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The ministry of public health of ukraine vinnitsa national medical university named after M. I. Pirogov




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THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE

VINNITSA NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

named after M.I.Pirogov


METHODICAL RECOMMENDATION

FROM PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

FOR THE INDEPENDENT EXTRAAUDITORY WORK

of 3rd course student


Module №1 GENERAL PATHOLOGY


CONCLUDING LESSON №1 GENERAL NOSOLOGY


VINNITSIA - 2011

Methodical recommendation is confirmed on the educational-methodic meeting of pathophysiology department (protocol 12 from 09.02.11), and on the meeting of profile methodological committee (the head of committee – prof. Stepanyuk G.I.).


Сompilers: N.A. Rikalo; A.S. Grytsenko; O.Y. Guminska


Methodical recommendations is recommended for the students of the 3rd course of pharmaceutical faculty.


^ Theme: "Concept about chemical pathological factors, their toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, allergenicity ".


Actuality of theme: Chemical substances take one of the leading places among the pathogenic factor It has found a permanent increase in their numbers. Currently five million different chemicals registered in the world and about two thousand of a new one synthesized every year. A person is widely in contact with 60 - 70 thousands of chemicals. Scientific and technological progress associated with the steady growth of the mass of chemicals entering the environment.

The basis of pathogenic mechanisms of chemical factors is their ability to react with normal body components and modify their structure, and hence the functional properties.


^ Purpose of the lesson: to study the mechanisms of the pathogenic action of the chemical, biological, psychical and social factors on the organism.


Questions for the checking.of the primary level of knowledge:


1. Pathogenic action of the chemical factors on the organism. Actuality of the problem.

2. Mechanisms of the pathogenic action of the chemical factors.

3. Main pathological effects that develops as result of the action of the chemical factors.


Literature: textbook from the medical physic.


Theoretical questions for independent study:.

  1. Chemicals as a problem of ecology and medicine.

  2. Concept about toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, allergenicity of the chemicals.

  3. Exo- and endointoxications.

  4. General lows of the poisons action, specific and non-specific mechanisms of the intoxications.

  5. Natural mechanisms of the organism protection against of the toxins action.


Literature:

  1. Handbook of general and Clinical Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof.A.V.Kubyshkin, CSMU, 2005.

  2. Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof. Zaporozan, OSMU, 2005.



Testing according system “Krok-I”

Tests of an open database (2010)

1. A 62 year old patient who previously worked as stoker was admitted to a hospital with complaints about general weakness, abrupt weight loss, hoarse voice, dyspnea, dry cough. Laryngoscopy revealed a tumour in the pharynx that invaded vocal cords and epiglottis. What is the most probable cause of tumour development?

A Polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates

B Nitrosamines

C Aromatic amines and amides

D Retroviruses

E Ionizing radiation


2. From the group of children who were eating sweet sappy watermelon two kids developed the signs of poisoning: rapid weakness, dizziness, headache, vomiting, edema, tachycardia, cyanosis of mouth, ears, tips of the fingers cyanosis. High concentration of nitrates was detected. What is the leading mechanism of the pathogenesis of the poisoning in the two children?

A Insufficiency of met-Hb-reductase

B Insufficiency of superoxiddismutase

C Block cytochrome oxidase

D Insufficiency glutathione pyroxidase

E Insufficiency of catalase


Time for the study of the material – 4 hours.


Method of the knowledge control by the department:

Concluding lesson №1 from the theme: «General nosology. Pathogenic action of the environmental factors. Role of the internal factors in pathology».


^ Theme: " Pathophysiological aspects of alcoholism, narcomania, toxicomania".


Purpose of the lesson: to study the main mechanisms of chemicals action and natural mechanism of protection against the toxins and poisons action.


Questions for the checking.of the primary level of knowledge:

1. Type of chemicals reactions with the most important biological substances.

2. Products of ethanol oxidation.


Literature: textbooks from the biochemistry, physiology..


Theoretical questions for independent study:.

1. Pathogenic action of the chemical factors on the organism. Actuality of the problem.

2. Mechanisms of the pathogenic action of the chemical factors.

3. Main pathological effects that develops as result of the action of the chemical factors.

4. Natural mechanism of protection against the toxins and poisons action.


Literature:

  1. Handbook of general and Clinical Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof.A.V.Kubyshkin, CSMU, 2005.

  2. Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof. Zaporozan, OSMU, 2005.



Testing according system “Krok-I”

Tests of an open database (2010)

1. What manifestations is not characteristic for the narcomania with pronounced physical dependence?

A. Expressed asthenia.

B. Condition of the psychical comfort.

C. Aversion to drugs.

D. Expressed myalgia.

Е. Depression.


^ 2. General toxic action of the alcohol is characterize by the next changes of the metabolism except:

A. Disorders of glucose oxidation in the tissues

B. Dysproteinemia development.

C. Decrease of ammonia content in the blood

D. Development of the liver lipid infiltration

Е. Development of the behavior changes


^ Time for the study of the material – 4 hours.


Method of the knowledge control by the department:

Concluding lesson №1 from the theme: «General nosology. Pathogenic action of the environmental factors. Role of the internal factors in pathology».


Theme: “General laws of infectious processes development. Role of the infectious agent characteristics and reactivity of the organism at the development of the infectious agent”.


Actuality of theme: Infectious processes are closely connected with such typical pathological processes as inflammation and fever. Inflammation as a typical pathological process was forming at the process of the evolution and formation of the protective mechanisms against the infectious agent. Improving of these mechanisms helped to form such immune system, which allows specifically elimination of the infectious agent during the infectious process and prevent most cases of infectious disease.


^ Purpose of the lesson: to study general lows of origin and development of the infectious processes.


Questions for the checking.of the primary level of knowleges:

  1. Group of the microorganisms, which are able to result infectious processes development at the human.

  2. Role of the microorganism origin and characteristics at the infectious processes development.


Literature: textbook from medical biology and medical microbiology.


Theoretical questions for independent study:.

  1. Infectious process, general laws of the development.

  2. Classification of the infectious agent.

  3. Stages of the infectious diseases development.

  4. Protective barriers against the infections, conditions for them overcome.

  5. Distribution and dissemination of infectious agents in the body. Sepsis.

  6. Role of the infectious agent characteristics and reactivity of the organism at the development of the infectious agent.


Literature:

  1. Handbook of general and Clinical Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof.A.V.Kubyshkin, CSMU, 2005.

  2. Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof. Zaporozan, OSMU, 2005.



Time for the study of the material – 3 hours.


Method of the knowledge control by the department:

Concluding lesson №1 from the theme: «General nosology. Pathogenic action of the environmental factors. Role of the internal factors in pathology».


Theme

^ Theme: “Role of the age factors at the pathology development. Conception about prenatal pathology. Aging. General signs of aging. Methods of geroprotection”.


Actuality of the theme: Any living organism from inception and throughout the life experiences of certain changes in the structure, metabolism, functions and behavior, consistently passing the stages of embryonic and postembryonic development, maturity and old age. Old age inevitably occurs even when the body is in a favorable habitat conditions and nutrition. Worth mentioning is the study of aging now. One of the reason is the rapid development of biological science, new methodological approaches that allow you to penetrate the secrets of living organism, to understand the basic laws of life and its development and thus raise questions about the causes and mechanisms of aging on a trial basis and role in the origin of aging pathology of the human body.


^ Purpose of the lesson: to study main general characteristic and mechanisms of aging; to study main theories of the aging; to study structural, functional and biochemical manifestations of the aging at the different levels of the organism.


Questions for the checking.of the primary level of knowleges:

  1. Species duration of the life.

  2. Factors, which influence on the species duration of the life.

  3. Concept about limit of cell division (Chafflike limit).


Literature: textbook from the normal physiology.


Theoretical questions for independent study:.

  1. Aging, definition.

  2. Factors that determine species, individual and average duration of the life.

  3. General characteristics and laws of aging.

  4. Structural, functional and biochemical manifestations of the aging at the molecular, cellular, tissues, organ, systemic and organism levels.

  5. Theories of the aging.

  6. Aging and diseases.

  7. Progeria. Characteristic of the Hetchinson – Gilfird’s syndrome and Verner’s syndrome.

  8. Theoretical bases of extension of the life duration.

  9. Methods of the geroprotection.

  10. Concept about antenatal pathology.

  11. Gameto-, blasto-, embryo- and fetopathy. Teratogenic factors.

  12. Critical periods of antenatal ontogenesis.


Literature:

  1. Handbook of general and Clinical Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof.A.V.Kubyshkin, CSMU, 2005.

  2. Pathophysiology/ Edited by prof. Zaporozan, OSMU, 2005.


Testing according system “Krok-I”

Tests of an open database (2010)

^ 1. What features are determined the reactivity of the old age?

A. Irreversible regressive changes of the structure and function at all levels - molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, orhinism.

B. Changes of metabolism intensity.

C. Metabolic disorders.

D. Combination of the changes in the body that accumulate in the body in the process of acquisition of acquired reactivity.

E. All of these factors.


2. High sensitivity to the infections, especially chronic, activation of viral infections, atherosclerotic vascular diseases, pernicious anemia is marked in an older person. Changes of what system which are accompanied with aging are characterized by the described changes?

A. Endocrine.

B. Nervous.

C. Immune.

D. Connective tissue.

E. Circulation.


Time for the study of the material – 3 hours.


Method of the knowledge control by the department:

Concluding lesson №1 from the theme: «General nosology. Pathogenic action of the environmental factors. Role of the internal factors in pathology».


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