Vinnitsa national N. I. Pirogov memorial medical university Pharmacology department Methodical instruction icon

Vinnitsa national N. I. Pirogov memorial medical university Pharmacology department Methodical instruction




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Vinnitsa national N.I. Pirogov memorial medical university


Pharmacology department

Methodical instruction


For pharmacology practical classes

for English-speaken students

of medical and stomatological faculties

under the general edition of the Head of Phrmacology department, prof. G.I. Stepanyuk


Vinnitsa - 2013


MODULE 1

General prescription.

Drugs infLUENCE ON PERIPHERAL and

central nervous system. Hormonal drugs. Antiinflammatory and antialLergic drugs


Theme 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE MEDICAL PRESCRIPTION. RULES FOR ORDERING PRESCRIPTION FOR OUT PATIENTS. Firm medicinal forms.


Aim: to memorize the rules of prescription and the order of solid medicinal forms.


Questions for self-preparation

  1. The prescriptions, its structure.

  2. Prescription as a medical, juridical and financial document.

  3. Prescription forms, their purpose, uses and storage.

  4. The rules of ordering prescriptions for outpatients.

  5. Peculiarities of storage, prescription and dispense of narcotic agent.

  6. The rules of prescription, storage and dispense of poisonous and potent medicines.

  7. State Pharmacopoeia. Its contents and purpose.

  8. Classification of medicinal forms officinal and magisterial prescription.

  9. Classification and characteristic of firm (solid) medicinal forms.

  10. Powders: simple and compound ones; divided and nondivided powders; powders for internal and external use. The rules of dosed (divided) and undosed (nondivided), simple and compound powders’ prescription.

  11. Tablets: general characteristics, variants of prescriptions.

  12. Dragee: characteristics, writing prescriptions.

  13. Types, characteristics and purpose of capsules. Rules of prescription.

  14. Granules and pills: general characteristic and prescriptions.


Write out in the prescription form:

  1. 50,0 of smallest powder of Norsulfasoli for applying upon wounds.

  2. Powder containing 20,0 of Zinci oxydi and 30,0 of Talci. Powder for sprinkling.

  3. 30,0 of Magnii sulfatis. 1 spoonful of powder dissolve in 2/3 glass of warm water.

  4. 12 powders, containing Acidi acetylsalicylici, MD (moment dose of preparation ) – 0,5. One powder 3 times a day. Take the drug with milk.

  5. 6 powders, containing Codeini phosphas, MD – 0,01, and Natrii hydrocarbonas, MD – 0,5. Take one powder three times a day.

  6. 12 amylaceous capsules, containing Platyphyllini hydrotartras, MD-0,05, and Papaverini hydrochloridum, MD – 0,02. One capsule three times a day.

  7. 10 gelatinous capsules, containing Oleum Ricini, MD – 1,5. One capsule three times a day.

  8. 20 tablets of Nitroglicerini, MD – 0,0005 g. One tablet under the tongue in case of agnina pectoris.

  9. 20 tablets of Paracetamoli, MD – 0,2. One tablet in case of headache.

  10. 30 tablets of “Vicalinum”. One tablet a day after meals.

  11. 10 dragee of Diazolini, MD – 0,05. One dragee 3 times a day after meals.

  12. 100,0 granules of Calcii glycerophosphatis. To introduce 1 teaspoonful 3 times a day.


Literature

1. Stephanov O., Kucher V. Pharmacology with General Prescription. – K.: «Авіцена». -2004. – P.6 -15

2. Voloshchuk N.I. General prescriptions and main production forms of drugs from different pharmacological groups. – Textbook. – Vinnitsa, 2008. – 51 p.


Theme 2. SOFT MEDICINAL FORMS


Aim: to memorize the rules of prescription of soft medicinal forms


Questions for self-preparation

Special attention should be paid to the following:

  1. Common characteristics of soft medicinal forms.

  2. Ointments. General characteristics of ointments. Types of prescribing of ointments: short and full ones. Officinal ointments.

  3. Pastes. The composition and use of pastes. Their difference from ointments. Types of prescribing of pastes.

  4. Liniments. Difference of liniments from ointments. Types of prescribing of liniments.

  5. Suppositories. Characteristic kinds and uses of suppositories. Substances used as basis for suppositories manufacture.

  6. Rules of suppositories prescribing


Write out in the prescription form

  1. 30,0 of ointment, containing 2,5% of Hydrocortisoni. Grease the wounds.

  2. 10,0 of ocular ointment, containing 0,5% of Hydrocortisoni. Place some ointment into conjuctival sac.

  3. 20,0 of officinal unguenti Zinci. Grease the borders of wounds.

  4. 30,0 of pastae, containing 0,2% of Furacilini. Place some paste to the injured skin.

  5. Officinal pasta Zinci–salicilata. Place some paste to the injured skin.

  6. 100 ml of liniment containing 10% of Chloroformii. Rub into the loin.

  7. 50,0 of paste, containing 50% of Zinci oxidi. Apply to the affected areas of the skin.

  8. Officinal Aloes linimenti. Place into injured skin.

  9. 12 rectal suppositories, containing Anaesthesinum, MD – 0,1. One suppository before slipping.

  10. 12 suppositories vaginal, containing Trichomomacidi, MD – 0,05. One suppository before sleepping.

  11. 10 officinal suppositories rectal “Bethiolum”. One suppository twice a day.


Literature

1. Stephanov O., Kucher V. Pharmacology with General Prescription. – K.: «Авіцена». -2004. – P.24-26

2. Voloshchuk N.I. General prescriptions and main production forms of drugs from different pharmacological groups. – Textbook. – Vinnitsa, 2008. – 51 p.


Theme 3. Liquid medicinal forms (Solution for internal and external use). Drug^ FORMS FOR INJECTIONS


Aim: To memorize the rules of prescription and the order of solution for inner and external use.


Questions for self-preparation

  1. General characteristics of solutions as a medicinal forms. Dissolvents.

  2. Solutions for external and internal introduction.

  3. Types of solution prescribing: short and full forms.

  4. Different methods of indicating of solution concentrations.

  5. Drug forms for injections, requirements to them.

  6. Prescribing of drugs for injections in ampoules, bottles.

  7. The peculiarity o prescribing of drugs for injections preparing in pharmacy.


Write out in the prescription form

  1. 1000 ml 0,1% Kalii permanganas solution. For wounds’ bathe. Prescribe in complete and shorten forms, mark the concentration in shorten forms by three methods.

  2. 500 ml official solution of Hydrogenii peroxydi dilutae. 1 spoonful dissolves in glass of water for mouth gargle.

  3. 3% Aceclidini solution. Eye drops. 2 drops 3 times a day.

  4. 10 ml 0,125% oil solution of Ergocalciferoli. For inner use. 1 drop per day.

  5. 30 ml 10% spirit solution of Camphorae. For rubbing.

  6. For 20 receptions by tablespoons solution of Kalii chloridi. MD – 1,0. Take 1 tablespoonful 3 times a day.

  7. For internal use by 10 drops on 30 receptions solution of Platyphyllini hydrotartratis, MD – 0,005. Take 10 drops 3 times a day.

  8. 5 ampoules each containing 1 ml of 0,1% solution of Adrenalini hydrochloridi. To introduce 1 ml intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

  9. 10 ampoules each containing 5 ml of 5% solution of Unithioli. To introduce 5 ml intramuscularly.

  10. 5 ampoules, containing 1 ml (5 units) Oxytocini. Ampoules` content dissolves in 500 ml 5% solution of Glucosae, for intravenous injection.

  11. 6 ampoules with 0,1% solution of Synoestroli in oil. Each ampoule contains 1 ml. To introduce 1 ml intramuscularly.

  12. 10 bottles of Corticotropini. Each bottle contains 10 U of the drug. To dissolve the contents of 1 bottle in 1 ml of water for injections, to introduce 10 U intramuscularly.

  13. 10 bottles with containing 0,5 powder of Ampicillini. To dissolve the contents of 1 bottle in 2 m l of water for injections, to introduce intramuscularly 4 times a day.

Literature

1. Stephanov O., Kucher V. Pharmacology with General Prescription. – K.: «Авіцена». -2004. – P. 16-20

2. Voloshchuk N.I. General prescriptions and main production forms of drugs from different pharmacological groups. – Textbook. – Vinnitsa, 2008. – 51 p.


Theme 4. LIQUID MEDICINAL FORMS. INFUSIONS and DECOCTIONS, TINCTURES and EXTRACTS, EMULSIONS, MUCUSES, SUSPENSIONIS, NOVOGALENICAL drugs.


Aim: to memorise the rules of infusions, emulsions, mixtures, tinctures, liquid extracts, new–Galena’s preparations prescription.


Questions for self-preparation

  1. General characteristic of infusions and decoctions, methods of preparing, way of dosing, rules of prescribing.

  2. General characteristic of tinctures, differences from infuses and decoctions. Way of dosing, rules of prescribing.

  3. Common characteristic of extracts, their types, methods of preparation, prescribing in different medicinal forms. Prescription of liquid extracts.

  4. Common characteristic of emulsions, their types, components, preparing.

  5. Other liquid medicinal forms: syrups, aromatic waters, mucuses as ingredients of mixtures. Forms of mixtures prescribing, their dosing.

  6. Novogalenical preparations, their characteristics, difference between Galena’s and new Galena’s preparations, ways of their putting into organism. Rules of prescribing and dosing of new Galena’s preparations.

  7. Common characteristics of suspensions and emulsions. Prescription and administration.


Write out in the prescription form

  1. For 12 receptions infusion of Adonis vernalis herb, correlation 130. For internal use. One teaspoonful 3 times a day.

  2. Infusion from Sennae folium for 10 receptions. MD of folium Sennae – 1,0. Take 1 tablespoonful before bedtime.

  3. 200 ml of cortex Quercus decoction. Correlation 120. For internal use. One tablespoon 3 times a day.

  4. 30 ml of Streptocidi officinal emulsum. Put on burn skin.

  5. 20 tablets, containing dry extract of Belladonna (MD 0,015). Take 1 tablet 3 times a day.

  6. Viburni liquid extract. For internal use. 20 drops 3 times a day.

  7. Lantosidum (novogalenic preparation). For inner use. 15 drops 3 times a day.

  8. Mixture, containing tincturae Valerianae (MD 20 drops) and tincturae Leonuri (MD 15 drops). Take 3 times a day.

  9. Mixture, containing Polygonii hydropiperis fluidi extract and Viburni fluidi extract in equal parts. Take 30 drops 3 times a day.

Literature

1. Stephanov O., Kucher V. Pharmacology with General Prescription. – K.: «Авіцена». -2004. – P. 20-24

2. Voloshchuk N.I. General prescriptions and main production forms of drugs from different pharmacological groups. – Textbook. – Vinnitsa, 2008. – 51 p.


Theme 5: Final study “General prescriptions”.



Theme 6. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY. PHARMACOKINETICS.


Aim: To study main pharmacological terms and conceptions of pharmacokinetics


Questions for self-preparation

  1. The characteristics of the terms "pharmacokinetic”.

  2. Routes of drugs administration

  3. Absorption of drugs. Factors affecting drug absorption.

  4. Distribution of drugs.

  5. Drug metabolism (biotransformation). Biochemical reactions involved in drug metabolism. Factors affecting drug metabolism.

  6. Drug excretion. Routes of elimination.

7. Routes of drugs administration.


Literature

  1. Checkman I., Gorchacova N., Panasenko N., Bekh P. Pharmacology. – Vinnytsya: Nova Knyha Publishers, 2006. – P. 17-26.

  2. Stephanov O., Kucher V. Pharmacology with General Prescription. – K.: «Авіцена». - 2004. – P. 27-30.



Theme 7. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY. PHARMACODYNAMIC.

^ PHARMACOGENETIC. CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY


Aim: To study main pharmacological terms and conceptions of pharmacodynamic, pharmacogenetic, chronopharmacology. To study main species of incompatibility of drugs and main side effects of drugs


Questions for self-preparation

  1. The characteristics of the terms "pharmacodynamics”, "pharmacotherapy".

  2. The localization and the main mechanisms of drug action conception of the terms "receptor", "agonist", "antagonist".

  3. The main types of drug therapy.

  4. Dependence of pharmacological effects on the properties of chemical structure, physical and chemical properties, etc.

  5. The dependence of pharmacological effect on pathologic status of the organism, on biological rhythms, genetic and anthropogenic factors.

  6. The importance of factors of the external environment for the drugs action.

  7. The action of drugs in their repeated introductions (cumulation, tolerance, tachyphylaxis).

  8. Drug dependence. Medical and social aspects.

  9. The incompatibility of drugs (the pharmacologic and pharmacy ones).

  10. Combined action of drugs (synergism, antagonism, antidotes).

  11. The main and the side action of drugs. Allergic reaction. Idiosyncrasy. Toxic effects.

  12. Teratogenic, embryotoxic, mutagenic and cancerogenic effects of drugs.


Literature

  1. Checkman I., Gorchacova N., Panasenko N., Bekh P. Pharmacology. – Vinnytsya: Nova Knyha Publishers, 2006. – P. 27-31.

  2. Stephanov O., Kucher V. Pharmacology with General Prescription. – K.: «Авіцена». - 2004. – P.30-34
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