Culture & communication icon

Culture & communication




Скачати 494.71 Kb.
НазваCulture & communication
Сторінка1/8
Дата21.05.2013
Розмір494.71 Kb.
ТипУчебное пособие
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

ИРКУТСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ


Кафедра иностранных языков для специальных целей


CULTURE & COMMUNICATION

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ





Иркутск 2009


Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета

Иркутского государственного лингвистического университета


Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 3-4 курсов специальности «Менеджмент организации» лингвистического университета. Пособие предусмотрено для организации аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов, изучающих темы в рамках курса «Практикум по культуре речевого общения».


Составитель: О.А. Каверина, старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков для специальных целей ИГЛУ.

Рецензент: Н.В. Елашкина, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков для специальных целей ИГЛУ.


Contents:


Part I. Culture

  1. What is culture?...................................................................................................................4

  2. Culture metaphors…………………………………………………………………………8

Part II. Same planet – different words

  1. Globalization……………………………………………………………………………..11

  2. Political Correctness……………………………………………………………………..14

  3. When in Rome …………………………………………………………………………..16

  4. Systems of values of language and culture………………………………………………20

Part III. Crossing cultures

  1. Culture shock…………………………………………………………………………….25

  2. Cultural differences………………………………………………………………………27

Part IV. Communication

  1. Culture and communication……………………………………………………………...32

  2. The process of communication…………………………………………………………..35

  3. Verbal and nonverbal communication…………………………………………………...37

  4. Body language…………………………………………………………………………...39

Part V. International communication

  1. Why English?......................................................................................................................41

  2. Language and gender……………………………………………………………………..48

  3. What are idioms?................................................................................................................50

  4. Slang……………………………………………………………………………………...53

  5. SMS English……………………………………………………………………………...53

References………………………………………………………………………………………..55


^ PART I. CULTURE

Conversation Questions
Culture


  • What are some things that define a culture? For example, music, language, ...

  • What do you think is interesting about your culture?

  • Do you know much about your own culture?

  • When people from other countries think about your culture, what do they usually think of?

  • In your culture is it polite to be straightforward and direct when you talk to someone?

    • To whom is it OK and to whom is it not OK?

  • What has surprised you when you've met people from other countries?

  • Have you looked at Internet pages from a different culture? If so, how were they different from those of your own culture?

  • What do you like about your culture?

  • What don't you like about your culture?

  • How do young people in your culture behave differently from older people?

  • How do young people in your culture behave differently from people in this culture?

  • Are there many people of different cultures in your country? Are you friends with any?

  • Have you ever felt confused by the actions of someone from another culture?

    • If so, tell me about it.
^

1. What is culture?


1. Read and discuss the article:

assumption layer value behavioural pattern behavioural conventions human nature individual personality inheritable invisible artifacts guiding principles hedonism self-direction benevolence conformity
^

Different layers of culture


It is possible to describe culture as a shared set of basic assumptions and values, with resultant behavioural norms, attitudes and beliefs which manifest themselves in systems and institutions as well as behavioural patterns and non-behavioural items. There are various levels to culture, ranging from the easily observable outer layers (such as behavioural conventions) to the increasingly more difficult for understanding inner layers (such as assumptions and values). Culture is shared among members of one group or society, and serves for understanding between the members of that group. Culture is situated between the human nature on the one hand and the individual personality on the other. Culture is not inheritable or genetic, but culture is learned. Although all members of a group or society share their culture, their behaviour depends on their individuality as well as on the culture.

Culture consists of various levels.

  • A level of values or an invisible level

  • A visible level of resultant behaviour or artifacts of some form.

This view of culture is embodied in the popular 'iceberg model' of culture. The multilevel nature of culture is important because of several aspects: It identifies a visible area as well as an area that is not immediately visible, but that can be derived by careful attention to the visible elements of the cultural system as we understand it.

  • Culture is a complex concept.

  • Everyone has a culture.

  • It shapes how we see the world, ourselves, and others.

Make the point that only about one-eighth of an iceberg is visible above the water. The rest is below. Culture is very similar to an iceberg. It has some aspects that are visible and many others that can only be suspected, guessed, or learned as understanding of the culture grows. Like an iceberg, the visible part of culture is only a small part of a much larger whole.

Another model is an "onion" model. In this view, 'culture' is like an onion: a system that can be peeled, layer by layer, in order to reveal the content. At the core of this model of culture are values, or: broad tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs over others. These values form the most hidden layer of culture. Values as such represent the ideas that people have about how things "ought to be". Values are strongly influencing behaviour.

Above the values, this concept describes three levels of culture that are more clearly observable:

  • Rituals, such as ways of greeting and paying respect

  • Heroes, such as admired persons who serve as an example for behaviour

  • Symbols, such as words, colour or other artefacts that carry a special meaning

A different approach to finding cultural value differences has been taken by Shalom Schwartz. Using his "SVI" (Schwartz Value Inventory), Schwartz asked respondents to assess 57 values as to how important they felt these values are as "guiding principles of one's life".

From data collected in 63 countries, with more than 60,000 individuals taking part, Schwartz derived a total of 10 distinct value types at an individual-level analysis:

  • Power

  • Achievement

  • Hedonism

  • Stimulation

  • Self-direction

  • Universalism

  • Benevolence

  • Tradition

  • Conformity

  • Security

These individual level value types each represent a number of values which can be combined in a joint 'idea': Values located in the 'power' value type represent are likely to indicate an individual that values social status and prestige or control and dominance over people and resources. High scores in the 'achievement' value type would indicate a high priority given to personal success and admiration. 'Hedonism' represents a value type where preference is given to pleasure and self- entertainment. 'Stimulation' represents a group of values that express a preference for an exciting life, and 'self-direction' a distinct group of values that value independence, creativity and freedom. The 'Universalism' value type on the other side represents a preference for social justice and tolerance, whereas the 'benevolence' value domain contains values promoting the welfare of others. The 'Conformity' value type contains values that represent obedience and the 'tradition' value type is made up out of values representing a respect for traditions and customs. Lastly, the 'security' value type is a value orientation containing values relating to the safety, harmony and welfare of society and of one self (Schwartz, 2001).

^ 2. Fill in the gaps.

  1. When people meet, they usually shake hands. This behavioral pattern can be referred to_______.

  2. Mona Liza is an________ of the renaissance culture.

  3. Some people consider life dull without adventures and dangers. They belong to ____________value type.

  4. Other people like to be securely at home with their families and hate all surprises. They are considered to be of _______value type.

  5. Princess Diana helped infected people to overcome AIDS. It means that she was of _________ value type.

  6. All the famous political leaders usually belong to _______value type.

^ 3. Match the names of the countries with the value types most characteristic for their nations

Russia

stimulation, self-direction and hedonism

France

security, tradition.

Britain

universalism and benevolence.

Sweden

achievement and power and hedonism




  • ^ There are a number of definitions of culture. Read some of them and choose the best you like. Try to make up your own one, using the ideas from those given below.


Definitions of Culture

"Most social scientists today view culture as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways."

"Culture: learned and shared human patterns or models for living; day- to-day living patterns. these patterns and models pervade all aspects of human social interaction. Culture is mankind's primary adaptive mechanism".

"^ Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another".

"By culture we mean all those historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational, and nonrational, which exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of men."

" Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, and on the other as conditioning elements of further action."

"Culture is the shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing, and responding to the social realities around them".

"A culture is a configuration of learned behaviors and results of behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society" (p. 32).

"Culture...consists in those patterns relative to behavior and the products of human action which may be inherited, that is, passed on from generation to generation independently of the biological genes".

"Culture has been defined in a number of ways, but most simply, as the learned and shared behavior of a community of interacting human beings".

^ 4. Vocabulary build-up

Read the lists of phraseological expressions with the words "soul" and «душа». Compare the number and content of idioms. Do you think the word «душа» is important for Russian culture? Why?

  • Make up a short story about some traits of character of your Russian friend or yourself using the list of English idioms.

  1. душа моя! - ту dear,

  2. жить душа в душу - to live in (perfect) harmony;

  3. быть душой чего-либо - to be the life and soul of smth;

  4. в глубине души - in one's heart of hearts;

  5. в душе (про себя) - at heart;

  6. в душе (по природе) - by nature, innately;

  7. до глубины души - to the bottom of one's heart;

  8. вкладывать душу - to put one's heart into;

  9. всей душой - with all one's heart;

  10. всеми силами души - with all one's heart;

  11. залезть в душу кому-либо - to worm oneself into smb's confi­dence;

  12. работать с душой - to put one's heart into one's work;

  13. брать за душу - to pull (tag) at (on) smb's heartstrings;

  14. (у кого-либо) душа в пятки уходит - smb has his heart in his boots (mouth); His heart sank into his boots;

  15. душа (у кого-либо) нараспашку, разг. - smb is open-hearted;

  16. душа (сердце) у кого-либо, чья-либо (чье-либо) не лежит, не лежа­ла к кому-либо, к чему-либо - smb dislikes smb, smth; smb does not feel like doing smth;

  17. (у кого-либо) душа не на месте - smb is troubled (worried);

  18. души в ком-либо не чаять, разг. - to think the world of smb;

  19. у кого-либо за душой есть, имеется что-либо, нет чего-либо - in one's possession;

  20. делать что-либо как бог кому-либо на душу положит - to do smth as the spirit moves one;

  21. камень на душе - smb's heart is heavy with sorrow, guilt, etc.;

  22. у кого-либо камень чего-либо с души свалился - it is (was) a load (weight) off smb's mind;

  23. у кого-либо кошки скребут на душе - smb feels uneasy, restless or depressed;

  24. кривить (покривить) душой - to act against one's conscience, usually by deliberately telling a lie;

  25. надрывать кому-либо душу - to break (rend) smb's heart;

  26. что-то/кто-то не по душе кому-либо - smb does not like smth, smb

  27. отводить душу - to relieve one's feelings by doing smth to unburden one's heart. (oneself);

  28. поговорить, побеседовать с кем-либо по душам - to have a heart-to-heart chat (talk) with smb;

  29. спасите наши души - save our souls;

  30. сколько душе угодно - to one's heart content;

  31. стоять над душой - pester/harass/plague smb;

  32. в чем только душа держится - smb is so thin and feeble;

  33. открыть свою душу - to unbosom one's soul;

  34. ни души - not a soul.

  • Idioms with the word "soul"

1. twin soul - родственная душа;

2. to keep body and soul together - сводить концы с концами;

3. bless my soul - господи! (восклицание, выражающее удивление);

4. to be the life and soul of - быть душой (чего-либо) ;

5. to have no soul - быть бездушным, бесстрастным;

6. to possess one's soul - владеть собой;

7. to sell one's soul - продать душу;

8. a good/honest/decent soul - хороший/честный/приличный чело­век.

^ 5. Creative Writing “Who I Am?”

  • Look through the value types. Try to evaluate your own value type. Write a poem about your self in the context of culture.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

Схожі:

Culture & communication iconHistorical ways of formation of the ukrainian culture. Concept of "culture" There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following

Culture & communication iconHistorical ways of formation of the ukrainian culture. Concept of "culture" There is a great number of various concepts of culture, however the most recognized one is the following
move to 0-15635633
Culture & communication iconDepartment of nervous diseases, psychiatry and medical psychology
«syndrome of burning out». Ways of his warning. Communication in a medical environment. Observance of ethical requirements. Types...
Culture & communication iconDepartment of nervous diseases, psychiatry and medical psychology
«syndrome of burning out». Ways of his warning. Communication in a medical environment. Observance of ethical requirements. Types...
Culture & communication iconHistorical ways of formation of ukrainian culture concept “Ethnic Culture”

Culture & communication iconII. culture of kiev rus culture development in Pre-Christian period

Culture & communication iconBrief information about pa «aztelecom» Production association «aztelecom»
«aztelecom» is the largest national operator of telecommunications in Azerbaijan, carrying out the activity on all territory of republic,...
Culture & communication iconV. traditional culture of the ukrainian people the basic employment and material culture
Таvriya, coast of the Black and Azov seas, building was conducted mainly under projects of landowners or administration and had the...
Culture & communication iconCommunication[1]

Culture & communication iconAreas (topics) of communication

Додайте кнопку на своєму сайті:
Документи


База даних захищена авторським правом ©zavantag.com 2000-2013
При копіюванні матеріалу обов'язкове зазначення активного посилання відкритою для індексації.
звернутися до адміністрації
Документи