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Test problems in physiology state licensing examination




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Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine

Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine

Sumy State University


TEST PROBLEMS IN PHYSIOLOGY STATE LICENSING EXAMINATION


KROK – 1


Sumy

Sumy State University

2011

Test problems in physiology (State licensing examination KROK – 1) for the second-year students in speciality 7.110101 “Medicine” / compilers: O.A. Obukhova, V.Yu. Garbuzova. – Sumy: Sumy State University, 2011. – 106 p.


Department of physiology and pathophysiology with a course of medical biology


CONTENTS




P.

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………

4

  1. EXCITABLE STRUCTURE………………………….

5

  1. REGULATION OF ORGANISM FUNCTIONS……..

11

  1. BLOOD SYSTEM…………………………………….

28

  1. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM…………………………...

40

  1. SYSTEM OF RESPIRATION, ENERGY METABOLISM, AND THERMOREGULATION………………

60

  1. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM………………………………..

75

  1. EXCRETORY SYSTEM……………………………...

83

  1. ANALYZERS…………………………………………

93

9. BEHAVIOR………………………………………...…

98

KEYS OF RIGHT ANSWERS……………………………

101



INTRODUCTION

The collection that we offer has been worked out for the students mastering base physiology, training for the test examination “Krok – 1. General medical training”, and studying at higher medical educational establishments of III – IV levels of accreditation, subordinate of Ministry of public health of Ukraine, and at the medical faculties of the universities of the system of Ministry of education and science, youth and sports of Ukraine.

Each test has only one right or the best answer, which must be chosen from the list of suggested variants. In the end of the book there are keys of right answers to the test tasks. The control over the correctness of answers to the test tasks is a very important element of education, because it increases the motivation of students for study, makes it possible to understand what need additional attention, helps to find weak points in training.

Individual work with the tests will help students to prepare for the licensed integrated examination “Krok – 1. Medicine”. It must be borne in mind that the examination consists of 200 test questions.


^ 1. EXCITABLE STRUCTURE



  1. A hypertensive glucose solution was introduced to a patient. It will intensify water movement:

    1. From the cell to the intercellular liquid.

    2. From the intercellular liquid to the cell.

    3. From the intercellular liquid to the capillaries.

    4. There will no changes of water movement.

    5. From the capillaries to the intercellular liquid.




  1. An isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmically irritated with electric impulses. Every next impulse is in period of relaxation from the previous contraction. What contraction of the muscle occurs?

  1. Tonic.

  2. Asynchronous.

  3. Single.

  4. Waved tetanus.

  5. Continuous (smooth) tetanus.




  1. In course of an experiment a skeletal muscle is being stimulated by a series of electric impulses. What type of muscle contraction will arise, if every subsequent impulse comes in the period of relaxation of singe muscle contraction?

  1. Partial tetanus.

  2. Asynchronous tetanus.

  3. Muscle contracture.

  4. Holotetanus.

  5. A series of single contractions.




  1. Ions cells have been blocked in the excitative cell. It doesn’t change significantly the quiet potential, but the cell has lost its capacity to the generation of AP (action potential). What canals have been blocked?

    1. Chlorine.

    2. Sodium.

    3. Sodium and potassium.

    4. Calcium.

    5. Potassium.




  1. The action of electric current on the excitable cell caused depolarization of its membrane. Movement of what ions through the membrane caused depolarization?

  1. Cl

  2. Ca 2+

  3. Na +

  4. HCO 3

  5. K +




  1. The penetration of the irritable cell membrane for potassium ions has been increased experimentally. What changes of membrane electric status can occur?

  1. Local response.

  2. No change.

  3. Depolarization.

  4. Hyperpolarization.

  5. Action potential.




  1. The permeability of the irritable cell membrane has been increased for potassium ions during an experiment. What changes of membrane electric status can occur?

  1. Hyperpolarization.

  2. Depolarization.

  3. No changes.

  4. Local response.

  5. Action potential.




  1. What will the reduction of the muscles of the upper extremity be at an attempt to lift a load beyond one’s strength?

  1. Isometric.

  2. Isotonic.

  3. Auxotonic.

  4. Phase.

  5. Single.




  1. The irritation of what force is it necessary to inflict on a nervous firbe to entail excitation in the phase of relative refractivity?

  1. Under-threshold.

  2. Above-threshold.

  3. Threshold.

  4. Under-threshold prolonged.

  5. Threshold prolonged.




  1. The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum block-ed the entrance of calcium ions into the nerve endings of the axons of motoneurons. Poisoning with it is dangerous to life by:

  1. Vomiting development.

  2. Cardiac arrest.

  3. Disorder of vascular tone.

  4. Respiratory standstill.

  5. Development of diarrhea.




  1. During the examination of a sportsman after an intensive physical activity the incoordination of movement was detected. At the same time the force of muscle contraction was the same. The reason for it can be the diminution of conduction of excitement speed. What structures does it take place in first of all?

  1. Conduction tracts.

  2. Nervous-muscular synapses.

  3. Efferent nerves.

  4. Afferent nerves.

  5. Central synapses.




  1. Skeletal muscles are irritated with a series of electro pulses in an experiment. Every next impulse is in the period of the shortening of a single muscular contraction. What type of muscular contraction will arise?

  1. Smooth tetanus.

  2. Toothed tetanus.

  3. Asynchronous tetanus.

  4. A series of single contractions.

  5. Muscle contracture.




  1. Complete demyelinisation of fibers of conductive ascending tracks of a patient is revealed. Formation of what sensation will worsen the least?

  1. Acoustic.

  2. Proprioceptive.

  3. Aftervision.

  4. Tactile.

  5. Temperature.




  1. As a result of blockage of the ionic channels of the cell membrane its membrane resting potential diminished from -90 to -70 mV. What channels were blocked?

  1. Sodium.

  2. Potassium.

  3. Calcium.

  4. Magnesium.

  5. Chloric.




  1. During the research of an isolated excitable cell it was stated that the threshold of the stimulation force of the cell diminished substantially. What was the reason for it?

  1. Blockage of energy production in the cell.

  2. Inactivation of membrane sodium channels.

  3. Inactivation of membrane calcium channels.

  4. Activation of membrane potassium channels.

  5. Activation of membrane sodium channels.




  1. As a result of the action of electric current on an excitable cell there was the depolarization of its membrane. The movement of what ions through the cell membrane plays a basic part in the development of depolarization?

    1. K+

    2. HCO3-

    3. Ca2+

    4. Cl-

    5. Na+




  1. It is necessary to estimate the level of the excitability of tissue in an experiment. What parameter is it necessary to define for this purpose?

  1. Threshold of depolarization.

  2. Resting potential.

  3. Duration of action potential.

  4. Amplitude of action potential.

  5. Critical level of depolarization.




  1. It is necessary to estimate the level of the nerve excitability of a patient. What parameter is it necessary to define for this purpose?

  1. Resting potential.

  2. Threshold force of the irritant.

  3. Critical level of depolarization.

  4. Amplitude of action potential.

  5. Duration of action potential.




  1. As a result of activation the ionic channels of external membrane of an excitable cell its resting potential was considerably increased. What channels were activated?

    1. Fast calcium.

    2. Sodium.

    3. Potassium.

    4. Slow calcium.

    5. Sodium and calcium.




  1. The processes of energy production were completely blocked in an excitable cell. How will the membranous resting potential change as a result of it?

  1. Will increase insignificantly.

  2. Will diminish insignificantly.

  3. Will diminish substantially.

  4. Will disappear.

  5. Will increase substantially.




  1. A neuromuscular pre-paration of a frog was processed with poison. After that the capacity of the muscle for contraction in reply to direct stimulation was preserved, but the one in reply to nerve stimulation was lost. What does the poison block?

  1. Processes of energy production.

  2. Coupling of excitation and contraction in the muscle.

  3. Sodium channels.

  4. Potassium channels.

  5. Nervous-muscle synapse.

  1. An isolated muscle of a frog is rhythmically irritated by electric impulses in an experiment. Every next impulse is in the period of relaxation of the previous contraction. What contraction will arise?

    1. Asynchronous.

    2. Single.

    3. Toothed tetanus.

    4. Smooth tetanus.

    5. Tonic.




  1. A tissue is acted on by an electric impulse of cathode direction with the amplitude of 70% threshold. What will the changes of membrane potential be as a result of it?

  1. Partial depolarization.

  2. Hyperpolarization.

  3. Action potential.

  4. There will be no changes.

  5. Inhibitor postsynaptic potential.




  1. The ionic channels of an excitable cell were block-ed, as a result of which its resting potential disappeared completely soon after. What cannels were blocked?

  1. Potassium and sodium.

  2. Sodium.

  3. Potassium.

  4. Chloric.

  5. Calcium.




  1. The ionic channels of an excitable cell were blocked. It did not change the level of the resting potential substantially, but the cell lost the capacity to the generation of action potential. What channels were blocked?

  1. Sodium.

  2. Potassium.

  3. Sodium and potassium.

  4. Chloric.

  5. Calcium.




  1. It is necessary to get the increase of the membranous resting potential (hyperpolarization) in an experiment on an isolated excitable cell. What ionic channels will be activated for this purpose?

  1. Potassium and sodium.

  2. Sodium.

  3. Potassium.

  4. Calcium.

  5. Sodium and calcium.




  1. In the experiment under the influence of chemical substances in the muscles the reaction of Ca2+-pump is weakened. Which phenomena will be observed?

    1. Prolonged relaxation.

    2. Prolonged duration of the AP.

    3. Decreased AP.

    4. Activation of the sodium-potassium pump.

    5. Decreased speed of the AP distribution.




  1. During the heart transplantation the viability of myocardial cells is determined. The determination of which parameter of the myocardium is the most important?

    1. Heart temperature.

    2. Concentration of the oxygen in the heart vessels.

    3. Concentration of calcium-ions in myofibrils.

    4. Rest potential of cardiomyocytes.

    5. Concentration of Ca-ions in heart vessels.




  1. During the registration of the action potential of cardiomyocytes, the duration of the plateau phase is prolonged. It is provided by:

    1. Activation of the fast calcium canals.

    2. Activation of the sodium canals.

    3. Activation of the slow calcium canals.

    4. Inactivation of the potassium canals.

    5. Inactivation of the slow calcium canals.




  1. Water follows the osmotic gradient to the area where is more:

    1. Aminoacids and proteins.

    2. Natrium, potassium, hydrogen, glucose.

    3. Active ions of hydrogen.

    4. Bilirubin.

    5. Urea.




  1. During an experiment the myotatic reflex has been studied in frog. After extension in a skeletal muscle its reflectory contraction was absent. The reason for it might be a dysfunction on the following receptors:

    1. Articular.

    2. Muscle spindles.

    3. Golgi tendon organs.

    4. Tactile.

    5. Nociceptors.





^ 2. REGULATION OF ORGANISM FUNCTIONS



  1. A patient after hypertension stroke has no voluntary movements in his right arm and leg, muscle tone in these extremities is increased. What type of dysfunction of nervous system is it?

  1. Peripheral paralysis.

  2. Reflex paresis.

  3. Central paralysis.

  4. Central paresis.

  5. Peripheral paresis.




  1. During an experiment the dorsal roots of the spinal cord of an animal have been cut. What changes will be observed in the innervations zone?

  1. Loss motor functions.

  2. Increase in muscle tone.

  3. Loss of sensitivity and motor functions.

  4. Sensitivity loss.

  5. Decrease in muscle tone.




  1. A patient after trauma has developed paralysis, algesthia impairment on the right; there are no paralyses on the left but temperature and pain sensitivity are also impaired. What is the cause of this?

    1. Brainstem injury.

    2. Midbrain injury.

    3. Cerebellum injury.

    4. Motor zone brain cortex injury.

    5. Unilateral right-side spinal cord injury.




  1. When a patient with traumatic impairment of the brain was examined, it was discovered, that he had stopped to distinguish displacement of a object on a skin. What part of the brain was damaged?

  1. Posterior central gurus.

  2. Occipital zone of the cortex.

  3. Parietal zone of the cortex.

  4. Frontal central gurus.

  5. Frontal zone.




  1. A patient becomes quickly tired during his work. In vertical position with closed eyes he is dizzying and loosing equilibrium. Skeletal muscle tone is reduced. Which of the below mentioned brain structures is damaged?

    1. Hypothalamus.

    2. Precentral gyrus of cerebral hemispheres cortex.

    3. Thalamus.

    4. Cerebellum.

    5. Basal ganglia.




  1. Glutamate decarboxylation results in formation of inhibitory transmitter in CNS. Name it:

      1. Asparagine.

      2. Glutathione.

      3. Serotonin.

      4. Histamine.

      5. GABA.




  1. A 50-year-old patient was injured on the occipital region of the head. The closed skull’s trauma was diagnosed. She was taken to the hospital. The medical examination deregulation of walking and balance, trembling of arms. What part of brain was injured?

  1. The inter-brain.

  2. The spinal cord.

  3. The medulla oblongata.

  4. The mind-brain.

  5. The cerebellum.




  1. In the experiment the part of animal’s brain was destroyed. After this the animal rejected food and died after some time from exhaustion. Which part of brain was destroyed?

    1. Lateral hypothalamus.

    2. Ventromedial hypothalamus.

    3. Specific nucleus of hypothalamus.

    4. Reticular formation of the brain.

    5. Non-specific nucleus of hypothalamus.




  1. A 32-year-old patient consulted a doctor about the absence of lactation after parturition. Such disorder might be explained by the deficit of the following hormone:

    1. Vasopressin.

    2. Thyrocalcitonin.

    3. Glucagon.

    4. Somatotropin.

    5. Prolactin.




  1. Central receptors for glucose localize in

    1. Posterior hypothalamus.

    2. Pons.

    3. Cerebellum.

    4. Cerebral hemispheres.

    5. Anterior hypothalamus.




  1. A patient complaining of weight loss (10 kg during 2 months), palpitation and exophthalmoses came to the endocrinologist. For the hyper function of what endocrine gland (glands) are there complaints the most typical?

  1. Ovaria.

  2. Parathyroid glands.

  3. Adrenal glands.

  4. Thyroid.

  5. Pancreas.




  1. As a result of damage to certain structures of brainstem an animal lost orientation reflexes. What structures were damaged?

    1. Quadritubercular bodies.

    2. Red nuclei.

    3. Medial nuclei of reticular formation.

    4. Vestibular nuclei.

    5. Black substance.




  1. As a result of spinal-cord trauma a 33-year-old man has a disturbed pain and temperature sensitivity that is caused by damage of the following tract:

  1. Lateral spinocortical.

  2. Anterior spinocerebellar.

  3. Posterior spinocerebellar.

  4. Medial spinocortical.

  5. Spinothalamic.

  1. Careless student occasionally met his dean. The concentration of what hormone will most likely increase in the blood of the student?

    1. Somatotropin.

    2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    3. Cortisol.

    4. Corticotropin.

    5. Adrenalin.




  1. Decreased concentration of the glucose leads to the increased secretion of:

    1. Adrenalin.

    2. Acetylcholine.

    3. Histamine.

    4. Serotonin.

    5. Dopamine.




  1. Examination of a patient revealed hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. Low secretion of which hormone may cause such change?

  1. Vasopressin.

  2. Aldosterone.

  3. Parathormone.

  4. Cortisol.

  5. Natriuretic.




  1. Parents of a 10-year-old boy consulted a doctor about extension of hair-covering, growth of beard and moustache, low voice. Intensified secretion of which hormone must be assumed?

    1. Somatotropin.

    2. Testosterone.

    3. Oestrogen.

    4. Cortisol.

    5. Progesterone.




  1. There is only one hormone among the neurohormones which refers to the derivatives of amino acids according to classification. Point it out:

  1. Melatonin.

  2. Vasopressin.

  3. Oxytocin.

  4. Thyroliberin.

  5. Somatotropin




  1. When a patient with traumatic impairment of the brain was examined, it was discovered that he had stopped to distinguish displacement of an object on the skin. What part of the brain was damaged?

    1. Parietal zone of the cortex.

    2. Posterior central gurus.

    3. Occipital zone of the cortex.

    4. Frontal central gurus.

    5. Frontal zone.




  1. A frog reacts by generalized convulsions in reply to all irritations after the introduction of the solution of a chemical agent. What agent was introduced?

    1. Strychnine.

    2. Adrenaline.

    3. Acetylcholine.

    4. Serotonin

    5. Dopamine




  1. A boy of 12-years-old is 180 cm tall. The reason for it is the disorder of hormone secretion. What kind of hormone is it?

  1. Somatotropin.

  2. Thyroxin.

  3. Thyreotropin.

  4. Gonadotropin.

  5. Insulin.




  1. A hemorrhage into the brainstem of a patient of 70 is diagnosed. The examination found out the increased of the tone of flexor muscles and the decline of the tone of extensor muscles. The irritations of what structures of brain can explain the changes in the tone of muscles?

    1. Substantia nigra.

    2. Vestibular nuclei.

    3. Quadrigeminal plate.

    4. Red nuclei.

    5. Reticular formation.




  1. A woman of 25-years-old felt nausea, vomiting, and the increase of sweat secretion while being on a merry-go-round. The activation of what receptors stimulated reflex development of these symptoms?

    1. Corti’s organs.

    2. Proprioreceptors of skeletal muscles.

    3. Vestibular receptors of semicircular ducts.

    4. Visual.

    5. Otoconia vestibular.




  1. The height of a grown-up person is 120 cm. Proportions of the body-build and mental capacity are normal. There characteristics are result of a lack of some hormone secretion in childhood. What kind of hormone is it?

    1. Thyroxin.

    2. Gonadotropin.

    3. Corticotropin.

    4. Thyreotropin.

    5. Somatotropin.




  1. It is ascertained in an experiment during excitation of the motoneurons of flexor muscles the motoneurons of extensor muscles are inhibited. What kind of inhibition underlies this phenomenon?

    1. Reciprocal.

    2. Inhibition after excitation.

    3. Pessimal.

    4. Feedback (Renshaw).

    5. Lateral.




  1. For better examination of the fundus of eye a doctor began to drip the solution of atropine on the conjunctiva of the patient’s eye. It resulted in pupil expansion. The blockade of what membranous cytoreceptors stipulated such effect?

    1. H2-receptors.

    2. N-holinoreceptors.

    3. α-adrenoreceptors.

    4. β-adrenoreceptors.

    5. M-holinoreceptors.




  1. During the pathoanatomic research of the spinal cord of a 70-year-old man the destruction and diminishing of the quantity of anterior horns nuclei cells in cervical and thoracic spines were found. What functions were damaged during the man’s life?

    1. Moving functions of the lower extremities.

    2. Moving functions of the upper extremities.

    3. Sensitiveness and moving functions of the upper extremities.

    4. Sensitiveness of the lower extremities.

    5. Sensitiveness of the upper extremities.




  1. As a result of a trauma a man’s otolithic apparatus of the internal ear is damaged. To what irritants will not the patient is able to react?

    1. Sound stimuli.

    2. Motion with angular acceleration.

    3. Skin irritants.

    4. Photos stimuli.

    5. Motion with linear acceleration.




  1. A careless student met the dean by change. The concentration of what hormone will increase in the student’s blood first of all?

    1. Cortisol.

    2. Thyreoliberin.

    3. Corticotropin.

    4. Adrenaline.

    5. Somatotropin.




  1. The function of the thyroid gland of a child has been reduced since birth. What is the main consequence of this state?

    1. Giantism.

    2. Nanism.

    3. Cretinism.

    4. Hypopituitarism.

    5. Hyperpigmentation of skin.




  1. The working capacity of a man reduced as a result of physical activity. The changes in what structures are the reason for the fatigue first of all?

    1. Muscles.

    2. Nerve centers.

    3. Afferent nerves.

    4. Efferent nerves.

    5. Nervous-muscle synapses.




  1. The consequence of what process is the persistent dilation of pupil under the conditions of intense illumination?

    1. Paralysis of cilia muscle.

    2. Normal state of regulatory mechanism.

    3. Over activity of the parasympathetic part of the nervous system.

    4. Paralysis of the muscle that expands the pupil.

    5. Over activity of the sympathetic part of the nervous system.




  1. Height of a grown-up person is 100 cm. Proportions of the body-build characteristics are the result of a lack of some hormone secretion in childhood. What kind of hormone is it?

    1. Thyreotropin.

    2. Gonadotropin.

    3. Corticotropin.

    4. Somatotropin.

    5. Prolactin.




  1. After a cranial trauma a patient’s respiration became infrequent and deep. What structure of cerebrum is damaged?

    1. Medulla oblongata.

    2. Hypothalamus.

    3. Metencephalon.

    4. Cortex of large hemisphere.

    5. Cerebellum.




  1. After the introduction of microelectrodes into the structures of diencephalon, the animal’s eyesight failed completely. What subcortex structure was possibly damaged?

    1. Suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus.

    2. Medial geniculate body.

    3. Associative nuclei of thalamus.

    4. Supraoptimal nuclei of hypothalamus.

    5. Lateral geniculate body.




  1. During an operation on cerebrum it was noted that the irritation of a certain area of the cortex of cerebrum caused tactile and temperature sensation of a patient. Which area of cerebral cortex was irritated?

    1. Cingulate gyrus.

    2. Precentral gyrus.

    3. Upper lateral gyrus.

    4. Postcentral gyrus.

    5. Parahippocampal gyrus.




  1. A frog reacts by generalized convulsions to the least irritation after the introduction of strychnine. The blockage of what structure of the CNS is the reason for such reaction?

    1. Inhibitory synapses.

    2. Excitatory synapses.

    3. Renshaw cells.

    4. Adrenoreceptors.

    5. Cholinergic receptors.




  1. Tachycardia, increase of basal metabolism and body temperature, weight loss, increase of excitability of a patient are diagnosed. The reason for it is the increase of the hormone secretion of some gland. What gland is it?

    1. Neurohypophysis.

    2. Adrenal glands.

    3. Parathyroid glands.

    4. Gonads.

    5. Thyroid gland.




  1. Demineralization of bones (decreasing of calcium ions content) is often a problem of elderly people. The reason for this is the decreasing of some hormone. What hormone is it?

    1. Thyrocalcitonin.

    2. Thyroxin.

    3. Insulin.

    4. Aldosterone.

    5. Parathormone.




  1. A woman of 64 has disorders of fine movements of fingers, evident muscular rigidity, and tremor. A neurologist diagnosed Parkinson’s disease. The defect of what structure of cerebrum resulted in this disease?

    1. Reticular formation.

    2. Thalamus.

    3. Red nuclei.

    4. Cerebellum.

    5. Substantia nigra.




  1. A woman of 25-year-old came to a doctor a month after childbirth with complaint about the decrease of galactopoietics. What hormone deficit resulted in such state?

    1. Prolactin.

    2. Somatostatin.

    3. Corticotropin.

    4. Insulin.

    5. Glucagon.




  1. Red nuclei of a mesencephalic animal were destroying in an experiment. Which reflexes disappear in this condition?

    1. Static postural vestibular.

    2. Static postural neck.

    3. Straightening and statokinetic.

    4. Myotatic tonic.

    5. Myotatic phasic.




  1. The height of a 10-year-old child is 178 cm, the weight is 64 kg. It is connected with function disorders of some gland. What gland is it?

    1. Gonads.

    2. Thyroid gland.

    3. Pituitary gland.

    4. Adrenal glands.

    5. Parathyroid glands.




  1. After a domestic trauma a patient of 18-year-old began to complain of permanent giddiness, nystagmus of eyes, scanning speech, uncertain gait. Dysfunction of what structures of cerebrum does it testify to?

    1. Vestibular nuclei.

    2. Motor cortex.

    3. Basal nuclei.

    4. Substantia nigra.

    5. Cerebellum.




  1. After a traffic accident a patient of 36-years-old got paralysis of muscles of extremities on the right, the loss of pain and temperature sensitivity on the left, partial reduction of tactile sensation on both sides. These changes are most characteristic of the defect of some part of brain. What part is it?

    1. Motor cortex on the left.

    2. Right half of spinal cord.

    3. Left half of spinal cord.

    4. Anterior division of the anterolateral pathway of spinal cord.

    5. Dorsal columns of spinal cord.




  1. Pushing a barbell a sportsman pulls the head back of the maximal increase of the tone of the upper extremities extensor muscles. Where are the local centers of the reflexes arising here situated?

    1. In the spinal cord.

    2. In the motor cortex.

    3. In basal nuclei.

    4. In red nuclei.

    5. In Deiters’ nuclei.




  1. An experiment is conducted on a spinal frog. The time of defense flexor reflex decreased from 10 sec. to 6 sec. after increasing the area of the skin surface, which is acted on with acid solution. What mechanism underlies the diminishing of the time of defense flexor reflex?

    1. Irradiation of excitation on divergent nervous chains.

    2. Spatial summation of excitation.

    3. Temporal summation of excitation.

    4. Principle of dominant.

    5. Recirculation of excitation.




  1. In an experiment on a cat one irritates a cerebrum motor structure; as a result there is an increase of the tone of extensor muscles on the side of stimulation. What structures of cerebrum are irritated?

    1. Nucleus reticularis medialis.

    2. Nucleus caudatus.

    3. Nucleus rubber.

    4. Nucleus vestibularis lateralis.

    5. Nucleus intermedius lateralis.




  1. A man with one CNS part affected has asthenia, muscular dystonia, imbalance. What CNS part is affected?

    1. Red nuclei.

    2. Substantia nigra.

    3. Reticular formation.

    4. Cerebellum.

    5. Vestibular nuclei.




  1. A supertension of extensor muscles of extremities and back (decerebrate rigidity) is observed in an experiment on a cat. What level is the section done at?

    1. Spinal cord.

    2. Between spinal cord and medulla oblongata.

    3. Below vestibular nuclei.

    4. Above red nuclei.

    5. Below red nuclei.




  1. A 20-year-old child had cramps as a result of the decline of the concentration of calcium ions in blood plasma. It was caused by the decline of the function of some organ of internal secretion. What organ is it?

    1. Thymus.

    2. Hypophysis.

    3. Adrenal cortex.

    4. Pineal body.

    5. Parathyroid glands.




  1. The secretion of some hormone of hypophysis is inhibited after taking oral contraceptives containing sex hormones. What hormone secretion is inhibited?

    1. Somatotropin.

    2. Vasopressin.

    3. Thyreotropin.

    4. Gonadotropin.

    5. Oxytocin.




  1. A patient has an increased basal metabolism, high body temperature, tachycardia in the state of rest. What gland’s hyper functioning can be the reason for this state?

    1. Pancreas.

    2. Thyroid.

    3. Neurohypophysis.

    4. Adrenal cortex.

    5. Gonads.




  1. A woman has a limited blood flow in kidneys, high arteriotony. What hormone’s hypersecretion was the reason for high arteriotony?

    1. Vasopressin.

    2. Adrenaline.

    3. Noradrenaline.

    4. Erythropoietin.

    5. Rennin.




  1. The section of a cat’s brain leads to the decerebrate rigidity – the jump of tone of extensor muscles. What level of brain was the secretion made at?

    1. Between medulla oblongata and spinal cord.

    2. Between diencephalon and mesencephalon.

    3. Between mesencephalon and metencephalon.

    4. Between diencephalon and telencephalon.

    5. Between medulla oblongata and pons.




  1. After a long training a sportsman got tired, working capacity decreased. In what link of the reflex arch did fatigue occur first of all?

    1. In an efferent.

    2. In an afferent.

    3. In receptors.

    4. In nerve centers.

    5. In muscles.




  1. A child has signs of physical development delay and mental retardation (cretinism). With the deficit of what hormone is it connected?

    1. Thyroxin.

    2. Somatotropin.

    3. Calcitonin.

    4. Insulin.

    5. Testosterone.




  1. While examining a patient, attention was paid to cervical intumescences, exophthalmus, high body temperature, pulse 110 per minute. The content of what hormone in blood is it necessary to examine?

    1. Insulin.

    2. Sex hormone.

    3. Catecholamines.

    4. Thyroxin.

    5. Cortisol.




  1. During the last 6 month a woman has signs of masculinization: increased hair growth on the face, while line of stomach, legs. She complains of irregular menstrual cycle. The reason of such state can be the increased secretion of some hormone. What hormone is it?

    1. Mineralocorticoids.

    2. Estrogens.

    3. Somatotropin.

    4. Thyroxin.

    5. Androgens.




  1. An infant has got a laryngospasm. In anamnesis there is a susceptibility to cramps development. One must think about the dysfunction of some endocrine glands. What are there?

    1. Parathyroid glands.

    2. Pancreas.

    3. Thymus.

    4. Thyroid gland.

    5. Adrenal glands.




  1. An experimental animal has lost orientative reflexes as a result of destruction of certain brainstem structures. What structures had been destroyed?

    1. Medial nuclei of the reticular formation.

    2. Vestibular nuclei.

    3. Red nuclei.

    4. Black substance.

    5. Quadrigeminal plate.




  1. In vertical position a patient loses balance when closing eyes. What structures of brain are probably damaged?

    1. Basal ganglia.

    2. Cerebellum.

    3. Limbic system.

    4. Thalamus.

    5. Precentral gyrus of the cortex of cerebral hemisphere.




  1. A patient was diagnosed with Parkinson’s syndrome. It is connected with the disorder of some transmitter systems of cerebrum. What transmitter system is there?

    1. Histaminergic.

    2. Dopaminergic.

    3. Serotonergic.

    4. Cholinergic.

    5. Opioid.




  1. A person who was rolling on a merry-go-round got an increase of heart beats, perspiration, and nausea. Whit the irritation of what receptors is it connected first of all?

    1. Visual.

    2. Proprioreceptors.

    3. Tactile.

    4. Auditory.

    5. Vestibular.




  1. A patient has got a sharp lowering of calcium level in blood. It will cause the increasing secretion of some hormone. What hormone is this?

    1. Parathormone.

    2. Thyrocalcitonin.

    3. Aldosterone.

    4. Vasopressin.

    5. Somatotropin.




  1. A patient has got an in coordination of movements, disorder of their amplitude and orientation; movements are sweeping, disproportional; the gait of cock, tottering. What part of brain is damaged?

    1. Spinal cord.

    2. Medulla oblongata.

    3. Cerebellum.

    4. Hypothalamus.

    5. Thalamus.




  1. In response to a muscle strain its reflex contraction is observed. From the irritation of what receptors does this reflex reaction begin?

    1. Muscular spindles.

    2. Tendon Golgi’s receptors.

    3. Articular.

    4. Tactile.

    5. Nociceptor.




  1. In response to a strong rapid reduction of a muscle its reflex weakening is observed. With the irritation of what receptors does this reflex reaction begin?

    1. Muscular spindles.

    2. Tendon Golgi’s receptors.

    3. Articular.

    4. Tactile.

    5. Nociceptor.




  1. The vestibular apparatus of a frog was ruined on the right side. What changes of muscle tone will it cause?

    1. Decreasing the tone of extensor on the right.

    2. Increasing the tone of extensors on the right.

    3. Decreasing the tone of flexors on the left.

    4. Decreasing the tone of flexors on the left.

    5. Decreasing the tone of extensors on the left




  1. Red nuclei of an animal were ruined. Which of the following reflexes will it lose as a result of this?

    1. Myotatic.

    2. Vestibular static.

    3. Tonic cervical.

    4. Statokinetic.

    5. Tendon.




  1. A research was carried out on a decerebrated animal. What structures of the animal should be ruined for rigidity to disappear?

    1. Substantia nigra.

    2. Red nuclei.

    3. Vestibular lateral nuclei.

    4. Medial reticular nuclei.

    5. Lateral reticular nuclei.




  1. As a result of the destruction of certain brainstem structures an animal lost orientative reflex in response to strong phoric stimuli. What structures were ruined?

    1. Substantia nigra.

    2. Posterior tubercles of quadrigeminal plate.

    3. Red nuclei.

    4. Vestibular nuclei.

    5. Anterior tubercles of quadrigeminal plate.




  1. As a result of the destruction of certain brainstem structures an animal lost orientative reflex in response to strong sound stimuli. What structures were ruined?

    1. Red nuclei.

    2. Anterior tubercles of quadrigeminal plate.

    3. Posterior tubercles of quadrigeminal plate.

    4. Vestibular nuclei.

    5. Substantia nigra.




  1. As a result of the destruction of certain brainstem structures an animal lost orientative reflex. What structures were ruined?

    1. Medial nuclei of reticular formation.

    2. Quadrigeminal plate.

    3. Red nuclei.

    4. Vestibular nuclei.

    5. Substantia nigra.




  1. A patient gets tired quickly. While standing with closed eyes he is reeling, losing balance. Skeletal muscle tone is reduced. Which of the following structures of the person’s brain is probably affected?

    1. Hypothalamus.

    2. Thalamus.

    3. Cerebellum.

    4. Precentral gyrus of cerebral hemisphere cortex.

    5. Basal ganglia.




  1. A patient has hypercalcemia. What hormone deficit can be the reason for it?

    1. Parathormone.

    2. Thyrocalcitonin.

    3. Aldosterone.

    4. Corticotropin.

    5. Corticoliberin.




  1. The height of a 10-year-ild child is 80 cm, he has right proportions of body, normal mental development. What hormone deficit in the organism can cause such changes?

    1. Thyroxin.

    2. Somatostatin.

    3. Somatotropin.

    4. Triiodothyronine.

    5. Cortisol.




  1. A 35-year-old man came to a dentist with complaints of reducing dental tissue density, heightened fragility of teeth at ingesting hard food. The lack of what mineral element most probably takes place in this case?

    1. Calcium.

    2. Potassium.

    3. Sodium.

    4. Magnesium.

    5. Iron.




  1. An animal has an increased tonus of extensor muscles. This the result of intensified information transmission to the motoneurons of the spinal cord through the following descending pathways:

    1. Lateral corticospinal.

    2. Rubrospinal.

    3. Medial corticospinal.

    4. Vestibulospinal.

    5. Reticulospinal.




      1. During the examination of the mouth cavity of a 59-year-old patient it was necessary to examine the movements of the lower jaw. What method is used in this case?

    1. Myography.

    2. Electromyography.

    3. Masticaciography.

    4. Electroodontodiagnostics.

    5. Gnathodynamometry.




      1. A patient has defects in the act of chewing as a result of the affection by a pathological process Renshaw in the structures that form the afferent guide of the arch of the proper reflex. What nerve is affected?

    1. N. hypoglossum.

    2. N. vagus.

    3. N. glossopharyngeus.

    4. N. trigeminus.

    5. N. glossopharyngeus and n. vagus.




      1. A patient has defects in the act of swallowing as a result of the affection by a pathological process in the structures that form the afferent guide of the arch of the proper reflex. What nerve is affected?

    1. N. trigeminus and n. vagus.

    2. N. vagus.

    3. N. hypoglossum.

    4. N. glossopharyngeus.

    5. N. trigeminus.




      1. A patient has got the enlargement of separate parts of body (lower jaw, nose, ears, tongue, feet, and hands), body proportions preserved. It can be connected with the increase of the secretion of a certain hormone. What hormone is it?

    1. Cortisol.

    2. Somatostatin.

    3. Tetraiodothyronine.

    4. Triiodothyronine.

    5. Somatotropin.




      1. After the destruction of CNS structures an animal lost orientative reflex. What structures were destroyed?

    1. Quadrigeminal plate.

    2. Red niclei.

    3. Lateral vestibular nuclei.

    4. Substantia nigra.

    5. Medial reticular nuclei.




      1. As a result of a trauma a patient has got defective swallowing. The affection of what of the following CNS structures is the most probable reason for this disorder?

    1. Hypothalamus.

    2. Spinal cord at the level Th II-IV.

    3. Spinal cord at the level

C V-VI.

    1. Mesencephalon.

    2. Medulla oblongata.
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