Міністерство освіти і науки України Сумський державний університет The Ministry of Science and Education Sumy State University icon

Міністерство освіти і науки України Сумський державний університет The Ministry of Science and Education Sumy State University




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Міністерство освіти і науки України

Сумський державний університет


The Ministry of Science and Education

Sumy State University


«Людина – природа - технологія».

«Робототехніка»

МАТЕРІАЛИ

ІV СТУДЕНСЬКОЇ КОНФЕРЕНЦІЇ

лінгвістичного науково-методичного центру

кафедри іноземних мов

(Суми,13 травня, 2010)


«MAN – NATURE – TECHNOLOGY»

«ROBOTICS»


Materials


of the fourth Student`s linguistic conference of LSNC

the department of foreign languages

(Sumy, May 13, 2010)


Суми

« Видавництво СумДУ»

2010


Наукове видання


«Людина – природа - технологія».

«Робототехніка»

МАТЕРІАЛИ

^ ІV СТУДЕНСЬКОЇ КОНФЕРЕНЦІЇ

лінгвістичного науково-методичного центру

кафедри іноземних мов


(Суми,13 травня 2010 року)


Відповідальний за випуск Г.І.Литвиненко

Комп`ютерне верстання С.В.Міхно


Формат 60х84/16. Ум. друк. арк. 3,02. Обл.- вид.арк. 3,06.

Тираж 40 пр. Зам. №


Видавець і виготовлювач

Сумський державний університет,

вул. Римського-Корсакова,2, м.Суми, 40007

Свідоцтво суб’єкта видавничої справи ДК№3062 від 17.12.2007.


^ ROBOSOFT INTRODUCES KOMPAÏ

Ya. Bagriy – student, group I – 91

S.V. Mikhno – EL Advisor


On the 8th of March 2010 at the 2010 Intercompany Long Term Care Insurance Conference, the French company Robosoft presented Kompaï; a robot designed to assist dependent people at home. This robot can speak, understand what is said to it, find its way around the house and, with just a word, access all internet services.

One of their top priorities is the domestic robots market for dependent people, whether they are elderly, handicapped or autistic. It is the culmination of several years of research with scientific and medical partners. This first generation is intended for developers who would like to implement their own robotics applications for assistance.

Kompaï is intended to help dependent people in their daily lives. It is a mobile and communicative product. Somewhat like a dog, it has its “basket”, which is the recharging dock that it heads back to when its batteries are low. Equipped with speech, it is able to understand simple orders and give a certain level of response. It knows its position within the house, how to get from one point to another on demand or on its own initiative, and it remains permanently connected to the internet and all its associated services.

Its primary means of communication with people is speech, with an additional touch screen that features simple icons. Future generations of Kompaï will be equipped with visual abilities, and also the possibility to understand and express emotions. And later, the addition of arms will allow it to handle objects, leading to meal preparation and tidying; more practical functions, yet still fundamental in everyday life.

Constructors are looking forward to the time when modern technologies, and in particular robotics, can provide fast and efficient solutions for helping to better assist dependent people while controlling costs. Kompaï’s presence at the conference is an opportunity to view the current progress about these new technologies and raise awareness with all of the key decision makers in the long term care insurance industry.


^ DIGITAL TELEVISION

T.V. Chaika, F-91

N.M. Usenko -EL Adviser


Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of audio and video by discrete (digital) signals in contrast to the analogue signals used by analogue TV. It is gradually replacing analogue TV and has done so in several industrialized nations including the United States and Germany.

DTV has several advantages over analogue TV the most significant being that digital channels take up less bandwidth and the bandwidth needs are continuously variable at a corresponding reduction in image quality depending on the level of compression as well as the resolution of the transmitted image.

Changes in signal reception from factors such as degrading antenna connections or changing weather conditions may gradually reduce the quality of analogue TV. The nature of digital TV results in a perfect picture initially until the receiving equipment starts picking up interference or if the signal is too weak to decode. Some equipment will show a garbled picture with significant damage while other devices may go directly from perfect to no picture at all or lock up. This phenomenon is known as the digital cliff effect.

Broadcasting the transmission of information by radio or television is a major factor affecting the television industry today. Broadcasting is currently achieved through analogue a system that has existed since television began in the 1940’s and 50’s.Because of rapid technological advances in the modern era analogue will soon be obsolete and is presently in the process of being replaced by digital broadcasting the new form of broadcasting that "turns pictures and sound into computer language which changes one’s television into a form of computer, so that it can connect to the Internet take interactive programs and carry many more channels. As modern technology grows the television industry is introduced to major issues such as low consumer confidence and the lack of technical skills. And unless these problems are resolved soon they will lead to the collapse of the television industry.


^ THE DESIGNS OF THE FIRST ROBOTS IN THE WORLD

A. Khalizeva - student, group DM-91

O. Kuhuyenko - student, group DM-91

S.V. Mikhno -EL Advisor


A robot is an automatically guided machine, able to do tasks on its own. We want to make a short remark about Leonardo da Vinci’s robots. Everyone has heard of this man, an artist, a scientist and an incomparable genius. People say he invented almost everything: the airplane, the bicycle, the automobile. But not everyone knows that he was the author of the designs of the first robots in the world. It is considered, that it is the first-ever variant of the robot dated on 1495. This miracle can sit, wave hands, and probably talk. 500 years later an engineer Mark Rosheim made the tiny version of its "knight" under drawings of the great artist and the inventor. The design most likely is based on the anatomic researches written down in the Vitruviansky person. It is not known, whether Leonardo tried to construct the robot.

Unfortunately, however, nothing by "Leonardo the scientist" was either published or properly studied until the end of the 19th century. In fact, Leonardo never finished a single book for the public, nor took the trouble to have anything printed, either because he was too immersed in his studies or because it would have taken an enormous length of time to engrave his drawings on wooden printing blocks (xylography). It should be mentioned that in the winter 1964-65, two manuscripts by Leonardo were discovered on a shelf in the National Library in Madrid, Spain. The discovery was the result of a long search.

In fact it is difficult to understand his robots because there are no documents by Leonardo that refer clearly and directly to the design. All that is left are a few clues, which make reconstructing it an even more mysterious and fascinating project. Several fantastic drawings have been made of a lion, which is often depicted as being gilded, standing on its hind legs with the lilies spilling from its open chest in front of the King of France.

Generally, what we can gather from comparing the accounts is that the robot in question must at least have looked like a lion, that it was able to move forward, perhaps with a motion similar to that of a cat, and that it certainly worked by means of gears. Once it stopped walking, it must have produced or dropped a few flowers, which had probably been held in a space at the front, or in its mouth.

It’s particularly interesting that among the vast number of projects of Leonardo, there is a “mechanical knight” that has entered into the common imagination. In 1957 Carlo Pedretti was the first person to discover it, hidden amongst da Vinci’s countless designs.

However, it was only in 2002 that Rosheim built a complete physical model for a BBC documentary. Since then, many exhibitions and museums of da Vinci’s models have included a soldier on wheels labeled, “Leonardo’s robot”.


^ MATHEMATICAL MODEL

A. Klymenko, IK-93

A. M. Dyadechko, ELA


A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system.

Mathematical models are used not only in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines (such as physics, biology, earth science, meteorology, and engineering) but also in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology and political science); physicists, engineers, computer scientists, and economists use mathematical models most extensively. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed 'mathematical modelling.

Mathematical modelling is the basis of almost all applied mathematics. A ‘real-world’ problem is dissected and phrased in a mathematical setting, allowing it to be simplified and ultimately solved.

Mathematical modeling is the art of translating problems from an application area into tractable mathematical formulations whose theoretical and numerical analysis provides insight, answers, and guidance useful for the originating application.

Mathematical modeling:

  • is indispensable in many applications

  • is successful in many further applications

  • gives precision and direction for problem solution

  • enables a thorough understanding of the system modeled

  • prepares the way for better design or control of a system

Mathematics is simply the language for posing problems precisely and unambiguously.

Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.

These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures.

There are six basic groups of variables: decision variables, input variables, state variables, exogenous variables, random variables, and output variables. Since there can be many variables of each type, the variables are generally represented by vectors.

Mathematical modelling problems are often classified into black box or white box models, according to how much a priori information is available of the system.

A black-box model is a system of which there is no a priori information available. A white-box model (also called glass box or clear box) is a system where all necessary information is available.

Practically all systems are somewhere between the black-box and white-box models, so this concept only works as an intuitive guide for approach. Usually it is preferable to use as much a priori information as possible to make the model more accurate.


^ TECH IS A MIRACLE, ISN`T IT?

A.S. Lukyanets, E-92

N.M. Usenko – EL Adviser


Nowadays we can’t imagine our life without technology. I completely agree that all the equipment like computers, the Internet, mobile phones make our life easier. But there are a lot of disadvantages of technology.

First of all, people have to learn new skills since the world of work has changed. Besides as technology develops robots and machines will take over many jobs and people will loose their jobs by contrast.

We do depend on technology so much. If the computer falls we can’t work at all. People become addicted to computers and virtual communication.

Mobile phone addiction is a big social problem. Psychiatrists believe that mobile phone addiction is becoming one of the biggest non-drug addictions in the 21st century.

Technology influences our health badly. New forms of entertainment create new diseases like laziness and a loss of personality.

Finally, some advancement in technology has caused environmental problems such as acid rain and global warming.

Medical research shows that human deaths due to heat exhaustion would probably increase due to increasing heat. Heat also endangers the health of plants and animals living around us.

Another effect of global warming is to produce gases. One dangerous gas produced during global warming is ground-level ozone. Exposure to ozone can cause nausea and chest pain in healthy people and ozone can be deadly for people with asthma.

Flooding poses a serious danger for coastal areas. As the sea levels of Earth’s oceans rise, the oceans flood coastal lands and fresh water is lost as salty ocean water enters.

To sum it up, I’d like to say that technology is really good and useful, but I’m pretty sure that we shouldn’t forget about disadvantages of technology. I hope we’ll find ways how to solve these problems.


^ INFINITE BOOK

I.V. Oliinyk, F-91

N.M. Usenko, ELA


What is the Infinite Book and where does it come from? Infinity is a very popular among physicists nowadays. Moreover, researchers on the borderlands of philosophy, mathematics and artificial intelligence agonise over whether it is possible to create a computer that can perform an infinite number of tasks in a finite period of time — an apparently impossible paradox.

Designed by Ewald Neuhofer, the Infinite Book really does look more like a brochure or a newspaper than a book, but it's a neat concept for those of us who enjoy physically turning pages. The Infinite Book represents a combination of print and electronic media. The Infinite Book is meat to mix the digital and analogue newspapers, making it possible to surf through a digital book or media by simply flipping the pages. Thus you can read a digital book using analog navigation. The gadget features touch-screen and mixes the clip and "infinite folding", making it possible to users to easily fold the device and take it virtually anywhere.

The “Infinite Book” by Ewald Neuhofer is a new kind of electronic tools that helps to transform paper into digital media, still satisfying your reading needs to paper copies. Therefore the book allows you to look through digital newspaper by flipping pages, just in the same way as normal books. What’s more, when you flip the previous page backwards, the content is renewed while the pre-content will be restored if you flip the page forwards. The Infinite Book is transforming paper into digital media combining qualities of paper and current technologies. We are consuming a mix of books, daily news, online-newspapers, weblogs, forums refreshed every minute. Also the interface can be controlled per touch-screen, so if you read a link click on it and read more about that online. We're certainly excited about how we'll view digital media in the future. The Infinite Book is a funky reader with a hinge for endless folding of pages to vaguely mimic newspaper reading. This new invention makes the reading more comfortable and modern. The Infinite Book is the book of the future.

^ THE HIGHEST BUILDING IN THE WORLD – BURJ KHALIFA

A.S. Shavanov – student, group M-91

I.A. Bashlak – EL Adviser


Burj Khalifa is a very tall (160 stories high) skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Construction started in 2004. The building was opened on 4 January 2010 and is the tallest structure made by humans in the world, at 828 m. It was built by Samsung Engineering & Construction, Besix, and Arabtec.US $1.5 billion was spent on the tower.

The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture. The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light. The design architect Adrian Smith has said the triple-lobed footprint of the building was inspired by the flower Hymenocallis. The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. As the tower rises from the flat desert base, setbacks occur at each element in an upward spiralling pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as it reaches toward the sky. There are 27 terraces in Burj Khalifa. At the top, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a finishing spire. At its tallest point, the tower sways a total of 1.5 m.

To support the unprecedented height of the building, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the ‘Y' shape. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting.

The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa consists of 142,000 m2 of reflective glazing, and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. Additionally, the exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6°C cooler than at its base.

Burj Khalifa is expected to hold up to 35,000 people at any one time. A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed. The building has 2,909 stairs from the ground floor to the 160th floor.

The Burj Khalifa's water system supplies an average of 946,000 l of water per day. At the peak cooling times, the tower requires cooling equivalent to that provided by 10,000 t of melting ice in one day. The building has a condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building and results in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The top of the spire is reserved for specialist window cleaners, who brave the heights and high winds dangling by ropes to clean and inspect the top of the pinnacle. The primary structural system of Burj Khalifa is reinforced concrete. Over 45,000 m3 of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles, with each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 metre long buried more than 50 m deep. Burj Khalifa's construction used 330,000 m3 of concrete and 55,000 tonnes of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours. A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa. A cathodic protection system under the mat is used to minimize any detrimental effects from corrosive chemicals in local ground water.

Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures.

The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C. To combat this problem, the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months ice was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air is cooler and the humidity is higher.

Burj Khalifa is the new stair in the ladder of engeneering development. Now we can see how the brilliant ideas make the human fantasies real. This building is the beginning of the future engeneering.


^ ROBOTS’ SENSING

N. S. Sirobaba — student, group IK-91

D. O. Marchenko — EI. Advisor


Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects.

In 2009, scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand, called SmartHand, which functions like a real one, allowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play the piano and perform other fine movements.

Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects, pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks.

Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs. Due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. Typically, robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors, and can occasionally walk up stairs. None can walk over rocky, uneven terrain.

Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are either human controlled, or operate in a static environment, there is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment. These robots require some combinations of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment.

If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments, the way they are instructed to perform their jobs, and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics, and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate, it is quite unnatural for the robot.

Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human (speech recognition), in real time, is a difficult task for a computer, mostly because of the great variability of speech. Currently, the best systems can recognize continuous, natural speech, up to 160 words per minute, with an accuracy of 95%. A great variety of systems have been developed to recognize human hand gestures.

Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber, allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions. The coating and servos are built on a metal skull. A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial expression and body language. Likewise, robots like Kismet and the more recent addition, Nexi can produce a range of facial expressions, allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans.

Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. Researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality: i.e. they will use sounds, facial expressions, and body language to try to convey an internal state, which may be joy, sadness, or fear.

Robotics is a common undergraduate area of study. Some universities offer degrees in robotics. Robots recently became a popular tool in raising interests in computing for middle and high school students. First year computer science courses at several universities were developed which involves the programming of a robot instead of the traditional software engineering based coursework. Some Master courses in the field of Robotics are also offered.


^ ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TECHNOLOGY

N.V.Shuvayeva, F-91

N.M.Usenko –ELAdviser


Many people ask themselves: Does technology go the right way or will it save or ruin our civilization?

Technological progress speeds up the development of humanity because certain inventions and discoveries cause other ones. It broadens the limits of human understanding and increases human possibilities as it makes impossible things possible.

It can be argued that modern technology makes life safer for most of people. Progressive and vastly available medical science saves many innocent lives. Also the advanced technology improves industry by making it safer for the environment. It is vital today.

When you have advanced technologies life is more convenient as robots and machines take over your daily life chores. Technology saves a great deal of time and money. It meets people’s needs and raises the living standard because it creates goods and services for people. Thanks to technologies we have more quality and cheap products. They substitute expensive handwork by cheaper mechanical production and raise labour productivity.

Though there are so many advantages from highly developed technology, but there is a great deal of disadvantages from them too. As technology develops people will loose their workplaces because robots and machines will take over their work. One of the biggest concerns about modern technology today is pollution of the environment. It may greatly contribute to global warming and makes the environment bad for animals, plants and people. Besides technological progress makes people lazier by doing their work for them. It makes many individuals dependent on technology.

Having a lot of free time watching TV children’s opinion and behaviour have changed. There is a link between children’s watching TV and adult violence.

Technology definitely affects our perception of the natural world. Nowadays we do create technology but technology creates us as well.

ROBOTICS

M. S. Tkachenko-student, group IK-91

D.O. Marchenko-EL Advisor


Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition. Robotics is related to electronics, mechanics, and software.

A robot is an automatically guided machine, able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own.

Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors, but there are many others, powered by electricity, chemicals, and compressed air.

The vast majority of robots use electric motors, including brushed and brushless DC on many robots and CNC machines, as their main can specify how much to turn, for more precise control, rather than a "spin and see where it went" approach.

A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and available force for their size. These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some robots.

Elastic nanotubes are a promising, early-stage experimental technology. The absence of defects in nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans.

Different methods of locomotion are:

Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human.

Flying: A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two humans to manage it. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing.

Snaking: Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces

Skating: A small number of skating robots have been developed, one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device. It has four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll. Another robot, Plen, can use a miniature skateboard or roller-skates, and skate across a desktop.

Climbing: Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. An example of this is Capuchin, built by Stanford University, California. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes, which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. Examples of this approach include Wallbot and Stickybot. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole.

Swimming: It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. Furthermore, they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine, and produce less noise and water disturbance.

Today's market is not fully mature. One or more software compatibility layers have yet to emerge to allow the development of a rich robotics ecosystem (similar to today's personal computers one). Microsoft is currently working in this direction with its new software Microsoft Robotics Studio. Other candidates to reach this goal might be Free Software solutions such as Player/Stage or cross-platform technologies such as URBI.


^ ROBOTS AND ROBOTICS

V.V. Vlasenko – student, group EM – 91

D.O. Marchenko – EL Adviser


Robotics is the art of robots, their design, manufacture, application, and practical use. Robots will soon be everywhere, in our home and at work. They will change the way we live. This will raise many philosophical, social, and political questions that will have to be answered.

Robots might follow rules such as Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics, that will prevent them from doing so. When the Singularity happens, robots will be indistinguishable from human beings and some people may become Cyborgs: half man and half machine.

A robot is an automatically guided machine, able to do tasks on its own. It is an electric machine which has some ability to interact with physical objects and to be given electronic programming to do a specific task or to do a whole range of tasks or actions. It may also have some ability to perceive and absorb data on physical objects, or on its local physical environment, or to process data, or to respond to various stimuli.

This is in contrast to a simple mechanical device such as a gear or a hydraulic press or any other item which has no processing ability and which does tasks through purely mechanical processes and motion.

There are such types of robots:

1)Humanoid robots

Lara is the first humanoid robot with artificial muscles.

2) Modular robots

Modular robots can be built from standard building blocks that can be combined in different ways.

3) Police Robots

Being a police officer or a fireman is a dangerous job. They will be replaced by robots. Robot police officers will be sent to the scene of the crime to stop it. The police robots will know automatically who is committing the crime.

4) Educational toy robots

5) Sports Robots

Modern developments:

I)The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka (1799-1881), known as "Japan's Edison" or "Karakuri Giemon", created many mechanical toys. In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a radio-controlled torpedo.

II)In 1926, Westinghouse Electric Corporation created Televox, the first robot put to useful work. They followed Televox with a number of other simple robots. In the 1930s, they created a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes, including the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs.In 1928, Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku, was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura.

III)The first electronic autonomous robots were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. They were named Elmer and Elsie. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects.

IV)The first modern robot, digitally operated and programmable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was called the Unimate. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960, and it was installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton, New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.

In 2020 robots will be commonplace: in home, factories, agriculture, building & construction, undersea, space, mining, hospitals and streets for repair, construction, maintenance, security, entertainment, companionship, care.


^ ORGANIC SOLAR POWER

H. Anokolova, M-81

T. M. Burenko – ELA


One of the subject areas of Cambridge University’s Cavendish Laboratory is using polymers to generate electricity from light, and their work has resulted in a promising technology: an organic solar cell that does not use expensive silicon.

Conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are made from a thing slice (around 200 microns) of silicon that is doped with chemicals to form a two-layer structure called p-n junction. When photons of light are absorbed by the silicon, electrons flow, creating a small electric current. An organic solar cell is based on a similar principle, but it uses an ultra-thin (100 nanometre – or one ten-thousandth of a millimeter) film that contains two semiconducting polymers instead. The prototype organic solar cell produces enough power to run an electronic calculator. The idea of purple-coloured polymer as a conductor seems strange, because plastics are normally considered excellent insulators. But mounted on glass, this solar cell uses the same class of materials as the polymer light-emitting diodes: long-chain plastics with double-bongs that permit electron flow.

The world record for silicon solar-cell efficiency – the conversion of light energy to electricity – is more than 40 percent, but standard cells offer between 10 and 15 percent. While organic cells are nowhere near that, they are much cheaper to make. Led by the University of Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory and The Technology Partnership, there is a huge goal: to produce more than one gigawatt of organic PV by 2017 to save more than 1 million tones of carbon dioxide per year. The scientists want to “print” solar cells with an ultra-ting mix of two semiconducting polymers on a flexible plastic backing up to one metre wide. Unlike high-energy silicon production, this will be a cheap low- temperature process that gives off less carbon dioxide.

There is a doubt that organic solar power is likely to replace silicon. Although the more efficient silicon is more expensive, scientists don’t think any single technology will be able to serve all purposes. That’s why they want to make it cheap enough to really expand the market.

^ WIND POWER

S.V. Bondar – student, group SU-81

S.G. Zolotova - EL Adviser


Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, wind mills for mechanical power, wind pumps for pumping water or drainage, or sails to propel ships.

At the end of 2009, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 159.2 gigawatts (GW). Energy production was 340 TWh, which is about 2% of worldwide electricity usage and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the past three years. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration (with large governmental subsidies), such as 19% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 13% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. As of May 2009, eighty countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.

Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric power transmission network; smaller facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations. Utility companies increasingly buy back surplus electricity produced by small domestic turbines. Wind energy as a power source is attractive[says who?] as an alternative to fossil fuels, because it is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. However, the construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed because of their visual impact and other effects on the environment.

Wind power is non-dispatchable, meaning that for economic operation, all of the available output must be taken when it is available. Other resources, such as hydropower, and standard load management techniques must be used to match supply with demand. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand, but costs rise as does the proportion.


^ APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR TECHNOLOGY

I.V. Golius – student, group SU-81

S.G. Zolotova - EL Adviser


Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends. However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their energy from the sun;

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies.

Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese, who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth;

The common features of passive solar architecture are orientation relative to the Sun, compact proportion (a low surface area to volume ratio), selective shading (overhangs) and thermal mass. When these features are tailored to the local climate and environment they can produce well-lit spaces that stay in a comfortable temperature range. Socrates' Megaron House is a classic example of passive solar design. The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling tying together solar lighting, heating and ventilation systems in an integrated solar design package. Active solar equipment such as pumps, fans and switchable windows can complement passive design and improve system performance;

Urban heat islands (UHI) are metropolitan areas with higher temperatures than that of the surrounding environment. The higher temperatures are a result of increased absorption of the Solar light by urban materials such as asphalt and concrete, which have higher heat capacities than those in the natural environment. A straightforward method of counteracting the UHI effect is to paint buildings and roads white and plant trees. Using these methods, a hypothetical "cool communities" program in Los Angeles has projected that urban temperatures could be reduced by approximately 3 °C at an estimated cost of US$1 billion, giving estimated total annual benefits of US$530 million from reduced air-conditioning costs and healthcare savings.

Agriculture and horticulture seek to optimize the capture of solar energy in order to optimize the productivity of plants. Techniques such as timed planting cycles, tailored row orientation, staggered heights between rows and the mixing of plant varieties can improve crop yields. While sunlight is generally considered a plentiful resource, the exceptions highlight the importance of solar energy to agriculture. During the short growing seasons of the Little Ice Age, French and English farmers employed fruit walls to maximize the collection of solar energy. These walls acted as thermal masses and accelerated ripening by keeping plants warm. Early fruit walls were built perpendicular to the ground and facing south, but over time, sloping walls were developed to make better use of sunlight. In 1699, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier even suggested using a tracking mechanism which could pivot to follow the Sun;

Applications of solar energy in agriculture aside from growing crops include pumping water, drying crops, brooding chicks and drying chicken manure. More recently the technology has been embraced by vintners, who use the energy generated by solar panels to power grape presses;

Greenhouses convert solar light to heat, enabling year-round production and the growth (in enclosed environments) of specialty crops and other plants not naturally suited to the local climate. Primitive greenhouses were first used during Roman times to produce cucumbers year-round for the Roman emperor Tiberius. The first modern greenhouses were built in Europe in the 16th century to keep exotic plants brought back from explorations abroad. Greenhouses remain an important part of horticulture today, and plastic transparent materials have also been used to similar effect in polytunnels and row covers.


^ TECHNOLOGY OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND OUR ORGANISM.

N. I. Gordiyko – student, group EM - 81

O.I. Nefedchenko – EL Adviser


From June 1 till October 31, 2000 Germany hosts the World Exposition known as EXPO 2000. Over 40 million visitors from all over the world are expected in Hannover during the 153 days and nights of the exhibition. EXPO 2000 functions under the motto "Mensch - Natur - Technik". Translated into English, it sounds like "Man - Nature -Technology". Indeed, this exposition is an excellent opportunity to show the past achievements of the mankind, the present human activities in the technical, informational and ecological spheres, and the future conceptions and possible solutions of the main problems worrying us today. A large quantity of exhibits was devoted to such field of science as Genetic Engineering not so developed at that time as today.

Nowadays Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. Genetic engineering is different from traditional breeding, where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly. Genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly. Genetic engineering techniques have found some successes in numerous applications. Some examples are in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research. Interesting that term "genetic engineering" was coined in Jack Williamson's science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in 1951, one year before DNA's role in heredity was confirmed in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase and two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that DNA has a double-helix structure. One of the best-known applications of genetic engineering is the creation of GMOs for food use (genetically modified foods); such foods resist insect pests, bacterial or fungal infection, resist herbicides to improve yield, have longer freshness than otherwise, or have superior nutritional value. The modification of the DNA structures of agricultural crops can increase the growth rates and even resistance to different diseases caused by pathogens and parasites. This is extremely beneficial as it can greatly increase the production of food sources with the usage of fewer resources that would be required to host the world's growing populations. These modified crops would also reduce the usage of chemicals, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and therefore decrease the severity and frequency of the damages produced by this chemical pollution. Domesticated animals can undergo the same mechanism. Genetic engineering can also increase the genetic diversity of species populations, especially those that are classified as being endangered. Increase in genetic diversity would enable these organisms to evolve more efficiently that would allow better adaptation to the ecosystems they inhabit. It would also reduce the vulnerability of certain diseases produced by pathogens, as well as decrease the risk of inbreeding that would produce infertile youths. Genetic engineering can be performed to increase to the efficiency of the ecosystem services provided by the other organisms. For example, the modification of a tree's genes could perhaps increase the root systems of these organisms reduce the damage produced by flood phenomena through flood mitigation.

Speaking about the benefits of GMOs, I do not mean the benefits of such products, but at the present time ecological crisis can happen on the planet at any moment, and humanity will be able to survive thanks to GM foods. But now, when there is no crisis, we need to control the release of GMOs and the intervention of genetic engineering in our everyday lives. Global Laboratory Alliance establishes uniform standards of excellence in GMO testing worldwide. With expert labs strategically located around the world, the Alliance is a powerful force serving the food industry with accurate, reliable GMO testing. The Global Laboratory Alliance (GLA) is a network of laboratories throughout the world that makes use of Genetic ID’s validated and standardized GMO testing technology.

In conclusion I would like to say that everything in the world is contradictory, as they say "two sides of one coin." When Sakharov conducted research in the field of X-rays he does not anticipate that this will lead to the hydrogen bomb and later to the victims, he worked for the benefit and progress of mankind.

^ GLOBAL WARMING

Dobrorodnov О., SU-81

Zolotova S.- EL Adviser


Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants.

The greenhouse effect is when the temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere.

Global warming could melt enough polar ice to raise the sea level.

Although the greenhouse effect makes the earth able to have people living on it, if there gets to be too many gases, the earth can get unusually warmer,

Greenhouse gasses are gasses in the earth’s atmosphere that collect heat and light from the sun. With too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth’s atmosphere will trap too much heat and the earth will get too hot. As a result people, animals, and plants would die because the heat would be too strong. Global warming is causing many more fires that wipe out whole forests.

Global warming makes the sea rise, and when the sea rises, the water covers many low land islands. This is a big problem for many of the plants, animals, and people on islands. When the plants and animals die, people lose two sources of food: plant food and animal food. This would be called a break in the food chain, or a chain reaction, one thing happening that leads to another and so on.

Ozone is produced when other pollution chemicals combine. It is the basic element of smog. It causes many different kinds of health issues dealing with the lungs. It can damage plants and limit sight. It can also cause a lot of property damage.

Cars, buses, and trucks are also responsible for over 50% of dangerous chemicals let into the air.


^ TAXATION AND ITS TYPES

S.G. Karpenko – student, group F-82

O.R. Gladchenko - EL adviser


It goes without saying that taxation is a necessity. Policemen, soldiers, ministers are payed from this money; schools, hospitals, kindergartens are built with the help of this money as well. Another purpose of taxation is to dissuade people from certain harmful habits like smoking, drinking alcohol and so on, because excise taxes are very high in all countries of the world.

All people are aware of the necessity to pay taxes but nevertheless they try to avoid it. Some people prefer to do it illegally and it is called tax evasion. For example there are people, who are self-employed, and it’s very difficult for the government to control their income; some criminal organizations tend to pass money through a series of companies in very complicated transactions in order to hide its origin from tax inspectors and the police (this is known as money laundering). But there are also legal ways that are called tax avoidance, for instance a company can give its employees some privileges like a company car, subsidized lunches, free health insurance.

Companies have a variety of ways of avoiding tax on profit. They also spend money on buying new equipment (it’s usually called capital expenditure). Multinational companies often set up their head offices in countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas, where taxes are low, such countries are known as tax havens.

There are next types of taxes:

  1. Progressive taxes mean that people whose income is higher pay more. Among such taxes there is an income tax, a property tax, an inheritance tax, etc.

  2. Regressive taxes are the same for all people. Regressive taxes include sales taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, etc.

  3. Proportional taxes mean that people pay a certain percentage regardless of the size of their incomes (they pay the same percents but different sums of money).

Today it’s almost impossible to imagine how the government would provide all public services that it gives us today without taxation.

^ 3D TECHNOLOGY: NEW FORMAT CAN BENEFIT NATURE CONSERVATION

B.V.Khodenko – student, group SU – 81

Zolotova S.G. – EL adviser


Sometimes the technologies developed for our own entertainment or amusement can also have additional benefits as well. As an example, computers have taken game simulator technology to a level that benefits science (NASA simulators) and the military (pilotless drones). And in the 1950's, a crazy movie experience came and went, with red and blue glasses that made monsters or native spears fly out of the movie screen at us.

Yes, the early days of 3D or "stereoscopy" was an interesting fad - and now, thanks to the success of movies live-action films like Avatar and many animation films like Up, it is back and could very well be here to stay.

I just returned from the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) annual convention and trade show, held in Las Vegas. This is a BIG show, covering every aspect of broadcast technology, from cameras and support gear to broadcast production and distribution equipment. And this year, 3D was the hot item, with televisions, cameras, and all the toys for launching 3D-dedicated channels. Networks were lining up with Discovery, ESPN and DirectTV all dedicating future channels to this new viewing format.

But the underlining question was: Where is the content? And, secondly, what does this have to do with a nature & conservation blog?

Well, for one: nature documentaries, properly shot using the latest in 3D technology, can be absolutely stunning. The ability to enrich the viewer's experience can add immeasurably to the power of the message. The ability of 3D to draw you in, with that sense of "you are there," can help communicate to the viewer - whether or not they are a nature lover - the importance of ecosystems, be they on land or under the sea.

Now, this has been done successfully in movie theaters and large format venues like IMAX. But the new technologies are now focusing on the small screen: television. And this avenue has the means to make 3D ubiquitous and the next wave of technology that will simply become part of our everyday lives. That can empower conservation groups and filmmakers with the ability to provide content which can be more impactful, more meaningful to the average audience.

Scientific research can also benefit from 3D technology. 3D can provide details and subtleties to images from faraway Mars to the bottom of the sea that no 2D or conventional image could provide - particularly in situations where a manned presence would be prohibitive.

At the NAB show, I attended one presentation on advanced scientific imagery and learned that many respected scientific organizations are now fully committed to 3D technology - regular 2D video is becoming yesterday's news.

But as with many steps forward, there will be a transition, not a simple "out with the old, in with the new." Many don't remember, it took more than a few years for color television - something we take for granted - to be adopted both by the industry and by the viewers themselves.

There are plenty of challenges that must be dealt with - from optimal viewing (3D TVs without glasses are being developed) to replacing or modifying existing viewing platforms (TVs) to the quantity and quality of programming.

So, no one is suggesting you throw out that new high definition flat screen you just bought. But for those of us who work so hard at getting people to appreciate the magnificence of our natural resources - from the beauty of an Amazon forest, to the delicate explosion in color and variety of a coral reef, to the warm interplay between a family of threatened wolf cubs - there is another communication tool that is on the horizon for our disposal.


^ FOOD IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

I.Kirichenko,M-81

T.M.Burenko, ELA


Welcome to the world of "nanofoods", where food can be manipulated at an atomic or molecular level to taste as delicious as you want, do you as much good as you want, and stay fresh for a long time.

This is a world where smart pesticides are harmless until they reach the stomachs of destructive insects; where smart packaging finds and destroys the microorganisms that make food spoil; where food producers promise to improve or save the nutritional properties of what we eat.

The science behind the theory became a reality in the 1980s, with the invention of microscopes that allowed scientists to see how atoms and molecules behave in different conditions .By manipulating those conditions - for example, by using chemicals, heat, water, electromagnetism and so on - they were able to encourage atoms and molecules to form useful shapes.

Nanotechnology could be useful for saving the nutrients in food. Iron and essential fats such as omega-3 do not remain stable in liquids - they oxidize, and that changes the colour, odour and taste of the product. You could use nanotechnology to stabilize the nutritional properties of products, and that would be of benefit to people with deficiencies such as anaemia.

One day nanofoods will be everywhere. It will be a time when tiny sensors called "motes" (or "smart dust") will send information using radio waves to the farmer with details of what is going on in his fields, inside his crops and in the bodies of his animals, so that he will be able to achieve the highest possible food production. Syngenta, Monsanto and BASF are among those companies that have either developed or are researching pesticides at the nano level.

To "smell" the gases given off by food as it spoils and will cause the colour of the label to change. The label will also tell you when something is ripe. It's called «intelligent packaging».

Nanotechnology could be useful for saving the nutrients in food.

At an atomic level, food can be manipulated to taste better or stay fresh longer.

^ ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION

I.Kosynets-student, group FE-81

V.E.Pronyaeva-EL adviser


Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live. People always polluted their surroundings. But until now it was not such a serious problem. People lived in ru­ral areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale. With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more dangerous. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on Earth.

In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly what this pollution is. The pol­lutants that harm our respiratory system are known as par­ticulates. Particulates are the small solid particles that you can see through rays of sunlight. They are products of incom­plete combustion in engines, for example: internal-combus­tion engines, road dust and wood smoke. Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these fuels burn, they produce smoke and other by-products into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke, given off by power plants and automobiles, but it is not enough. These chemical compounds undergo a series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight; as a result we have smog, mixture of fog and smoke. While such pollutants as particulates we can see, other harmful ones are not visible. Among the most dangerous to our health are car­bon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and Ozone or active oxygen. If you have ever been in an enclosed parking garage or a tunnel and felt dizzy or light-headed, then you have felt the effect of carbon monoxide.

Fortunately, we have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered animals. We can recy­cle our wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activi­ties, because it is apparent that our careless use of fossil fuels and chemicals is destroying this planet. And it is now more than ever apparent that at the same time we are destroying our bodies and our future.

^ SOLAR ENERGY

P.V. Leontyev – student, SU-81

S.G. Zolotova - EL adviser


Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available renewable energy on earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used;

Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaic. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels;

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy.

Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy.

Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air;

The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet;

Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C. By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived;

The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.

The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined;

From the table of resources it would appear that solar, wind or biomass would be sufficient to supply all of our energy needs, however, the increased use of biomass has had a negative effect on global warming and dramatically increased food prices by diverting forests and crops into biofuel production. As intermittent resources, solar and wind raise other issues;

Solar energy can be harnessed in different levels around the world. Depending on a geographical location the closer to the equator the more "potential" solar energy is available.


main kinds of Mechanics

K.V. Levchenko – student, group DM-81

T. M. Plokhuta – EL Adviser


The major division of the mechanics separates classical mechanics from quantum mechanics.

Two central figures in the early mechanics are Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. Galileo's final statement of his mechanics, particularly of falling bodies, is his Two New Sciences (1638).

Historically, classical mechanics came first, while quantum mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. Classical mechanics originated with Isaac Newton's Laws of motion in Principia Mathematica, while quantum mechanics didn't appear until 1900.

Classical mechanics has especially often been viewed as a model for other so-called exact sciences. Essential in this respect is the relentless use of mathematics in theories, as well as the decisive role played by experiment in generating and testing them.

Quantum mechanics is of a wider scope, as it encompasses classical mechanics as a sub-discipline which applies under certain restricted circumstances. Within such a context the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by quantum theories reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers.

That is why quantum mechanics has superseded classical mechanics at the foundational level and is indispensable for the explanation and prediction of processes at molecular and (sub)atomic level.

However, for macroscopic processes classical mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in quantum mechanics and hence remains useful and well used.

There is no contradiction or conflict between the classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, each simply pertains to specific situations. The classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are commonly held to constitute the most certain knowledge that exists about physical nature which is necessary for fundamental formation the young generation.


^ GENETICALLY-MODIFIED FOODS (GMO)

S.O. Lisogub - student, group F-81

O.R. Gladchenko – EL Adviser


Genetically-modified foods (GM foods) have made a big splash in the news lately. What are genetically-modified foods?

A genetically modified organism (GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques, generally known as recombinant DNA technology, use DNA molecules from different sources, which are combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. Transgenic organisms, a subset of GMOs, are organisms which have inserted DNA that originated in a different species. Some GMOs contain no DNA from other species and are therefore not transgenic but cisgenic. Most often the transferred gene allows the organism to express a trait that will add to its desirability to producers or consumers of the end product.

History of GM crops started for Ukraine in 1997 when famous corporation Monsanto brought in for test purposes 37 tons of Bt potato "New Leaf" resisted to insect. Next year another consignment of potato seeds (367 tons) got in country. Number of field trials rose up to 9, majority of that absolutely had no any biosafety control. Meantime Cabinet of Ministers adopted temporary resolution about import and registration GM plants in Ukraine.

Officially in Ukraine GM crops are not grown commercially at this moment. But we can find unlabeled GM products on shelves of supermarkets and there are evidences of unofficial cultivation some GM crop (like potato and soy) on private plots and small farms.

Genetically modified foods affect the human physiology. There are more then 50 Harmful Effects of GM Foods:
  1   2   3

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