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Text 1


VOCABULARY


transistor транзистор транзистор

item деталь; часть деталь; частина

definition определение визначення

motion движение; ход рух

charge заряд; заряжать заряд; заряджати

semiconductor полупроводник напівпровідник

division деление; разделение ділення; розподіл

to emerge появляться з’являтися

device приспособление; пристрій

bulb лампочка лампочка

wire провод дріт

research исследование дослідження

application применение застосування

to deal with иметь дело с мати справу з

quantity количество; величина кількість; величина

circuit цепь ланцюг

conversion преобразование; перетворення;

трансформация трансформація

property свойство властивість

regard рассматривать розглядати

distribution распределение розподіл

processing обработка обробка

distinction различие відмінність

to serve служить слугувати

to separate отделять відокремлювати

to comprise содержать; містити; охоплювати

включать в себя

to encompass охватывать охоплювати


^ A Brief History of Electronics

Electronics - to most of us this brings to mind a variety of things from “chips” and computers to television and transistors. Yet, while we agree on specific items that constitute electronics, its definition is elusive.

Electronics, in the strictest sense, is the science and technology of the motion of charges in a gas, vacuum, or semiconductor. Note that charge motion confined to a metal is not considered electronics. This was an historical division used early in the twentieth century to separate the already flourishing field of electrical engineering from the new and emerging field of electronic engineering. At that time electrical engineering dealt with devices that depended solely on the motion of electrons in metals, such as motors, generators, light bulbs, and wire communication systems (telephone and telegraph). However, the historical division between electrical and electronic engineering no longer serves its original function.

Today practicing electrical engineers perform diverse functions (design, development, production, research, and even teaching) with varied applications. They deal with systems by which we can communicate with one another worldwide, by which vast quantities of data are manipulated, and by which highly complex manufacturing processes are automated, and with the elements used to realize them. The province of electrical engineering also includes the devices, circuits, and systems used for the generation, distribution, and conversion of electric energy. The group mentioned in the first of the two previous sentences possesses the common property of processing information; the group mentioned in the second one can be regarded as processing energy. This distinction between information processing and energy processing serves to separate electronics from the rest of electrical engineering. Consequently, we view the nature of the discipline of electronics comprising the four C’s−communication, computation, control, and components.

The history of electronics is divided into two major periods of time, referred to as the vacuum-tube era and the transistor era. The former encompasses developments in the first half of the twentieth century, and the latter era begins with the invention of the transistor in 1948.

Ex. 1. Translate words and word combinations in bold type.


Ex. 2. Match the following words with their meanings:

a variety the last

elusive to include

confined to field

flourishing difficult to understand or do

solely many different…

diverse all over the world

worldwide not so simple

complex different

province the first

distinction actively developing

to comprise limited to

the former only

the latter difference

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What is electronics in the strictest sense?

2. Can you explain what historical principle was used to separate the field of electrical engineering from the new field of electronic engineering?

3. What distinction serves nowadays to separate electronics from the rest of electrical engineering?

4. What four C’s does the field of electronics comprise?

5. How many periods is the history of electronics divided into?

6. When was the transistor invented?


Text 2


VOCABULARY


matter

particle

to contain

to evolve

convenience

wonder

to involve

calculation

accurate

to extend

preservation

oven

blender

device

trash

entertainment

razor

to trim

mower

drill

welder


to transmit

to manage

to unfold


current

to predict

вещество, материя

частица

содержать

возникать

удобство

чудо

вмещать, охватывать

вычисление

точный, правильный

простираться

сохранение

печь

миксер

устройство, механизм

мусор

развлечение

бритва

подрезать

косилка

сверло

сварщик; сварочный аппарат

передавать

справляться

развёртывать, открывать


текущий, нынешний

предсказывать


речовина, матерія

частка

містити

з’являтися

зручність

чудо

містити, охоплювати

обчислення

точний, правильний

простягатися

зберігання

піч

змішувач, міксер

пристрій, механізм

сміття

розвага

бритва

підрізати

косилка

свердло

зварювальник; зварювальний апарат

передавати

впоратися

розгортати, відкривати

поточний

провіщати


All material is composed of matter, and all matter has present in its structure millions of extremely small, invisible particles called electrons. It is from these tiny quantities, which contain an electrical charge that the word electronics has evolved. The use and control of electrons has made possible the many conveniences and wonders of our modern world.The science of electronics is an exciting and rewarding field to be involved in.

Electronics has affected our lives in many ways. The use of electronic devices has made our work easier and safer. They have made our calculations faster and more accurate. They have extended our lives. Electronics is truly a wonder of the age, which holds even greater promises for tomorrow.

In our home, we are aware of the use of the electrical and electronic devices used in the preparation and preservation of our foods. Such devices include refrigerators, freezers, microwave ovens, mixers, pumps, and blenders.

Our homes are heated, cooled, and lighted using electrical and electronic devices. Trash compactors, dishwashers, polishers, and vacuum cleaners are available for our convenience. Burglar alarms and smoke- and fire-detection devices are used for our protection.

Electrical and electronic devices are available in variety, for our entertainment. These include radios, television sets, stereo sets, tape recorders, and electronic organs, as well as other musical devices.

For our personal needs, electrical and electronic devices include digital watches, razors, hair dryers, and toothbrushes. For our hobbies, drills, saws, sanders, sprayers, CB radios, trimmers, and mowers are available.

To maintain and prolong our life a variety of electronic devices are used in medicine. These include heart pacemakers and monitors, and a wide variety of instruments for diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of our illnesses.

In business and industry, such devices as lathes, motors, generators, controllers, drills, welders, and presses help to supply our needs. Computers, data-processing devices, copiers, printers, teletypes, and a wide variety of similar devices are used for business purposes.

Our communications systems involve many electronic devices. These include radios, telephones, and a wide variety of information transmitting and receiving devices.

We are involved with electrical and electronic devices from the time an electronic clock-radio awakens us in the morning until the “late” show on television finally puts us to sleep at night. In between, in our daily activities, we are almost constantly involved with one type of an electronic device or another. Our dependence on such devices is nearly total. It only takes a minute’s thought to think how difficult it would be to manage in our modern world without electricity or electronics.

So many things have happened in the past, so many things are happening at present, and so many things are under development to unfold in the future that it has become very difficult to keep tabs on the progression in all fields of electronics.

The electrical and electronic devices in our future seem to have limitless possibilities. Twenty-five years ago the hand-held pocket computers of today would have been pure fantasy.

Electricity and electronics have made possible many of the wonders of our present world. Projections for the future of electronics are based mainly on our current knowledge, current technology, and the trends of the present. As we all know well, trends do not always help us to predict the future. Some trends carry on longer than expected, while those we think will carry on forever can end suddenly. But new developments in the uses of electronics are continually being realized, limited only by our initiative and ingenuity. Used properly, they give every promise of a brighter and brighter tomorrow.

Ex. 1. Translate words and word combinations in bold type.

Ex. 2. Match the following words with their meanings:

invisible to succeed

tiny to defend

to protect not to be seen

to manage very small

to keep tabs on to follow

Ex. 3. Give corresponding verbs to the following nouns and translate them: copier, sander, sprayer, cleaner, freezer, mixer, blender, polisher, detection, recorder, preparation, preservation, monitor, diagnosis, analysis, treatment, generator, controller, welder, processing, communication, transmission.

Ex. 4. Answer the following questions:

1. Can you explain the appearance of the word “electronics” and the name of the corresponding field of science and technology?

2. In what way has electronics affected our lives?

3. What electronic devices are used for entertainment, in medicine, in business, in households?

4. Show the progress of electronics using computer technology as an example.

5. What are the prospects of electroengineering and electronics development?

6. Don’t you think that we are overdependent on electronics? Are there any dangers in this dependence?


Text 3

(Part I)


VOCABULARY


amber янтарь бурштин

torub тереть(ся) терти(ся)

align выравнивать рівняти

substance вещество речовина

toprove доказывать доводити

current ток струм

needle игла голка

torepel отражать відображати

accomplishment выполнение виконання

toinduce побуждать; вызывать спонукати

tooppose противопоставлять протиставляти

toinsulate изолировать ізолювати

tocurve згинать; огибать гнути; огинати

curve кривая крива

equation уравнение рівняння

flux течение; поток течія, потік


Our way of life has undergone enormous changes since the unveiling of electricity and electronics. Each of us, with just a little thought, can easily envisage how difficult it would be to manage in a world without electronics. The people responsible for the discovery of this science are discussed in this text.

It all begins in 1600 with an English physician, William Gilbert (1544−1603), who documented many years of research and experiments on magnets and magnetic bodies such as amber and loadstones. Probably his most important discovery was that when rubbed with a cloth, amber would attract lightweightobjects. In 1601 he was appointed physician to Queen Elizabeth I at a salary of $150 a year. He was the first to believe that the earth was nothing but a large magnet and that its magnetic field causes a needle to align itself between north and south.

Stephen Gray (1693−1736), also an Englishman, discovered that certain substances would conduct electricity. This lead was picked up in 1730 by Charles du Fay, a French experimenter, who believed that there were two types of electricity, which he called vitreous and resinous electricity.

One of the best known and most admired men in the latter half of the eighteenth century was the American Benjamin Franklin (1706 − 1790). He is reknowned for his kite-in-a-storm experiment, which proved that lightning is electricity. Franklin also discovered that there was only one type of electricity − that the two previously believed types were simply two characteristics of electricity. Vitreous was renamed positive chargeand resinous was called negative charge, terms that were invented by Franklin, along with the terms batteryand conductor,which are still used today.

The unit of electrical charge is named the coulomb, in honor of the French physicist Charles A. de Coulomb (1736 − 1806), who developed the laws of attraction and repulsion between charged bodies.

The galvanometer, which is used to measure electrical current, was named after Luigi Galvani (1737 −1798), who conducted many experiments with electrical current, or as it was known at that time, “galvanism”.

The unit of voltage, the volt, was named in honor of Alessandro Volta (1745 −1827), an Italian physicist who is famous for his invention of the electric battery. In 1801, he was called to Paris by Napoleon to show his experiment on the generation of electric current.

The unit of power is the watt in honor of a Scottish engineer and inventor, James Watt (1736 −1819), for his advances in the field of science.

In 1819, a Danish physicist, Hans С.Oersted (1777 −1851), accidentally discovered an interesting phenomenon. Placing a compass near a current-carrying conductor, he noticed that the needle of the compass pointed to the conductor rather than north. He was quick to realize that electricity and magnetism were related, and in honor of his work, the unit oersted was adopted for the unit of magnetic field strength.

The unit of electrical current is the ampere, named in honor of Andre M. Ampere (1775 − 1836), a French physicist who pioneered in the study of electromagnetism. After hearing of Oersted’s discoveries, he conducted further experiments and discovered that two current-carrying conductors would attract and repel one another, just like two magnets.

Ohm’s law, the best known law in electrical circuits, was formulated by Georg S. Ohm (1787− 1854), a German physicist. His law was so coldly received that his feelings were hurt and he resigned his teaching post. When his law was finally recognized, he was reinstated. In honor of his accomplishments, the unit of resistance is called the ohm.

In 1831, Michael Faraday (1791−1867), an English physicist, explored further Oersted’s discovery of electromagnetism and discovered that a magnetic field could be used to produce electric current. These findings are today referred to as Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction. A German-born scientist working in Russia extended Faraday’s findings and found that the current induced in a conductor is such that it opposes the change in the magnetic field producing it. This is known today as Lenz’s law, in honor of Heinrich F. E. Lenz. Michael Faraday also investigated static electricity and the lines of electric force, and it is in acknowledgement of his work in this area that the unit of capacitance is named the farad.

Joseph Henry (1797 − 1878), an American physicist, also conducted extensive studies into electromagnetism. Henry was the first to insulate the magnetic coil of wire and developed coils for telegraphy and motors. In recognition of his discovery of self-induction in 1832, the unit of inductance is called the henry.

James P. Joule (1818−1889), an English physicist and self-taught scientist, conducted extensive research into the relationships between electrical, chemical, and mechanical effects, which led him to the discovery that one energy form can be converted into another. For his achievements, his name was given to the unit of energy, the joule.

As a small boy, James C. Maxwell (1831−1879) was persistently inquisitive. He built many scientific toys before he was 8. At the age of 14 he wrote a paper on how to construct oval curves, and at 18 two of his papers were published. The supreme achievement of this Scottish physicist however was to translate Faraday’s experiments into mathematical notation. This set of mathematical equations, known as Maxwell’s equations, shows the relationship between electricity and magnetism.

Eduard W. Weber (1804− 1891), a German physicist, made enduring contributions to the modern system of electrical units, and magnetic fluxis measured in webers in honor of his work.

Heinrich R. Hertz (1857 − 1894), a German physicist, was the first to demonstrate the production and reception of electromagnetic (radio) waves. In honor of his work in this field, the unit of frequency is called the hertz.

Studying the experiments of Maxwell and Hertz, Guglielmo Marconi (1874 − 1937) invented a practical system of telegraphy communication. In an evolutionary process, Marconi extended his distance of communication from l1/2 miles in 1896 to 6000 miles in 1902. In September 1899, Marconi equipped two U.S. ships with equipment and used them in the Atlantic Ocean to transmit to America the progress of the America’s Cup yacht race.

Ex. 1. Translate words and word combinations in bold type.

Ex. 2. Match the following words with their meanings:

to manage connected

physician to be the first

lead progress

reknowned for doctor

advance to succeed

accidentally to leave

related direction

to pioneer achievements

to resign known for

accomplishments by chance

^ Ex.3. Give corresponding verbs to the following nouns and pronouns, translate them: progress, race, experiment, honor, measure, curve, name, research, study, change, use, conduct, advance, cause.

Ex.4. Distribute the given words through the parts of speech they belong to: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

inventor, responsible, magnetic, electricity, resinous, lightening, previously, repulsion, famous, realize, reinstate, accomplishment, investigate, capacitance, inquisitive, persistently, equation, contributor, frequency.

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions:

  1. What is considered the beginning of electricity and electronics?

  2. What terms, very important for electrical science, were introduced by B. Franklin?

  3. Do you remember the law of attraction and repulsion? Who developed it?

  4. What is the galvanometer used for?

  5. Do you know the unit of power and the unit of voltage?

  6. What other scientists gave their names to various units connected with electricity?

  7. What laws were opened by Michael Faraday and Heinrich Lenz?

  8. Who invented a practical system of telegraphy communication?

  9. Whose work underlied this invention?



Text 3

(Part II)


VOCABULARY

ray луч промінь

crank рукоятка рукоятка

thread нитка; нанизывать нитка, нанизувати

valve электронная лампа електрична лампа

toboost увеличивать збільшувати

spark искра іскра, спалах

inquisitive любознатeльный допитливий

wax воск віск

loop петля петля

toglow светиться світитися

toconvert превращать перетворювати

todetect обнаруживать виявляти


The electron was first discovered by Jean B. Perrin(1870 −1942), a French physicist who was awarded the Nobel prize for physics. Perrin discovered that cathode rays consisted of negatively charged particles, and these particles, which later became known as electrons, were measured by an English physicist, Joseph Thomson (1846 − 1914).

Thomas Edison (1847 −1931) was a self-educated inventor best known for his development of the phonograph and the incandescent lamp. The first version of the phonograph cost $ 18 and was turned with a hand crank. A decade later it was motor driven, with cylindrical wax and then disk-type records. In 1879, after $40,000 worth of fruitless experiments, he succeeded in developing an incandescent lamp that consisted of a loop of carbonized cotton thread that glowed in a vacuum for 40 hours. In 50 years, he took out 1033 patents. Nikola Tesla (1856−1943) was the inventor of the induction motor and worked to improve power transmission. Working for Edison for a short time, they developed a hatred for one another that prompted Tesla to begin his own business. Edison promoted power distribution, while Tesla believed in ac, and eventually Tesla’s reasoning was adopted worldwide. In 1912, they were nominated together for the Nobel prize in physics, but Tesla would have nothing to do with Edison, so the prize went to a third party. A theory of Tesla’s, which up to this time has not proven possible, is the wireless transmission of electrical power by high-energy electromagnetic or radiant beams.

In 1904 John A. Fleming, a British scientist, saw the value of an effect that was discovered by Edison but for which he saw no practical purpose. The “Edison effect” permitted Fleming to develop the “Fleming valve”,which passes current in only one direction. Its operation made it the first device able to convert alternating current into direct current and to detect radio waves.

Although the Fleming valve was an advance, it could not amplify or boost a signal. The “audion”,developed by U.S. inventor Lee de Forest (1873 − 1961), sparked an era known as “vacuum-tube electronics” that brought about transcontinental telephony in 1915, radio broadcasting in 1920, radar in 1936, and television between 1927 and 1946, because of this triode vacuum tube’s ability to amplify small signals.

The father of television, Vladamir C. Zworykin, developed the first television picture tube, called the kinescope, in 1920. John L. Baird (1888 − 1946) was a British inventor and television pioneer. He was the first to transmit television over a distance. He reproduced objects in 1924, transmitted recognizable human faces in 1925, demonstrated the first true television in 1926, and in 1939 be developed television in natural color.

During World War II, there was a need for microwave-frequency vacuum tubes. British inventor Henry Boot developed the magnetron in 1939, and in the same year an American brother duo, Russel and SigurdVarian, invented the klystron. In 1943, the traveling wave tube amplifier was invented by Rudolf Komphner, and up to this day these three microwave vacuum tubes are still used extensively.

In 1946, J. Prosper Eckert and John Mauchly unveiled ENIAC, which used over 300,000 vacuum tubes. ENIAC, which is an acronym for “electronic numerical integrator and computer”, was the first large-scale electronic digital computer.

In 1947 Walter Brattain, William Shockley, and John Bardeen sparked an even greater era, known as “solid-state electronics”, with their invention of the transistor at Bell Laboratories. ^ Transistorized equipment is smaller, cheaper, more reliable, more robust, and consumes less power than its vacuum-tube counterparts.

In 1958, Robert Noyce, Jean Hoerni, Jack Kilby, and Kurt Lehovec all took part in the development of the integrated circuit, which incorporated many transistors and other components on a small chip of semiconductor material. In 1961, Steven Hofstein devised the field-effect transistor used in MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) integrated circuits, and in the same year Theodore H. Maiman, a scientist working at Hughes Aircraft Company, built the first operational laser using a synthetic ruby crystal.

In 1971, Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation designed a microprocessor, the 4004, that had all the basic parts of a central processor. Intel improved on the 4-bit 4004 microprocessor and unveiled an 8-bit microprocessor in 1974 that could add two numbers in 2.5 millionths of a second.

Three mass-market personal computers emerged in 1977; the Apple II, Radio Shak’s TRS-80, and the Commodore PET. In 1979, Motorola Corporation continued to advance computers by creating a powerful and versatile 16-bit microprocessor that could multiply two numbers in 3.2 billionths of a second. IBM, who had up to this time dominated the big computer market, entered the personal computer market with the IBM PC in 1981. Also in 1981, Hewlett-Packard unveiled its 32-bit microprocessor to further advance the speed and power of computers.

In scientific laboratories around the world, thousands of scientists began working furiously to develop a new technology that at the beginning of 1987 seemed little more than science fiction. Practical applications of superconductors cannot be fully realized at this time, just as no one could foresee all of the uses for the transistor when it was invented 40 years earlier. In the future, however, it is believed that all power will be distributed over superconductor cablesbecause of their low power losses, while all information signals will be distributed over fiber optic cablesbecause of their small size and large capacity.

Ex. 1. Translate words and word combinations in bold type.

Ex. 2. Match the following words with their meanings:

decade progress

to prompt to envisage/to see in advance

beam ten years

advance broadly

extensively to make/to force

to foresee ray

Ex. 3.Give the verbs which correspond in meaning to the following nouns. Be sure you know their meaning and pronunciation:

thread, charge, spark, cost, turn, value, advance, signal, heed.

Ex.4. Distribute the given words through the parts of speech they belong to: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

physicist, version, carbonize, fruitless, cylindrical, incandescent, induction, eventually, transmission, radiant, amplify, transcontinental, television, ability, recognizable, extensively, transistorize, reliable

Ex. 5.Answer the following questions:

  1. Who first discovered the electron?

  2. What inventions were brought about by “vacuum-tube electronics”?

  3. Can you give the names of TV pioneers?

  4. The names of what companies are enlisted in the history of the computer?

  5. What are the prospects of superconductor technologies?

  6. What characteristics of fibre optic cables make them so important for transmitting information?

Ex. 6.Find in the text the names of measuring devices and measurements connected with electronics and electrical engineering. Translate them, be sure you know how to pronounce them.


Text4


VOCABULARY

to span

existence

to verify


to emit


voltage

to abandon


grid

to insert

to exhibit

to foresight

to merge


ingenuity

amplifier

to oscillate

gain

conjunction

forerunner


измерять, заполнять

существование, жизнь

проверять; подтверждать


издавать, испускать;


напряжение

отказываться от; оставлять, покидать

решётка; сетка

вставлять; помещать

показывать, проявлять; выставлять

предвидение

слить, сливать

изобретательность

усилитель

вибрировать; колебаться

прибыль; прирост

соединение, связь

предвестник


вимірювати, заповнювати

існування, життя

перевіряти; підтверджувати

виділяти; випромінювати


напруга

відмовитися від; залишати

грати; решітка; сітка

вставляти; розміщувати

показувати, проявляти, виставляти

передбачення

зливати

винахідливість

підсилювач

хитатися; коливатися

прибуток; приріст

з`єднання, зв`язок

провісник



^ THE VACUUM-TUBE ERA

The vacuum-tube era spans the first half of the twentieth century. Modern electronics took shape technologically in this period.

The origin of the term “electronics” can be attributed to H.A. Lorentz who in 1895 postulated the existence of discrete charges he called electrons (reintroducing the word for “amber” used by the ancient Greeks). Two years later J.J. Thomson experimentally verified the existence of electrons. In that same year Braun built the first electron tube, a primitive cathode-ray tube (CRT).

The Discovery of Vacuum Tubes

In 1904 Fleming invented a two-element device, the diode, which he called the valve. It consisted of a heated wire, the filament, which emitted electrons (the Edison effect) and was separated by a short distance from a metallic plate. The entire structure was encapsulated in a vacuum. A positive plate-to-cathode(filament) voltage produced a current, whereas a negative applied voltage reduced the current to zero. This unilateral property of the valve made it useful as a detector of wireless (radio) signals.

Two years later, Pickard used a silicon crystal with a “cat’s whisker” (a pointed wire pressed into the silicon) as a detector. This was the first semiconductor diode; however, it was unreliable and was soon abandoned. Thus semiconductor electronics appeared to have died a premature death in 1906.

The invention of the audion (triode) by DeForest in 1906 was the seminal achievement in the earliest days of electronics. Indeed, one can strongly argue that electronics as we know it today would not exist without the invention of the triode. DeForest’saudionconsisted of a third electrode (the grid) inserted between the plate and the cathode of the Fleming valve. The grid voltage controlled the charge flow between plate and cathode. A small change in grid voltage resulted in a larger Plate-voltage change, making the audion the first amplifier. The triode was the first device to exhibit the circuit property we now refer to as a controlled or dependent source. Because it retained the unilateral property of the valve, the triode also provided the properties of a controlled switch. Today, virtually all electronic circuits exploit device characteristics which display either controlled-source or controlled-switch behavior.

^ Initial Circuit Applications

By 1911, technological improvements – a better vacuum and an oxide-coaled cathode – made the audion a reliable device, thus ushering in the age of practical electronics. The first applications of vacuum tubes were to telephone and radio communication, and simultaneously the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was founded in 1912 in the United States. It is a tribute to the imagination and foresight of the early engineers who immediately realized the significance of radio and formed their own professional society. The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), which focused on the conventional interests of electrical engineers, was founded in 1884. In 1963 both societies merged into a single organization, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), a move which reflected a half century of development in the profession.

Through use of the simple diodes and triodes available, the ingenuity of the early engineers resulted in the invention of many new circuits. Notable among them were cascaded amplifiers, regenerative amplifiers (Armstrong, 1917), and multivibrators (Eccles-Jordan, 1918). The oscillator was the first instance by which electronics signals were generated by solely electronic means. The increased gain of both regenerative (positive-feedback) and cascaded amplifiers in conjunction with the frequency translation provided by heterodyning improved signal processing and enhanced the detection of weak signals. The early multivibrators were the forerunners of modern flip-flops and clock generators (timing circuits).

^ Ex. 1. Translate words and word combinations in bold type.

Ex. 2. Match the following words with their meanings:

to verify to increase

to reduce to refuse

to abandom characteristic

to control to understand

achievement to show

to amplify exclusively

property to check

to realize to operate

to reflect to decrease

solely seminal characteristic

premature really

indeed use

insert before the right time

result in initial

consist of cleverness

property put

exploit be composed of

ingenuity have as its cause

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions:

  1. What is the prehistory of the first electron tube?

  2. What parts did the valve consist of?

  3. What unilateral property of the valve made it useful?

  4. What was the first semiconductor diode?

  5. Without what achievement was the existence of electronics not possible?

  6. Can you explain the principle DeForest’s audion was based on?

  7. Why was the triode so important?

  8. What were the first applications of vacuum tubes?

  9. Can you give some examples of the inventions which followed the diodes and triodes?

Ex. 4.Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs:

verify, reduce, control, amplify, realize, separate, apply, detect, invent, achieve, exhibit, amplify, regenerate, process


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