no possibilities for this.

Keywords: the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Directory, the constitutional formation, the Constitutional Act, the Constitutional Drafts.


^ Chumak O. T. The influence of German migrants on social-economic development of the South Part of the Russian Empire (1820 – 1914)

In the article the resettlement policy of Russian Empire′s government and its influence on the development of the South Part of the Russian Empire during 1820–1914 are considered. The period under discussion was of primary importance for the establishing of legal support of the colonists. This article contains materials, prepared on the basis of new scientific investigation of the Ukrainian and foreign scientists, and also on the base of the statistic sources. The main stages of the development of the German settlements in South Part of the Russian Empire are under review.

Keywords: the German migrants, economic development, the Russian Empire.


Historiography. Sources study


Krasnikova O. V. The Khazarian Khaganate and formation of the Kievan State during IX – X cr

In the article on the basis of comparative analysis of economic and political development of Kievan Rus' and Khazarian Khaganate the degree of influence of relations between these states on the external interests of Kievan Rus' are examined. It is revealed, that in the course of this historical period two processes were developed simultaneously, namely, the process of gradual weakening of Khazarian Khaganate and the process of strengthening the power of Kievan Rus'. As the result of the above mentioned processes was the destruction of the State of the Khazars and transformation of the Kievan Rus' to the most powerful state in the Eastern Europe.

Keywords: Kievan Rus', Khazarian Khaganate, the Eastern Europe.


Krukov V. G. The logic and dialectics of understanding of the ethnonym «burgan» in the works of «descriptive genre» of Arabic geographical tradition during the early Middle Ages

Based on a wide range of primary sources related to «descriptive genre» of Arabic geographical tradition of the early Middle Ages, the article is devoted to the analysis of the ethnonym «burgan» and its semantic considering on differing stages of ethnogenesis of the Bulgares. It has been found that in the works of the Arabian Caliphate scholars of IX – X cr the given ethnonym designates real ethnic groups which called themselves as Bulgares. This is why the author considers that ethnonym «burgan» is historical phenomenon, namely, original and peculiar historical occurrence that is reflect of reality of the historical period, when it existed.

Keywords: ethnonym «burgan», «descriptive genre», period of the early Middlе Ages, «construct», historical phenomenon, semantics, etymology, ethnos.


^ Mashevskiy O. P. Вlack Sea Straits factor in international relations: Western historiography of the issue

The main approaches of the American, British, German, and French historians to the issue of development of international relations of 1870–1923 and struggle for control of the strategically located the Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits. The works of the Greek, Bulgarian, Turkish historians influenced by discussions in the Western historical science regarding the issue of the Straits are examined. It is stressed that in the studying of the Вlack Sea Straits problem are still remained lots of gaps, in particularly the influence of this problem on the process of formation, functioning and disintegration of international alliances.

Keywords: Western historiography, international relations, Bosporus and Dardanelles, Black Sea Straits.


^ Nefyodov D. V. The Resistance Movement in the South of Ukraine in the domestic historiography of 1990th

In this article are given the basic tendencies of modern (90th of XX cr) historiography of the motion of Resistance Movement in the South of Ukraine during the years of the Great Patriotic war (1941 – 1944), features and trends of researches are presented. An author come to the conclusion, that proclamation of independence of Ukraine and qualitative changes in domestic historical science promoted the revision of all the key questions of Resistance Movement, including the South Ukraine. Historians began to use scientific positions to create unbiased, impartial and first of all apolitical Resistance Movement.

Keywords: Great Patriotic war, Resistance Movement, Marching groups of UNO, South Ukraine, modern historiography.


Tupchiienko-Kadyrova L. Some aspects of classification of letters (on the example of the archival oeuvre of composer U. Meytus)

In the article results over of analysis of letters are brought: correspondence of U. Meytus with A. Vasylieva, S. Bogatyrev, V. Isakovsky, D. Kabalevsky, D. Shostakovich. From the introduced levels of relations between the subjects of correspondence – domestic, personal, professional, creative, official, business – domestic, creative and professional levels are analyzed in the article. The conclusion is grounded, that the most of letters have one more level of relations: domestic – business, creative and professional – personal.

Keywords: correspondence, personal archival documents, U. Meytus, A. Vasylieva, S. Bogatyrev, V. Isakovsky, D. Kabalevsky, D. Shostakovich.

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