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of theoretical questions
for the final module control.
Content module 1. Radiobiological basis of radiation therapy. Dosimetry.
1. History of discovery of X - rays and radioactivity: the main stages of Radiology.
2. Nature and properties of ionizing radiation: α-, β-, γ-, X-rays, neutrons and protons.
3. Features of the system radiology departments to work with open and closed sources of ionizing radiation. Types of radiology departments.
4. Basic regulations governing the radiology departments (NRBU-1997, CPAS-2000).
5. Methods and means of protection when working with sources of ionizing radiation.
6. Methods of disposal of radioactive waste.
7. Biological effects of ionizing radiation.
8. Direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms.
9. Specific, individual and age variations radiosensitivity.
10. Mutagenic effects of radiation.
11. The influence of external conditions on the radiosensitivity of organisms.
12. Methods for determining the dose. Types of dosimeters.
13. Characteristics of ionization and scintillation methods of dose and radioactivity.
14. Chemical methods for determining the dose. Structure and principle of the photochemical dosimeter.
15. Biological and computational methods for determining the dose.
16. Radioactivity - a unit of radioactivity. Types of radioactive decay.
17. Isotopes. The main characteristics of the radioactive isotopes. Characterization of radioactive isotopes: 60Co, 32P, 123, 125, 131, 99mTs, 198Au, 113mIn.
18. RFP: obtaining and basic requirements.
19. Metabolism of radiotracer in the body. Critical organs.
20. Maximum permissible dose (HDD) human exposure and different categories of personnel.
21. Categories patients aimed at radionuclide study. The permissible dose of radiation.
22. Exhibition, absorbed, equivalent and integral radiation dose. System and Common and unit doses.
23. Methods for determination of radioactivity. Types radiometers.
Content module 2. Principles and methods of radiation therapy.
24. Physical and biological basis of radiation therapy.
25. The interaction of ionizing radiation with matter. Variations dose distribution in time and space.
26. The mechanism of radiation damage tumor cells.
27. Radiotherapy interval and radiomodifying factors.
28. Classification methods of radiotherapy.
29. Basic principles of radiation therapy.
30. General, local and regional reactions and complications of radiotherapy.
31. Characterization method dalekodystantsiynoyi radiotherapy. Devices. Indications and contraindications for use.
32. Types dalekodystantsiynoyi radiotherapy. Physical and technical specifications of the devices. Appointment tubes and filters.
33. Indications for radiotherapy in non-tumorous diseases (inflammatory, degenerative).
34. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of ionizing radiation.
35. Characterization method blyzkodystantsiynoyi radiotherapy. Devices. Indications and contraindications for use.
36. Characterization method dalekodystantsiynoyi gamma-therapy and therapy to other sources of high energy. Devices. Indications and contraindications for use.
37. Description of the method of intracavitary radiotherapy. The structure and form of radiation sources. Indications and contraindications for use.
38. Description of the method of interstitial radiotherapy. The structure and form of radioactive drugs. Indications and contraindications for use.
39. Radiation treatment of skin cancer.
40. Radiation therapy of breast cancer. Doses and field exposure.
41. Radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods, doses and fields of radiation.
42. Methods combined, integrated therapies and connective-ray method for treatment of malignant tumors. Applications radiotherapy.
43. Selecting focal dose irradiation of malignant tumors.
44. Using 131I treatment for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer metastases.
45. Using 32P and 89Sr for treatment of metastases to the bone.
46. Prevention of radiation reactions and injuries.
Content module 3. Methods of imaging in radiation diagnosis.
47. Classification methods of radionuclide diagnostics.
48. Radionuclide method of research "in vitro" - its meaning.
49. Characterization methods of radionuclide diagnostics "in vivo": radiometry, radiography, scanning, scintigraphy.
50. Means of obtaining diagnostic information in radionuclide studies of its treatment.
51. Scanning principle of the method and interpretation of results.
52. Gamma scintigraphy, the principle of the method, processing the results.
53. Research yodnakopychuvalnoyi thyroid function.
54. Formation and basic properties of X-rays.
55. Structure and principle of the X-ray tube.
56. Basic techniques X-ray: X-rays and radiography, their advantages and disadvantages.
57. Regularities of formation and properties of X-ray images. Fluorography: principles techniques and diagnostic capabilities.
58. Principle and application of X-ray imaging.
59. Protection of personnel and patients from exposure to ionizing radiation during X-ray studies.
60. Classification of radiopaque substances, their use in x-ray diagnosis. Complications arising from the use of radiopaque agents.
61. Physical and technical bases of magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic possibilities of the method.
62. Classification methods of radionuclide diagnostics.
63. Radionuclide methods "in vitro" - their values.
64. Characterization methods of radionuclide diagnostics "in vivo": radiometry, radiography, scanning, scintigraphy.
65. Means of obtaining diagnostic information in radionuclide studies of its treatment.
66. Scanning principle of the method and interpretation of results.
67. Gamma scintigraphy, the principle of the method, processing the results. PET.
Content module 4. Complex ray diagnosis of diseases of the chest cavity.
68. Methods of X-ray diagnosis of diseases of the lungs.
69. Normal thoracic cavity in the X-ray image. Partial structure of the lungs.
70. Pulmonary picture, its substrate. Changes in pulmonary picture.
71. The roots of the lungs: an anatomical substrate and X-ray picture. Pathological changes in the roots.
72. Degrees blockage of the bronchi, causes X-ray picture.
73. Radiological semiotics lung diseases.
74. Round shadows in the lungs, their differential diagnosis.
75. Annular shadows in the lungs, their differential diagnosis.
76. Radiological diagnosis of pneumonia and complications.
77. Radiological diagnosis of pleurisy.
78. Classification of pulmonary tuberculosis.
79. Radiological diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis.
80. Radiological diagnosis of diffuse dyseminatsiy in the lungs.
81. Classification of lung cancer. Central and peripheral lung cancer. X-ray diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various forms of lung cancer and complications.
82. Methods of X-ray diagnosis of diseases of the heart and great vessels.
83. Normal radiological anatomy of the heart and great vessels. Dougie heart in direct front projection.
84. Basic X-ray signs of mitral heart defects.
85. Basic X-ray signs of aortic heart defects.
86. Radiological classification of congenital heart defects.
87. Emergency radiological diagnosis of pathology of the chest cavity: pneumothorax, hidropnevmotoraks, hydrothorax, atelectasis.
Content module 5. Integrated beam diagnostics
Digestive system and abdominal organs.
88. General principles of X-ray examination of the alimentary canal.
89. Methods of X-ray study of the esophagus and its normal X-ray picture.
90. Radiodiagnosis esophageal diverticula and their complications.
91. X-ray picture of esophageal cancer, differential diagnosis of achalasia.
92. Methods of X-ray examination of the stomach and its normal X-ray picture.
93. X-ray diagnosis of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
94. Radiographic signs of complications of peptic ulcer.
95. Stomach cancer, classification, clinical and radiological signs.
96. Chronic gastritis, classification, clinical and radiological signs.
97. Methods of X-ray examination of the small intestine.
98. Methods of X-ray examination of the colon, normal renthenanatomiya colon.
99. X-ray picture of nonspecific colitis / ulcerative colitis and granulomatous colitis /.
100. Radiographic signs of colon tumors.
101. Radiological diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, differential diagnosis.
102. Radiological diagnosis of diverticular disease of intestine and its complications.
103. Methods of X-ray diagnosis of diseases of liver, gallbladder, bile ducts and pancreas.
104. Radionuclide methods hepatobiliary system.
105. Complex radiation diagnosis of cholelithiasis.
106. Radionuclide methods reticuloendothelial system of the liver.
107. Complex radiation diagnosis of diffuse and focal liver lesions.
108. Methods of X-ray diagnosis of diseases of kidneys, ureters, bladder.
109. Radionuclide methods kidneys.
110. Radionuclide renografiya and dynamic renostsyntyhrafiya.
111. Characterization tubulotropnyh and hlomerulotropnyh RFP.
112. Static radionuclide methods kidneys. Nefrostsyntyhrafiya scanning.
113. Complex radiation diagnosis of urolithiasis.
114. RIA values in the complex radiation diagnosis of diffuse and focal lesions of the kidney.
Content module 6. Complex ray diagnosis of diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Radiation diagnosis of diseases of the teeth and jaws.
115. Methods of X-ray diagnosis of diseases of bones and joints.
116. Radiographic signs FAULT bones.
117. Radiographic signs of traumatic injuries of the joints.
118. Features of the X-ray image of the bones in children. Age features FAULT.
119. Stages of development of callus in the X-ray image. Complications healing FAULT.
120. Radiological semiotics bone and joint diseases.
121. Radiological diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Radiological diagnosis pervynnohronichnyh forms of osteomyelitis.
122. Radiological diagnosis of tuberculosis of bones and joints. Tuberculous spondylitis and its X-ray.
123. Classification and radiological diagnosis of bone tumors.
124. General description of methods of radiological examination of the teeth and jaws.
125. Indications vnutryshnorotovoyi radiography.
126. Rule isomerism Ts'yeshynskoho.
127. Radiological diagnosis of odontogenic tumors of the jaws (odontoma, adantinoma, tsementoma).
128. X-ray diagnosis of chronic periodontitis.
129. Traumatic injuries of the teeth and jaws - fractures, dislocations, subluxations, their radiological diagnosis.
Content module 7. Complex radiation diagnosis of thyroid .
130. Methods ray examination of the thyroid gland, the sequence of their use, indications.
131. Research yodnakopychuvalnoyi thyroid function.
132. Scanning and scintigraphy of the thyroid gland.
133. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) in complex radiation diagnosis of thyroid disease.
134. Radionuclide methods salivary glands.
135. Radiation characteristics of certain diseases of the thyroid: hypo-, hyperthyroidism, tireoyidytu, cancer, cysts, adenomas.
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