Англійська мова «навчально-методичний посібник з реферування та анотування текстів науково-технічної літератури» icon

Англійська мова «навчально-методичний посібник з реферування та анотування текстів науково-технічної літератури»

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НазваАнглійська мова «навчально-методичний посібник з реферування та анотування текстів науково-технічної літератури»
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ТипНавчально-методичний посібник
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1. /Методичка Кравченко.docАнглійська мова «навчально-методичний посібник з реферування та анотування текстів науково-технічної літератури»

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A brake is a device that decelerates a moving object such as a machine or vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form of energy, or a device which prevents an object from accelerating. Most commonly brakes use friction convert kinetic energy into heat, but in regenerative braking much of the energy is converted instead into useful electrical energy or potential energy in a form such as pressurized air, oil, or a rotating flywheel. Brakes are often applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may also take forms such as a surface in a moving fluid. Some vehicles use a combination, such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute, or airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised in to the air during landing. Since kinetic energy increases quadratically with velocity (K = mv2 / 2), an object traveling at 10 kilometers per second has 100 times more energy than one traveling at 1 kilometer per second, and consequently the theoretical braking distance, when braking at the traction limit, is 100 times as long. In practice, fast vehicles usually have significant air drag, and energy lost to air drag rises quickly with speed. Almost all wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Even baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp. Most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage. Some aircraft also feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight. Notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft, primarily some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era. These allow the aircraft to maintain a safe speed in a steep descent. The Saab B 17 dive bomber used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake. Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking then conduct it to the air gradually. When traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake. When the brake is pushed the caliper containing piston pushes the pad towards the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes towards the drum which also slows the wheel down.

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Transportation is the act of moving people or goods from one place to another. Transportation takes people where they need or want to go, and it brings them the goods they need or want. Without transportation, there could be no trade. Without trade, there could be no towns and cities. Towns and cities are traditionally the centres of civilization. Therefore, transportation helps make civilization possible.

Throughout most of history, transportation was extremely slow and difficult. In prehistoric limes, people travelled mainly on foot. They transported goods on their backs or heads or by dragging them along the ground. About 5000 B.C. people began to use animals to haul loads hinds. By 3000 R.C. wagons and sailing vessels had been invented. The use of animals, wagons, and sailing vessels enabled people to transport loads farther and more easily than before. But the speed of transportation improved only slightly over the centuries. Inventors produced the first engine-powered vehicles during the late 1700’s and the early 1800's. This development marked the beginning of a revolution in transportation that has continued to the present. Today, jet airliners entry travellers nearly as fast as or faster than the speed of sound. Trains, trucks, and giant cargo ships haul goods to buyers in almost all parts of the world. Automobiles provide convenient transportation for millions of people. Although engine-powered transportation has benefited people in many ways, it has also created problems. For example, it uses great quantities of fuel and so strains the world's energy supplies. Automobiles jam many streets and highways, making travel slow. In addition, their exhaust fumes pollute the air. Such problems are so difficult to solve that governments have become increasingly involved in transportation. There are three main kinds of transportation: (I) land. (2) water, and (3) air. Land transportation depends mainly on wheeled vehicles, especially automobiles, trains, and trucks. Ships and boats are the most important water vehicles. Air transportation depends almost entirely on airplanes. Each kind of transportation can further be classified according to whether the vehicles are engine powered or engineless. Most engine-powered vehicles have gasoline, diesel or jet engines. The majority of engineless vehicles are powered by the muscles of human beings or animals or by natural forces, such as the wind or flowing water. Engine-powered transportation has many advantages over engineless transportation. It is usually faster, more dependable, and can carry greater loads. However, such transportation is costly. Most kinds of engine-powered vehicles cost from several thousands to many millions of dollars, depending on the type of vehicle. In most cases, each type of vehicle also requires certain supporting facilities. Automobiles require roads. Trains must have tracks. Airplanes require airports. Ships need docks and ports. All these facilities are expensive to build and maintain. Every form of engine-powered transportation also requires a source of energy. The combined cost of the vehicles, supporting facilities, and energy makes engine-powered transportation extremely expensive. Land transportation is the most common kind of transportation by far. In many cases, it is the only suitable or available transportation. Engine-powered land transportation. Automobiles, buses, motorcycles, snowmobiles, trains, and trucks are the chief engine-powered land vehicles. All these vehicles ride on wheels. Pipelines are another important form of engine-powered land transportation. Automobiles, buses, and trucks are the main modern road vehicles. In areas well served by roads, they can provide a variety of transportation services. Automobiles enable people to travel whenever and by whatever route they choose. Buses carry passengers along fixed routes between and within cities. Trucks can provide door-to-door freight service. In Europe and Japan, many people drive motorcycles to and from work. In the United States, people use motorcycles mainly for recreation. Unlike road vehicles, trains ride on tracks. As a result, trains usually cannot provide door-to-door freight service as can trucks or convenient connecting services such as buses. But trains can haul far heavier loads than trucks can. They can also carry many more passengers than buses can. Engineless land transportation. Walking is the most elementary means of transportation. Carrying a load on one's back or head or using animals to carry loads is also elementary. Animals used for this purpose are called pack animals or beasts of burden. They include camels, donkeys, elephants, horses, lamas, and oxen. People use pack animals mainly in regions that lack modern roads. Such regions include many deserts, mountainous areas and jungles. Water transportation depends mainly on boats, ships and rafts. Any small watercraft is classed as a boat. People use boats chiefly on rivers, canals and lakes. A ship is a larger vessel sturdy enough for ocean travel. A rail is a floating platform constructed of such materials as logs or barrels. Engine-powered water transportation. Nearly all ships, and many boats are powered by engines. Most ships specialize in hauling cargo. Few ships specialize in transporting passengers. However, various types of motorboats carry passengers locally. Some engine-powered boats, especially tugboats, are used in hauling freight. Barges are actually large rafts. Most barges must be pushed or towed.

Hovercraft, or air cushion vehicles ride above the water on a cushion of air. One or more powerful fans inside the vehicle create the air cushion. Engineless water transportation. Engineless water vehicles include dugouts, canoes, rowboats, sailboats, and rafts. People use paddles or oars to propel dugouts, canoes, and rowboats. Sailboats are powered by the wind. Rafts may he propelled by paddles, poles, sails, or water currents. Air transportation depends almost entirely on engine-powered craft, especially airplanes. Engineless vehicles, such as gliders and hot-air balloons, are used mainly for recreation. Airplanes provide the world's fastest practical means of transporting passengers and freight. Only rocket-powered spacecraft travel faster. Big airliners routinely fly 500 to 600 miles per hour (mph), or 800 to 970 kilometres per hour (kph). Most private planes and some older airliners are powered by gasoline engines and driven by propellers. Nearly all newer airliners and some private planes have jet engines. Supersonic jets fly faster than the speed of sound. These planes travel at about 1,500 mph (2,410 kph). Most airliners chiefly carry passengers. Even the biggest planes can carry only a fraction of the weight that a ship or train can haul. Air freight rates are high as a result. The high cost limits the shipment of goods by air to expensive, lightweight or perishable cargo. Such goods include electronic equipment and fresh flowers. Helicopters, like airplanes, are powered by engines. But helicopters are smaller than most airplanes and cannot fly as fast or as far. Nor can they carry as many passengers as airplanes. Helicopters therefore play a secondary role in air transportation. However, they are much more manoeuvrable and have certain special uses. For example, helicopters are used in rescue work and in fighting forest fires.

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The subject of economics

There are many definitions of economics. One of them was formulated by Paul Samuelson, a prominent American economist and the author of textbooks on economics which have been used by economics students all over the world for decades: Economics is the study of how societies use scarce resources to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people. Economics is a science. However it is of practical value in business. An understanding of the overall operation of the economic system puts the business executive in a better position to formulate policies. The executive who understands the causes and consequences of inflation is better equipped during inflationary periods to make more intelligent decisions than otherwise. Indeed, more and more economists are employed by corporations. Their job? To gather and interpret economic information upon which rational business decisions can be made. In spite of its practical benefits, however, the students must be warned that economics is an academic subject. Unlike accounting, advertising, corporation finance, and marketing, economics is not primarily a how-to-make-money area of study. A knowledge of economists may be helpful in running a business or in managing one’s personal finances, but this is not its primary objective. In economics, problems are usually examined from the social, not from the individual point of view. Production and consumption of goods and services are discussed from the viewpoint of society as a whole, not from the standpoint of one’s own personal financial benefits. Economics is concerned with the following: 1. The production of goods and services: how much the economy produces; what particular combination of goods and services; how much each firm produces; what techniques of production it uses; how many people it employs. 2. The consumption of goods and services: how much the population as a whole spends (and how much it saves); what pattern of consumption is in the economy; how much people buy of particular items; how people’s consumption is affected by prices, advertising, fashion and other factors. As individuals want more than they can have, this makes them behave in certain ways. Economics studies that behaviour of people as consumers of various goods and services. The society as a whole faces the similar problem, so economics also studies the behaviour of producers (firms), and of governments which can influence the level of production and consumption as a whole.

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The central economic problem is about scarcity and choice. Human wants are virtually unlimited whilst the resources to satisfy our wants are limited. The most pressing wants are food, housing, clothing and warmth. They have to be satisfied first. Advances in technology, however, have added new wants and brought about new ways of satisfying existing wants. For example, our wants for cars and television sets were unknown to previous generations and the wants to travel, regarded as difficult in the past, can be satisfied easily because of many different types of transport. At any time people in different countries of the world can produce only a limited amount of goods and services because the available resources are limited, or scarce. These resources or factors of production as they are often called are of three types: Labour: all forms of human input, both physical and mental, into production. The labor force is limited both in number and in skills. Natural resources: land and raw materials. They are inputs into production that are provided by nature. The world’s land area is limited, as are its raw materials. Capital: all inputs that have themselves been produced, e.g. factories, machines, transportation and other equipment. All of them are also limited. Moreover, the productivity of capital is limited by the state of technology. Three fundamental questions of economics arise because of scarcity and the need to choose between alternative uses of scarce resources. 1. What goods and services are going to be produced? For example, how many cars, how much wheat, how many rock concerts, how mush education, etc. The answer depends not only on resources but also on the needs: in Finland consumers need mare warm clothes because of the climate. In China consumers need more rice because it is traditional everyday food there. 2. How are things going to be produced? Resources can be used in different proportions. Labour-intensive production versus capital-intensive production: In Brazil maize is grown with a lot of labour and limited capital, and in the Netherlands tomatoes are grown with a lot of capital and limited labour. In India electronic devices are produced in small workshops with relatively more labour than capital, and in Germany electronic goods are made with more capital and less labour than in India. 3. For whom are things going to be produced? How will the nation’s income be distributed? Historically there have been various answers: according to traditions and customs: in the primitive society hunters got the best food; according to the principle of equality: in the former communist-block countries; according to people’s ability to pay: in contemporary Russia. In answering this question, modern economics is more focused on the following aspects of the problem: What will the wages of farm workers, builders, accountants, teachers be? How much will pensioners receive? How much will go to shareholders?

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How the Internet Runs

 Because the Internet is a loose organization of networks, no single group runs it and pays for it. Instead, many private organizations, universities, and government agencies pay for and run parts of it. They all work together in a democratic, loosely organized alliance. Private organizations range from small, homegrown networks to commercial online ser­vices, such as America Online and CompuServe, and private Internet service providers (ISPs) that sell access to the Internet. Through agencies such as the National Science Foundation, the federal government pays for some high-speed backbones that carry Internet traffic across the country and the world. The high-speed vBNS (very high-speed Backbone Network Services), for example, provides a high-speed infrastructure for the research and education community by linking together super­computer centers. Often, a large corporation or organization such as NASA will provide backbones to link sites across the country or the world. The government has also funded the Internet2 for use by universities, a super-fast network that can transfer data at an astounding 2.4 gigabits per second. A number of universities are already connected to it. When finished in 2003, it will link 140 universities. Eventually, the entire Internet may run at its speed. Regional networks provide and maintain Internet access within a geographic area. Regional nets may consist of smaller networks and organizations within the area that have banded together to provide better service. Private companies called Internet Registrars are responsible for registering Internet domains, such as www.zdnet.com, to people and businesses. Until recently, a quasi-public company called the InterNIC had sole responsibility for doing this, but other registrars can now register domains as well. Internet Registrars are overseen by boards made up of people from private and public institutions. The InterNIC is responsible for maintaining the domains registered through registries. It tracks the connections between Internet addresses, such as, and domain names, such as www.zdnet.com The Internet Society is a private nonprofit organization that makes technological and architectural recommendations that pertain to the Internet, such as how TCP/IP and other Internet protocols should work. This body guides the direction of the Internet and its growth. ISPs sell people monthly connections to the Internet. They run their own segments of the Internet and may also supply long-distance connections called backbones. Telephone companies are another source of long­distance connections for the Internet.

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