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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ УКРАИНЫ ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ГОРОДСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ к текстам на английском языке ( для студентов 2 курса специальности 6.070900  "Геоинформационные системы и технологии") Харьков  ХНАМГ  2007 Практические задания к текстам на английском языке для студентов 2 курса специальности 6.070900 "Геоинформационные системы и технологии". /Укл.: Крохмаль А.Н.., Сергеева Г.Б.,  Харьков: ХНАМГ, 2007 68 с. Составители: А.Н. Крохмаль Г.Б. Сергеева, Рецензент: Е.Л. Ильенко, канд. филолог, наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков Рекомендовано кафедрой иностранных языков Протокол № 9 от 25.05.2007. Introduction The tasks are designed for students studying English for specific purposes (ESP). There are fourteen units which are expected to be covered during about 90 classroom hours. It is assumed that the students doing the tasks get detailed uptodate information of using GIS to play a role at work and in the community. It is also expected that the students doing these tasks have the knowledge of and ability to use English up to intermediate and upper intermediate levels. The tasks are based on the authentic texts concerning specifically the geographical information systems and technology. The units focus on the GIS's roots in cartography, maps and numbers, on getting the map into the computer and basic database management. The presented educational materials and the choice of tasks are supposed to provide practice in using the professional lexis, in reading and comprehending the specific information, in translating from English and into English and also to give a reasonable motivation for mastering the basics of GIS in English. Words and phrases unique to the vocabulary of GIS are italicized and defined as they are introduced. UNIT 1 ^ . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Active words and phrases: data – данные attribute – свойство, атрибут attribute date – атрибутивные данные analyst – аналитик, расчетчик statistics – статистические данные statistical inquiry – статистическое исследование histogram – столбчатая диаграмма database – база данных geographic properties – географические параметры ^ A GIS has at least two parts: the attribute part and the map part. The attribute data, managed by their regular database manager, are little different from any other type of statistical information when it comes to analysis. In this chapter we move away from the construction and management of data in a GIS to actual use of the information.To best understand information in the form of numbers, we must describe geographic data in methodical and quantitative ways, that is, with wellunderstood statistics. If this was as far as GIS went, however, there would be few advantages to GIS compared to any of the major computer statistical packages available to scientists. What makes analysis within a GIS different is that the attribute data have established links to maps. Any statistic we can think of to describe the data then automatically has geographic properties and as a result can be placed on a map for visual processing. The situation is more fruitful than that, because we can use the geographical properties for statistical inquiry as well. This means that in addition to answering the question ‘Where?’ as far as the features is concerned, we can also ask ‘Why is it there?’ We can come up with some definitive answers to these questions and display the answers to the questions and analyses as maps. As this chapter shows, this can give the user an amazing amount of power when GIS  analysis is brought to bear on a problem. Exercise 2. Answer the questions using the information from the text.
Exercise 3. Look through the text again and find the words that correspond to the following definitions.
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_________________________ Exercise 4. Read and translate key terms and definitions. Histogram – a graphic depiction of a sample of values for an attribute, shown as bars raised to the height of the frequency of records for each class of group of values within the attribute. GIS – geographic information systems. Geography – a field of study based on understanding the phenomena capable of being described and analyzed with a GIS. Statistics – a collection of information shown in numbers. Information – facts or details about somebody or something. Exercise 5. Complete the sentences with the following words: statistics analysis information histogram database geography GIS map features
Exercise 6. Fill the gaps with the prepositions from the box. The visual description (1) the histogram and the number descriptions (2)_____the average and difference (3) the average are covered. (4) addition, these simple measures are described (5) terms of their spatial attributes when the two spatial dimensions or coordinates are used as the numbers under description. As shown, map statistical description leads (6) an initial ability to place (7) a map what the numbers demonstrate. The average (mean) and difference (8) the average (variance) both have visual and geographical meaning. Exercise 7. Learn the following words and word combinations. Find them in the text given below.
A first question that might be asked about the database is ‘What are the extremes of the data?’ Data extremes are simply the highest and lowest values for all records for one attribute. We concentrate first on the elevation attribute. A first descriptive question about the data beyond the ranges is: What are the elevations of the point that were sampled? Even though most of the readings were taken along the coast, the values for the elevation range considerably. Some of the data are clearly poor readings, outside the range we would normally expect and perhaps due to the positions of the satellites or some other factor. Quite likely, the reception problems of the GPS system had something to do with it but there is also clearly a measurement error in terms of accuracy that far exceeds the precision of the elevation reading. How can these bad elevation values be screened out? Obviously we need to see what a good reading looks like and how it can be distinguished from the remainder of the readings. Exercise 8. Read the text. Find the English equivalents to the following terms.
If errors are consistent, we can correct for them. We could safely eliminate these numbers and probably correctly believe them to be wrong. We do not have this option if we have only one number or reading  we have no choice but to use it! If we have two readings only, and they disagree, we would probably average them. If we had three readings and they disagreed, we could average them, reject one reading that was obviously wrong (varies by too much), or average the two readings that most closely agree with each other. The more numbers we have, the more we can see what the typical amount of variation is, that is, how corrupted are the readings by a random amount of error. If this is the case then we can go ahead and average the numbers, or at least give expected amounts of error. There are alternatives to averaging. For example, a simple representative value for a group of records can be selected by sorting the elevations by height, which the GIS database manager can do and then taking the value of the middle reading. This value is called the median. This works fine for an odd number of elevation readings; the centre comes out exactly. An advantage is that this is a ‘real’ typical value because it is an actual part of our data set. If the attribute in the database was, for example, state average salary for GIS professionals in dollars, we could pick the middle or median state and compare our own state to it. This is not so simple if we have an even number of records. We have to take the two centre values and average them, losing the attachment to a single data record. ^ The final step that we can put these elevation values through is to do statistical tests. Important for this stage is the idea that the measurements we took with the GPS receiver are just a few of a large number of possible readings. In statistical jargon, the entire possible set of GPS readings is called a population. For most statistical purposes, the sample is considered as only a tiny proportion of the population as a whole. For example, we could consider our sample as representative of all coastal area elevations in Southern California. We can use a statistical model of the bell curve, called the standard normal distribution; to estimate how likely any given measurement of the elevation is to be correct. This distribution, provided in most statistical textbooks, allows us to look up the standard deviation and the number of records and to estimate the odds against getting this elevation measurement given the tabulated standard deviation. The numbers in the statistical table are the amount of area beneath the standard normal curve that corresponds to probabilities. This is one way that we can determine whether the largest and smallest measured elevations are reasonable. ^ Describing Attributes • GIS data description answers the question: Where? GIS data analysis answers the question: Why is it there? • GIS data description is different from statistics because the results can be placed onto a map for visual analysis. Statistical Analysis • The extremes of an attribute are the highest and lowest values, and the range is the difference between them in the units of the attribute. • A histogram is a twodimensional plot of attribute values grouped by magnitude and the frequency of records in that group, shown as a variablelength bar. • A test of means can establish whether two samples from a population are different from each other, or whether the different measures they have are the result of random variation. UNIT 2 ^ Active words and phrases: attribute description – характеристика атрибутов spatial measurements – пространственные измерения spatial data – пространственные данные spatial description – пространственное описание treat – рассматривать duplication – удвоение define – определять bounding rectangle – ограничивающий прямоугольник centroid – центроид ^ The first and most significant factor in dealing with spatial data is that there are at least two spatial measurements, an easting and a northing. We could summarize spatial description, as describing two attributes simultaneously. In the simplest and most basic way, we can duplicate the attribute descriptions above for the locational data to give spatial descriptions. In this case, we can treat the two separate parts of the coordinates, the eastings and the northings, as if they are each a single attribute, which indeed they are. Just as we began the discussion of describing the values of a single attribute by discussing the concept of a minimum and a maximum value for an attribute and the concept of a range, when the attributes describe coordinates, a first point is described by the minimum easting and the minimum northing, and a second point describes the corresponding maxima. The two points define a rectangle, whose two side lengths are the ranges in easting and northing, respectively, and that encloses all the points. This is called the bounding rectangle of the points. It can be found by simply sorting the records by easting, and taking the first and last record, and then repeating for the northing. In much the same way that we calculated means and standard deviations separately for the two GPS receiver’s elevations, so also were they calculated for the latitudes and longitudes. These were first translated into decimal degrees, then summed and divided to find the average latitude and longitude for the eTrex and for the GPS48. The result of the two means is itself a point, with both a real geographic location and a special geographic name, the mean centre. This point is also sometimes called a centroid, a point chosen (in this case statistically) to represent a geographic distribution. Although the GPS data are a set of points, lines and area features can also have a centroid, selected in any one of several ways. Exercise 2. Answer the questions using the information from the text.
Exercise 3. Look through the text again and find the words that correspond to the following definitions.
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Exercise 4. Read and translate key terms and definitions. Attribute – a quality or feature of somebody or something. Concept – an idea or a principle that is connected with something. Range – the distance over which something can be seen or heard. Deviation – the act of moving away from what is normal or acceptable. Latitude – the distance of a place north or south of the equator. Longitude – the distance of a place east or west of the Greenwich Meridian in degrees. Exercise 5. Complete the sentences with the following words: significant attributes measurement deviation latitude concepts simultaneous longitude duplicate range treated
Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box. Looking (1) this map, is it possible to see any difference between the two sets of measurements? Since the overall spread of the points exceed the differences in location (2) the two receivers, it is very hard to say, even (3) the zoom of Santa Barbara harbor. Instead, we can compare the distributions statistically (4) _____examining the standard deviations (5)_______the easting and northing directions (6)_____, this case in latitude and longitude. Imagine the line between the two GPS locations for each point, with all eTrex points drawn on top (7) each other. We could look at the bearing (8) these lines, ‘rays’ stretching out between the two readings for each point. We would expect the bearings and the lengths to be random, but the average length would now give a mean with a real meaning, the expected average distance difference (9) the two receivers. This can also be calculated from the standard deviation (10) the easting and northings, calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared distances in the two directions. Exercise 7. Learn the following words and word combinations. Find them in the text given below.
While statistics are useful in demonstrating that an error is present, and that it has an impact on the aggregate statistical descriptors, the GIS can help us to isolate exactly which readings have caused the problem. The value plotted for each point is the difference in latitude and longitude for each point, squared to get rid of negatives, divided by the size of the sample, and added for latitude and longitude. The values were converted to meters using the same tables as above, and the square root of the sum taken. This is then a map of the magnitude of the total spatial discrepancy between the two GPS receivers. Two points clearly stand out, point numbers 12 and 24. These two points alone account for almost all of the error in the data. Without them, the two receivers seem to be not only quite accurate, but also in agreement. Exercise 8. Read the text. Find the English equivalents to the following terms:
In this chapter we met the idea that geographic features can be classified into points, lines, and areas by their dimensions on the map. Describing each of these can lead to measuring spatial properties directly from the digital files containing the geocoded representations of the features. We started the chapter with a set of points, the GPS example, because points are the easiest type of a feature to describe. Although we have so far used quantitative measures to describe geographical features, many arrangements of features are described verbally. For example, points are sparse, uneven, random, regular, uniform, scattered, clustered, shotgun, or dispersed. Patterns are regular, patchwork, repetitive, or swirling. Shapes are rounded, oval, oblong, drawnout, or resemble Swiss cheese. The challenge is to find numbers that say the same thing. The bounding rectangle, the mean centre, and measures such as the standard distance can provide excellent descriptors of points, although more complex measures are obviously needed for the higherdimension features. 
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