Determination and estimation of physical work capacity in sports and clinic the terminology in physical work capacity icon

Determination and estimation of physical work capacity in sports and clinic the terminology in physical work capacity




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LECTURE №2-3: DETERMINATION AND ESTIMATION OF PHYSICAL WORK

CAPACITY IN SPORTS AND CLINIC

The terminology in physical work capacity

The loading – is an outside task the parameters of which don’t depend on a man, who fulfils the work. Meanwhile, the work – is an activity, which displays as the reaction on the loading and doesn’t depend on individual peculiarities of a man.

The tension – which influences the organism of a man in doing some definite work, reflects in changed physiological functions. All these three values can be measured.

The kinds of physical loading – there are two of them: mental and physical loading. The physical loading is characterized by some exact values and the mental loading is estimated visually.

The factors which determine the tension. The degree of the physiological functions restoration necessary for an organism to cope whit the loading depends on two factors: physical work capacity &the effectiveness of activity. The effectiveness of activity (the efficiency) – is a measure of the useful return from spent efforts. For this work – the loading upon a man is the higher, the lower his physical work capacity and the efficiency index is, and on the contrary.

^ The physical work capacity – is a potential ability of a man to react on the loading and to fulfill in such a way the determined static, dynamic or mixed work. The physical work capacity depends on: the condition of health, the training and also the inclinations to the given work “a gift”. As for growing work, there are some factors which have some influence on the physical work capacity:

  1. the environment (climate, the time of a day, sounds);

  2. the general condition of mental activity and the emotional sphere.

^ The determination and estimation of physical work capacity

The determination and estimation of physical work capacity of a man is often made with the help of loading texts and depends on the aerobic reproduction of the organism. These indicators give the possibility to estimate the functional condition of an organism and its adaptive possibilities. The physical work capacity reflects the functional condition of many physiological systems of an organism, but basically it is used for estimation of the functional possibilities of the cardio – respiratory system and the system of energy supply. In such cases it means the general physical work capacity.

In the sports medicine there is the special physical work capacity, which depends on the sports specialization and the professionalism. The continuation of the mechanical work is connected with the provision of the muscles mass with the quantity of energy. As the most optimal supplier of energy into the organism is aerobic metabolism, the general physical work capacity depends on aerobical abilities – i.e. aerobic production.

^ The aerobical production – is an ability of the organism to get and to assimilate the oxygen of the environment air. The aerobical production limits the physical work capacity, somehow. The basic physiological parameter of the aerobical production is maximal aerobic capacity (MAC). MAC is the biggest quantity of oxygen, which a man is able to use for 1 minute during the intensive work of his muscles. MAC represents the functional index, which reflects the ability of the organism to satisfy the bigger need of oxygen for the tissues, during the highest activation of the basic systems of life supply. The more MAC is in the organism, the greater the functional and adaptive possibilities of the organism are. With the help of the determination of physical work capacity and the aerobical production we can estimate:

  • the state of health;

  • the social – hygienic and social – economical conditions of leaving a man;

  • the results of the preparation for working, day to day, sports and the military activity;

  • in the arrangement of moving regime of the patients,

  • in the determination of the disability level.

Maximum of the physical work capacity a man reveals in extreme situations with the definite motivation, it is the integrative expression of the functional abilities, and it is characterized by definite objective components:

  • the constitution and anthropological indices(endomorphic, mesomorfic and ectomorfic);

  • the power, the volume and the effectiveness of mechanisms of energy production in the aerobic and anaerobic way;

  • the degree of physical development;

  • the power and the endurance of muscles;

  • the neuromuscular coordination (dexterity);

  • the condition of support-motor apparatus (flexibility);

  • the state of health ( chronic and acute diseases);

  • the psycho-emotional condition (the temperament and motivation);

  • the neurohumoral regulation condition.

The methods of determination of physical work capacity and aerobic productivity

There are some methods for the determination of physical work capacity and the aerobical production: direct and indirect investigative methods. The direct method predicts the fulfilling of maximum loadings, the loading that reach the limit of the aerobical possibilities of a man. Actually at present max loading tests are not widely used in practice either in sports medicine, or especially in clinic, because they have continually exhausting character, they’re accompanied by excessive tension, which is dangerous for the organism and is connected with a definite risk and it also requires the availability of complicated and precious equipment. They’re used in investigations of sportsmen of the highest professionalism, who are trained for enduring or in scientific investigations.

In clinical and sporting medicine especially in mass examinations indirect investigation methods are most frequently used. They provide to make loads requiring fewer efforts, called submaximal (70% maximal arbitrary power) and even lower power. The given tests are recommended by World Health Organization for the widest using in examination of healthy and sick people.

^ The classification of the loading tests.

I. Depending on the regime of muscles contraction:

- static;

- dynamic.

  1. Depending on the informative value:

- the dynamic qualified tests (Ryphie, Ryphie-Dickson, IGST, Cuper, and Navaki) – are characterized by qualified estimation;

- the dynamic quantitative tests (the test PWC170: veloergometria, stepergometria, tredmilergometria).


  1. The static tests:

  • the determination of isometric glycolytic physical work capacity, the degree which contains the max arbitrary force (MAF);

  • the determination of isometric oxidative-glycolytic physical work capacity, the degree should be 60% of MAF;

  • the determination of isometric oxidative physical work capacity, the degree should be 20% of MAF;

  • the determination of physical work capacity concerned about the coefficient of the static effort falling.

For the determination of physical work capacity among the indirect investigative methods the most spread is the submaximal loading test PWC170.


Rufye's test

Before the physical load investigated is measured the pulse in 15 seconds. Then propose to carry out 20 squats in 30 seconds Then this it is measured the pulse after of first and last 15 seconds of minute


IR=

Р1 – heart rate for 15 sec. in a position of sitting;

Р2 - heart rate after caring out of 20 knee- bends for first 15 sec. in a minute;

Р3 - heart rate for last 15 sec. in a minute


Evaluation:

0 – 4.9 – excellent; 5 – 10 – good; 10 – 15 – insufficiency I stage; 15 – 20 - insufficiency II - III stage


^ Navakky's test


Original version of the maximal test with registration of only "critical" power without data of gas-analysis is Navakky's test. Its advantages - informant, simplicity, an opportunity to unify results of research. The test is recommended by WHO for wide use. For carrying out of the test it is necessary only cycle-ergometer. Load is individualized depending on a body mass of the examined person. The test begins from initial load of 1 Vt/kg of a body mass and through every 2 min. increase for the same size.

^ The Harward step-test

The Harward step-test is based on registration of RHB after the dosed out physical load and allows quantitatively estimating a course of regenerative processes. Physical load represents an ascent on a step (fig. 2.5) by height 50 sm for men and 43 sm for women. Time of an ascent is 5 min., frequency of rises with change of legs - 30 times in 1 min. If the examined person isn't in a condition to carry out a load during 5 min., time of actually done work is registered. A pulse rate is registered in position of sitting in the first 30 sec. of the 2nd-4th min. of the recovery period.

Results of testing express in the form of an index of the Harward step-test (IHST):

IHST=

Where: T - time of an ascent for a step in the set rate (300 sec. at completely carried out of a test);

f1, f2 and f3 - a pulse rate for the first 30 sec. accordingly to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th min. of the recovery period.


As a rule, increase of a level physical training is accompanied by increase IHST, detraining - by decrease and impossibility to carry out a load completely. It is necessary to consider, that the general load at carrying out of the step-test is great enough, therefore test can be recommended only healthy persons.

Index of the Harward step-test and estimation physical training:

less than 55 - is bad;

55-64 - is below an average;

65-79 - is average;

80-89 - is good;

90 and more - is excellent.

^ Cooper's test

For the persons, regularly engaged by improving physical training or mass kinds of sports (no less than 6 months), with the purpose of definition FC of aerobic ability and reception of a trustworthy information about MOC, it is possible to spend testing of the general endurance. Between parameters of MOC and a level of development of the general endurance there is a high degree of connection - a coefficient of correlation is more than 0,8.

Correlation between results of Cooper's 12-minute racing test (km) and MOC (ml/kg/min.), accordingly, makes:

Less than 1,6 km - less than 25,0 ml/mkg/min.; 2,01-2,0 km - 25-33,7; 2,01-2,4; 2,41-2,8 - 42,6-51,5; more than 2,8 km - 51,6 and more of MOC ml/kg/min.



^ The distance (km) overcome for 12 minutes

MOC, Ml/ kg/mill.

Less than 1,6
1,6-2,0
2,01-2,40
2,41-2,8

More than 2,8

Less than 25,0
25-33,7
33,8-42,5
42,6-51,5

51,6 and more


^ The submaximal test PWC170.

The name of this test is an abbreviation of an English word “Physical Work Capacity” – PWC – means the physical work capacity of a man whose pulse is 170 beats per minute. With the help of this test we can determine the power of the physical loading, during which the heart rate reaches the level of 170 beats per minute. The choice of such a level of heart rate is limited by two factors:

  • the heart rate is 170 beats per minute. That means the optimal regime of functioning CVS at the time of physical loading;

  • there is a clear linear dependence between the working power and heart rate in the range from 120 to 170 beats per minute, when the aerobic mechanism are acting and they supply the organism with the energy.

With higher definitions of heart rate the linear character is lost, as with the development of tiredness, the anaerobic (glycolitic) processes can become more active and provision of the muscle work for the further growing power, the loading is carried out by means of aerobic-anaerobic mechanisms.

The existence of the linear dependence between the power of work and heart rate in borders from 120 to 170 beats per minute allowed to use the loading, producing the rise of pulse up to170 beats per minute (in some case it is dangerous), to determine the constant PWC170 on the basis of heart rate after two loadings of lower intensiveness (under condition of the second loading being bigger than the first one) by the method of extrapolation.

There are 2 variants in practice of the test PWC170: veloergometric and stepergometric. The essence of both variants is that a man investigated should fulfill two loadings which continue for 5 minutes of indefinite power with 3 minutes of break. At the end of loading during the last 30 seconds, the results of heart rate are summed up. The numbers are doubled and we have heart rate per 1minute (f1 and f2).

The investigation showed that it’s necessary to fulfill PWC170 without any previous preparation. In cases if the difference between the power of the first and the second loading is little, the exactness of definition of physical work capacity will decrease. That is why at the time of making test PWC170, the power of the second loading must essentially differ from the first loading. The criterion of the right choice of the power is the level of heart rate at the end of the loadings. Heart rate at the end of the first loading must reach 100– 120 beats per minute, and at the end of the second loading 140 – 160 beats per minute. It’s very important that the difference between these constants should not be less than 40 heart beats per 1 minute. It provides getting the most exactly results. The most rational investigation is PWC170 with the help of veloergometria with the constant frequency of turning the pedals, (in diapason of 60 – 80 revolutions per 1 minute). During the using of the step – test, the fulfilled work for one unit of time can be determined in such a way as:


W = P* h * n * 1,33


W – is a loading (kgm/min)

P – is a weight of a body (kg)

h – is a height of a step (m)

n – is a quantity of reaching per 1 min

1,33 – is a coefficient of the physical expenditure, during lowering from a step (it means tierce of forces spent for rising). The gotten result in kgm/min. for transferring into watt is necessary to divide by 6, as 1 watt means 6 kgm/min.

The physical work capacity is determined with the help of a normogram or with the help of the empirical formula which is represented by V.L Karpman:


PWC170 = N1 + (N2 – N1)


PWC170 – the power of physical loading, the heart rate is 170 beats per min.

N1 – N2 – the power of the first and the second loadings (watt or kgm/min).

Р1 – Р2 – heart rate in the end of the first and the second loadings.

During the examination of the weakened or sick person for the determination of physical work capacity, they are limited by the test of the lower intensiveness, leading the loading of heart rate to 150 beats per min. or even 130 beats per min. In such cases the formula by V.L Karpmana has some changes, instead of the number 170 we put 150 or 130 and then the test will be called PWC150 or PWC130.

In the young not trained men the PWC170 reaches the level of 850 – 1100 kgm/min or 142 – 184 watt; women have 450 – 850 kgm/min or 75 – 142 watt. Though, the most informative is the relative constant PWC170 which falls on one kg of weight of the body. These constants in not trained men are 14,4 kgm/min/kg or 2,4 watt/kg, women have 10,2 kgm/min/kg or 1,7 watt/kg. It’s 30% lower than men have.

Sportsmen have higher PWC170 indexes, especially the representatives trained for endurance (23,0 – 24,0 kgm/min/kg or 3,8 – 4,0 watt/kg) i.e. 60 –70 % higher than the not – trained people have.

The examination of maximal aerobic capacity (MAC) by direct methods, which are based on the analysis of exhaled air with the help of special equipment – gas analyzer in conditions of fulfilling the maximal physical loadings, it’s rather a hard and dangerous process. That’s why MAC is frequently determined with the help of indirect and calculation methods using of submaximal loadings.

One of the methods is the determination of MAC on the given information of PWC170, as between the information of two indexes there is high correlation dependence:


MAC = 1,7 * PWC170 + 1240 (for not trained people)


MAC = 2,2 * PWC170 + 1070 (for the sportsmen – stayers)


MAC – is expressed in ml/min;

PWC170 – in kgm/min.

Moreover, that determination is possible in the conditions of the real sporting activity, during testing the general endurance, as the MAC and the results of testing have rectilinear dependence. Such tests are called “field”. The most common among them, is the test of K. Kypper (12 min and 1,5 miles).

^ The estimation:

The received constants of MAC are to be estimated with the account of a body weight of an examined man. On an average MAC in not trained, young men is 44 – 51 ml/min/kg, women have 35 – 38 ml/min/kg. The index of MAC is lower than 25 ml/min/kg in men and 20,5 ml/min/kg in women, this testifies of a very poor functional condition, and when it’s higher than 51,5 ml/min/kg, in men, in women it can be 38,9 ml/min/kg, this means the perfect functional condition. The trained people may have MAC 80 – 90 ml/min/kg. and even more.

On the basis of PWC170 and MAC we can definite the class of the working capacity (the professional ability) and the group of disability (the validness adaptability to the labour).


^ Intellectual work capacity. Exhaustion and its prophylaxis.

The work capacity depends on human resistance to various kinds of exhaustion - physical, intellectual etc. and is characterized by duration of qualitative work fulfillment. The intellectual work capacity appreciably depends on psychophysiologic conditions of the students: general endurance, including physical, thought speed activity, concentration and stability of attention, emotional stability.

Health of the students, their resistance to influences of external environment is the important meaning for successful professional training. The intellectual work capacity is not constant, it changes during a working day – it is low (the period ‘in-working’) at the beginning, then rises and is keeping on a high level (period of steady work capacity), then reduces (period of not compensated exhaustion).

The exhaustion is a physiological condition of organism, characterized of work capacity decreasing after executed work. The exhaustion is one of the most difficult physiological process beginning in high departments of nervous system and extending on other systems. There are subjective and objective attributes of exhaustion. The weariness is signaling which warning about disorganization in primary activity of brain cortex. The overfatigue is an extreme level of exhaustion. The overfatigue can be result of the large physical and intellectual loadings. The overexertion is not only physiological, psychological and biochemical, but also social phenomenon. cns overexertion is causing a breakdown, can result an occurrence of mental disorders, to affect internal organs and systems. The overtraining is a condition; the leading attribute is CNS overstrain (neurosis).

The physical exercises have either direct influence, or remoteness influence, or cumulative influence. Respiratory exercises play a considerable role in increasing of intellectual work capacity, exercises for visual apparatus micromuscles. Physical loadings play an important role in stresses prophylaxis. Professor A.M. Vein picks up a three major factors in this process: the 1st is connected to mental protection (destruction of adrenalin and in blood), the 2nd provides a substitution effect (switching of the negative emotions to other area, connected to movement and "muscle pleasure"), the 3rd factor defines activization of creative process, stimulates intellectual sphere activity. Also, don’t forget 4 basic principles formulated by the academician P.K. Anohin: gradualness, regularity, availability, control.

^ Prepathological condition and diseases during irrational engaging.

The engaging in physical culture and sports as well as indisputable positive influence on health and functional condition can render negative influence, causing original prepathological condition and promoting occurrence of pathological changes in different organs and systems of organism (internal organs, nervous system, of the support-impellent apparatus etc.) In this connection the medical students - the future doctors should know about the reasons of occurrence prepathological condition and diseases at the sportsmen and persons who engage in physical culture, features of clinical current of usual diseases specific pathological condition caused by irrational use of physical exercises; to know ways of preventive maintenance, methods of diagnostics and treatment of these condition.

Only in this case student in the future medicine-preventive work can give the recommendations for individualization, optimization of physical loadings to the persons engaged in improving physical culture, and also together with the trainer to define ways of sports skill perfection.

Today is abundantly clear, that physical loadings are capable not only to increase a level of health and to improve a functional condition, but also to generate, to fix pathological reactions and to promote development of a number of diseases various organs and systems. The reception sanogenic or pathogenic result is defined both volume and intensity of physical loadings, and organism condition engaged in physical exercises.

Overfatigue

After the done physical work the exhaustion is temporary decrease of serviceability and deterioration of a functional condition. This normal physiological condition accompanying to some extent almost everyone training engaging, except for that of them, which carry special recovery character or are carried out as active rest.

The exhaustion is shown in sensation of weariness, decreasing of serviceability, deterioration of movement’s coordination, infringement of engineering, and change in a number of functional parameters. The degree of exhaustion depends on a parity of the executed loading and level preparing of engaged.

If from loading to loading the restoration during the long period of time does not come, attributes in recovering are deposited, and overfatigue comes.

It is impossible to consider overfatigue already as physiological phase of a consequence of work, as it is accompanied not only change of a general condition and serviceability of the sportsman, but also frustration of number functions.

The overfatigue is characterized by deterioration of health state of increased fatigue after loadings, deterioration of coordination and accuracy of movements, occurrence of technical errors, reduction of force, speed, endurance, and deterioration adaptation to loadings. There are slackness, apathy, frustration of dream, instability AP and intimate rhythm etc.

The overfatigue liquidation is promoted also by rational use of restoration means.

Overtraining

Overtraining - the condition, the basis is overeffort of cortex processes, infringement of the optimum parity produced during regular training, between cortex, underplaying departments of nervous system, impellent device and internal organs. Overtraining is considered as overeffort of CNS that is neurosis. First of all thus the change of a general psychological condition of the sportsman and his serviceability is observed. Overtraining, as a rule, develops in the prepared sportsmen, who reached a high training level, and is a direct consequence of mode infringement and technique of training. Overtraining is divided into three stages. Initial (first) stage of overtraining often quiet pass, because the sportsman complaints and objective attributes his condition change can be changeable and are not certain. To raise the sports achievement, the sportsman instead of necessary rest strengthens training process that results the pathological condition progressing. The expressed functional infringements in many organs and systems of organism are characteristic for the second stage. During medical inspection of this sportsman the changes in a condition of nervous system are observed: infringement of coordination of movements, vestibular is stability, accuracy of given movement’s reproduction, increase of the latent period of impellent reaction and its instability. The presence acute CNS functional changes, organic changes in heart and blood circulation insufficiency are characteristics of third (III) stage overtraining.

Treatment. The initial stages overtraining are usually convertible, and if they are revealed in time and the respective alterations in general and training mode of the sportsman are brought in.

At overtraining I stage there is no necessity in interruption of training. However it is necessary to forbid participation in competitions and change training mode for 2-4 weeks.

In II stage overtraining one change of training mode of engaging already insufficient. It is necessary to stop training for 1-2 weeks. Then during 1-2 month the gradual inclusion in training will be carried out. Training mode in this treatment period changes the same

In III stage overtraining the training process should be stopped for 1-2 month. Thus 15 days are on complete rest and treatment, which best can be organized in clinical conditions.

Overeffort

Overeffort arises in sharp discrepancy between inquiries showed by physical loading and sportsmen preparing level to performance of this loading. Overeffort can be sharp or chronic. Sharp overeffort meets mainly at the insufficient prepared or beginning sportsmen. Sharp overeffort arises usually suddenly in time or after loading performance and can precede CV insufficiency, sharp coronary blood circulation infringement, head brain vessel spasm. The clinical picture can be various - from heavy, with loss of consciousness, or occurrence separate symptoms only

Treatment. At sharp physical overeffort it is necessary to render help the same as and in sharp blood circulation insufficiency. Usually assignment the complete rest, lying during 1-2 hours. During 1-2 weeks trainings are cancelled. The active rest is recommended. Chronic physical overeffort is pathological process initiated developing of myocardial dystrophy physical overeffort (MDPO). MDPO is the disease caused by discrepancy between volume and intensity of physical and emotional loadings and adaptation CV opportunities.

^ Classification of MDPO.

Etiology: physical and phsycoemotional overloading.

Pathogenic types: hyperadrenergic, hypoadrenergic, diselectrolite, compensatory-hypertrophic.

Prevalence of defeat: local /focal/ and diffusion.

Current: acute and chronic.

^ Clinical variants: ansymptom, arrhythmic, with infringements contractile heart ability, mixed.

Stage: I stage/ II stage/ III stage

Therapy MDPO, the basic rules:

- Diet: the food containing proteins, complete aminoacid content and necessary amount of carbohydrates, fats, salts, should correspond habitual, individually fulfilled norms. Calority of food is defined with the account of energy expenditure. Diet is plenty of fresh vegetables and fruit;

- vitamins: nevertheless for some improvement of exchange processes there can be useful a reception within 2 weeks of a set of multi-vitamins in physiological doses;

- normalization of phsycoemotional status

- sanation of chronic infection centers

Medicinal treatment.

The infringements "K+-mechanism" can meet in myocardial dystrophy; its normalization is first stage of treatment. The presence K+-sensitive jag Т is the basis for research K+-balance (sportsman gets І g KCl, dissolved in 100 cm3 tomato or orange juice 4 times a day after meal; in daily urine amount there is defined the quantity of allocated K, it is possible to limit these changes to 5-7 days). The sportsman is recommended reception of pananginum 1-2 tablets 3 times a day.




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