Методичні вказівки для поглибленого вивчення англійської мови студентами усіх спеціальностей денної форми навчання Суми icon

Методичні вказівки для поглибленого вивчення англійської мови студентами усіх спеціальностей денної форми навчання Суми

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Міністерство освіти і науки України

Сумський державний університет


Методичні вказівки для поглибленого

вивчення англійської мови студентами усіх

спеціальностей денної форми навчання


Видавництво СумДУ



Методичні вказівки для поглибленого вивчення англійської мови студентами усіх спеціальностей денної форми навчання / Укладач: А.М.Дядечко.- Суми:

Вид-во СумДУ, 2006.- 48с.

Кафедра іноземних мов


Методичні вказівки складено для студентів денної форми навчання, які вивчають поглиблений курс англійської мови ( предмет за вибором ).

^ Метою збірника є вдосконалення навичок та умінь студентів у різних видах мовної практики.

Десять уроків, що складають перший розділ збірника, призначені для аудиторної практичної роботи.

^ Другий розділ містить завдання для самостійного виконання студентами.

У двох додатках наведені приклади найбільш поширених англомовних абревіатур та порівняльний лексичний словник американського

і британського варіантів сучасної англійської мови.

To my teachers and students who have been giving

me inspiration, challenge and support in my

English language learning and teaching.

In the beginning was the Word; and the Word was with God; and the Word was God.

The Bible - John, 1: 1

The gift of language is the single human trait that marks us all genetically, setting us apart from the rest of life. Language is the universal and biologically specific activity of human beings. We engage in it communally, compulsively, and automatically. We cannot be human without it; if we were to be separated from it out minds would die.

^ Lewis Thomas

The word makes man free. Whoever cannot express himself is a slave. Speaking is an act of freedom; the word is freedom itself.

Ludwig Feuerbach

Unit 1

1 How many languages can you speak/read/write?

How many foreign languages and what languages

exactly would you like to know?

Think of words and phrases from various foreign

languages that you happen to know. Make a list of

these words and the languages they come from. Are

they many in number?

2 Try to explain in English the words that you will read

in the text:

Ancestor, roughly, tribe.

3 Read the text silently paying special attention to the

dates and proper(mainly geographic) names.

^ The Indo-European Story

In the 1780s, a British judge called Sir William Jones was living and working in India. During his time there he studied an ancient language called Sanskrit. What is interesting about that? Well – Sir William noticed something unusual about several Sanskrit words … namely, how similar they were in their equivalents in Latin. Take mother and father for example. In Sanskrit they were matar and pitar. In Latin they were mater and pater. Could there, he wondered, be some connection between Sanskrit and Latin?

Over 200 years later experts now believe the answer

is definitely ‘yes’. Their research shows that between 6000- 4500 BC a tribe called the Indo-European settled in the northern part of Central Europe. These people kept animals, grew crops and worked with leather and wool. They also had their own language. Until roughly 3000 BC this language only existed in Central Europe, but then two things happened. a) The Indo-Europeans began to ride horses. b) They discovered the wheel. As a result, they and their language began to travel long distances for the first time. Some went east ( to India ) and some went west ( to Scandinavia, Britain and the Mediterranean ).

During the next 3000/40000 years, languages like Sanskrit and Latin developed in these new areas - each with its own local vocabulary, expressions and grammar. Meanwhile, as they became stronger, Indo-European itself became weaker, until in the end it disappeared completely. It is a curious thought that modern-day Italian, Danish and Greek all had a common ancestor and that in the past all Europeans spoke the same language? Curious -- but true.

^ 1 Give synonyms to the following words from the text:

connection n curious adj

common adj similar adj

research n notice v

ancient adj completely adv

2 Use a map to render the text read.

Unit 2

1 For further reading and discussion of the topic make

sure you can pronounce the words correctly:

hymn, to cease, scholar, treatise, Renaissance, plateau.

2 Read texts A and B :

Text A More about Sanskrit

The Indo-Iranian group is one of the oldest for which we have historical records. The Vedic hymns, which in an early form of Sanskrit, date from about 1000 BC but reflect a poetic tradition stretching back to the second millennium BC. Classical Sanskrit appears about 500 BC. It is much more systemized than Vedic Sanskrit, for it had been seized upon by early grammarians who formulated rules for its proper use; even so, Classical Sanskrit was probably not systemized until it was ceasing to be widely spoken. The most remarkable of the Indian grammarians was Panini, who wrote grammar of Sanskrit that to this day holds the admiration of linguistic scholars.

The first known grammar is Panini’s Sutras, a fourth-

century BC treatise on the Sanskrit language, consisting of

some 4,000 very brief statements of linguistic phenomena.

Sanskrit is in no sense dead as a written language; its status is roughly comparable to that of Latin in medieval and Renaissance Europe.

^ Text B Why Indo-European?

Indo-European is the name given to the family of languages to which English belongs. The name is based on the fact that this family covers most of Europe and extends eastward as far as northern India, with a total body of speakers of more than one and a half billion.

No document of the original parent language of our western tongues, Indo-European, has ever been found or is likely to be found, since the language probably broke up into separate Indo-European languages before the invention of writing.

The oldest languages of our Indo-European family of which we have records are Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, in the order given. The approximate dates for each are 2000,

1400 and 500 BC. The original homeland of the Indo-

European speakers is unknown, but the Iranian Plateau and the shores of the Baltic are the places most favored.

^ 1 Say what are the key points of each text.

2 Think of some other facts you can share with the class

to enlarge on the topic.

3 Give derivatives of the words below :

proper, admiration, comparable, separate, invention,


^ 4 The following words are polysemantic ( have more

than one meaning ). How many of them do you know?

If necessary, consult a dictionary to check yourself:

body, speaker, record, order.

Unit 3

1 Do you think you can read and understand the works

by Shakespeare easily? Explain why.

2 What data, dates and names referring to the history of

Great Britain do you remember?

3 Can you name the closest relatives of the English


4 Read the text:

The Origins of the English Language

A good approach to studying languages is the historical one. To understand how things are, it is often helpful and sometimes essential to know how they got to be that way.

Historically, English belongs to the West Germanic branch of Indo-European, having developed from the Anglo-Saxon of the German tribes from the continental North Sea coast who wrested control of Britain from its Romanized Celtic inhabitants in the 5th and the 6th centuries. When they came to Britain, they found the Celts who had enjoyed the benefits of the Roman government, shared in the civilization of the Roman Empire and spoke to some extent the Latin language. If this Teutonic invasion had never happened, the inhabitants of England would be now speaking a language descended from Latin, like French or Spanish or Italian. In whatever parts of Britain the Teutonic tribes settled, the Roman civilization and the Roman language perished.

The highest degree of civilization of that time was in the North, where the local Northumbrian dialect seemed likely to become the standard speech of England. It was from the Angles settled here and their Anglican dialect, that the language acquired the name of English, which it has ever since retained. But this Northumrian civilization was almost destroyed in the 8th and 9th centuries by a new invasion of pagan tribes. The Danes were near relatives of the inhabitants they conquered and came from a district not far from the original home of the earlier invaders. Their language was so alike Anglo-Saxon that it could be understood without great difficulty; so when the two races were settled side by side, it was natural that mixed dialects should arise, mainly English in character, but with many Danish words, and with many grammatical forms confused and blurred. It is in the districts where the Danes were settled that the English language became first simplified, so that in the process of development their speech was at least two centuries ahead of that of the south of England.

When the Northumbrian culture was destroyed, the kingdom of Wessex became the center of English civilization. West-Saxon became the literary and classical form of English, and almost all the specimens of early English that have been preserved are written in this dialect.

Classical Anglo-Saxon, therefore, was not affected by the Danish invasion.

But for the third time a foreign race invaded England, and the language of Wessex, like that of Northumria, was in its turn almost destroyed. The Normans dominated by interrupting the tradition of the language, by destroying its literature and culture, by reducing it to the speech of uneducated peasants. English, being no longer spoken by the cultivated classes or taught in the schools, developed as a popular spoken language with great rapidity.

Although the development of English was gradual, and there is at no period a definite break in its continuity, it may be said to present three main periods of development - the

Old English (lasted down to AD 1200), the Middle English (from 1200 to 1500) and that of Modern English (from

1500 to the present time).

^ 1 Give synonyms to the following words:

essential, to descend from, to perish, rapidity, to reduce to,


2 Answer the questions:

1 Do you see any reason in studying English historically?

Do students of English really need it?

2 How was Old English speech brought to England?

3 Who inhabited the island when the Anglo-Saxon tribes

invaded Britain?

4 What were the nearest relations of Old English speech?

5 How do you account for the comparatively high standard

of Celtic civilization at the time of the Anglo-Saxon


6 Was district of England was the first to attain a

comparatively high degree of civilization?

7 Why did the language acquire the name of English?

8 In what respect did the Danish invasion differ from that

of the Angles and Saxons?

9 What brought about the rise of mixed dialects?

10 What was the role of the kingdom of Wessex in the

development of the English language?

11 How did the Roman Conquest affect the language?

12 What are the three main periods in the development of

the English language?

^ 2 Write ten sentences to make a brief account of the

English language history.

Unit 4

1 Think of the English words which actually do not look

or sound English. Give your examples of such evident


2 Remember the words you will see in the text:

cognates - words having the same source or origin.

influx - constant inflow of large numbers or quantities.

3 Be careful when pronouncing the following proper


Hebrew Polynesia

Hindi-Urdu Hindi

Bengali Turkish

Malay Gaelic

Jutes Japanese

Norse Portuguese

Chinese Czech

4 Read the text. Pay special attention to the words in

bold type:

The Vocabulary of English through its history

English has displayed remarkable powers of adaptation and assimilation, absorbing so many and such varied elements of vocabulary and syntax from diverse sources that today it would be a definite misstatement to pronounce it a Germanic language pure and simple. While accepting these large foreign contributions, English has revealed, in the course of its history, astounding capacities for growth from within, ability to coin, combine, create, and simplify to the point where vocabulary has become the richest on earth and one of the most precise and expressive. About 80% of its vocabulary is foreign. Therefore, English has cognates from virtually every language in Europe and has borrowed and continues to borrow words from Spanish and French, Hebrew and Arabic, Hindi-Urdu and Bengali, Malay and Chinese, as well as languages from West Africa and Polynesia. This language characteristic makes it unique in history.

In modern English we can often express the same idea in different words. This is because English has over the centuries absorbed words from many different languages. For example, fear, terror, alarm and freight all have similar meanings but each came into English from a different language.


Anglo-Saxon English developed from Anglo-Saxon (also known as Old English), the language brought to Britain by Germanic tribes ( the Angles, Saxons and Jutes ) in the 5th century AD. These invaders gave England its name, “the land of Angles”, and provided the language with many common basic terms.

man woman

breed work

eat house



At the end of the sixth century, a group of monks came as missionaries from Rome to strengthen Christianity in Britain. The words which came into English from Latin at this time are mainly connected with religion and learning.

school minister

pope verse

candle mass


In the ninth and tenth centuries invaders came from

Scandinavia and occupied a large part of eastern England.

Many everyday words in modern English come from their

language, Old Norse, which is related to Anglo-Saxon.

sky leg

call take



When Britain was conquered by the Normans in 1066,

French became the language of the ruling classes. Many

words in modern English which describe government and

the legal system, as well as terms connected with cooking,

came from French at this time.

sovereign court

govern advise

braise veal



Many words of Latin origin came into English through

French, but the Renaissance of the 15th and 16th centuries

brought a new interest in classical learning and an influx of

words from Latin and Greek.

physics radius

history educate

architecture compute

Modern English includes some other loan words:

Arabic admiral, algebra, mattress, coffee

Spanish mosquito, cigar, canyon, macho

^ Italian piano, violin, spaghetti, pizza

Dutch yacht, boss, deck

Hindi pajamas, shampoo, bungalow

Persian bazaar, caravan

Turkish yoghurt, kiosk, tulip

Japanese tycoon, karate, kimono

Malay bamboo, compound

Hungarian coach, paprika, goulash

Classic Greek theatre, astronomy, logic

Gaelic whiskey

Russian vodka, sputnik, samovar

Finnish sauna

Chinese tea, silk

Portuguese marmalade, flamingo,madeira

Czech robot

Farsi(Iranian) lilac

Basque bizarre

Carib canoe

Australian Aborigine

kangaroo, boomerang

Modern French rendezvous, café

Modern German kindergarten

1 Make up a list of languages that have contributed to

the vocabulary of the English language.

2 Think and say other loan words that are not

mentioned in the text. Ask the class about the

languages they come(originate) from.

3 Give examples of loan words in Ukrainian or Russian.

Unit 5

1 Make sure that you can pronounce the following

words correctly:

unprecedented, retrieval, genre, alert, executive,

entrepreneur, negotiate, commerce, incorporate.

^ 2 What do we typically mean when we say:

electronic retrieval system ground controller

native speaker scientific community

scientific developments industrial age

entertainment genres information-based goods

and services

3 Read the text.

English in the 21st Century

^ Spread of English

Four centuries ago English was outstripped by French,

German, Spanish, and Italian. Today it has almost as many

speakers as the four put together.

The global spread of English over the last 40 years is remarkable. It is unprecedented in several ways: by the increasing number of users of the language; by its depth of penetration into societies; by its range of functions.

Worldwide over 1.4 billion people live in the countries where English has official status. One out of five of the world’s population speaks English with some degree of competence. And one in five – over one billion people is learning English. English is at present the most widely studied language in countries where it is not native. Over 70% of the world’s scientists read English. 90% of all information in the world’s electronic retrieval systems is stored in English. By 2010, the number of people who speak English as a second or foreign language will exceed the number of native speakers. This trend will certainly affect the language.

English is used for more purposes than ever before. Vocabularies, grammatical forms, and ways of speaking and writing have emerged influenced by technological and scientific developments, economics and management, literature and entertainment genres. What began some 1.500 years ago as a rude language, originally spoken by obscure Germanic tribes who invaded England, now encompasses the globe.

When Mexican pilots land their airplanes in France, they and the ground controllers use English. When German physicists want to alert the international scientific community to new discoveries, they fist publish their findings in English. When Japanese executives conduct business with Scandinavian entrepreneurs, they negotiate in English. When pop singers write their songs, they often use lyrics or phrases in English. When demonstrators want to alert the world to their problems, they display signs in English.

Three factors continue to contribute to the spread of English: English usage in science, technology and commerce; the ability to incorporate vocabulary from other languages; and the acceptability of various English dialects.

In science English replaced German after World War II. With this technical and scientific dominance came the beginning of overall linguistic dominance, first in Europe and then globally.

Today the information age has replaced the industrial age and has compressed time and distance. This is transforming world economics from industrial production to information-based goods and services. Ignoring geography and borders, information processing has given way to computers and the Internet. Computer-mediated communication is closing the gap between spoken and written English. It encourages more informal conversational language, and has resulted in Internet English replacing the authority of language institutes and practices.

^ 1 Find in the text the words defined below:

a) verses of a song;

b) exchange and distribution of goods;

c) never done or known before;

d) total number of words which make up a language.

2 Build up derivatives of the words from the text:

compress redefining

distance spoken

globally conduct

executives conversational

^ 3 Give antonyms to the words below:

foreign informal

official limited

rude to include

obscure to land

internal to compress

4 Choose the correct answers to the questions on the

basis of what is stated in the text:

The number of people all over the world who practice

English makes about

a) 40%;

b) 20%;

c) 25%.

What kind of dominance resulting after the replacement

of German by English is not mentioned in the text?

a) scientific;

b) linguistic;

c) political.

The number of students taking EFL or ESL programs


a) equals the number of native speakers;

b) exceeds the number of native speakers;

c) is less than the number of native speakers.

Computer-mediated communication leads to the

situation when

a) written English dominates over spoken English;

b) a new form of a written English emerges;

c) many norms of standard English are being


^ Unit 6

1 Make a list of countries where English is spoken.

Check it with your classmates.

2 Read the text.

The English Speaking World

English is the second most widely spoken popular language.

Approximately 350 million people speak English as their

first language. About the same number use it as a second

language. It is the official language of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States of America, Canada, Jamaica, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand and is widely spoken in India.

As so many people speak English in so many different

countries, there are many different “Englishes”.

The best known form of English is called ^ Standard English and it is the language of educated English speakers. It is used by the government, the BBC, the Universities and it is often called “Queen’s English”.

American English is the variety of English spoken in the

United States of America. It is different from English in

pronunciation, intonation, spelling, vocabulary and

sometimes even grammar.

Australian and New Zealand English, also called

^ Australian English, are very similar. Especially in pronunciation they are also similar to British English, but there are differences in vocabulary and slang. Many terms come from the aboriginal language and many others from the Cockney dialect spoken by the first settlers, the Londoners.

^ Canadian English is different both from American English

and from British English. It is said to sound like American

to Britons and like British to Americans. In pioneer days

Canadians borrowed many words from Canadian French.

Many words came from the native Indian languages.

^ 1 Answer the questions:

Who speaks Standard English?

What are the key points of the text?

2 Outline the history of each English speaking country.

Try to remember the books you read and the films

you saw that may refer to the point in some way.

Unit 7

1 Can you explain why American English is taking a

leading position in the English speaking world ?

2 When reading the text, use the map of the US to

indicate the areas where different varieties of

American English are spoken.

American English

There are about twice as many speakers of American English as of other varieties of English, and four times as many as speakers of British English. The leading position of the US in world affairs is partly responsible for this. Americanisms have also been spread through advertising, tourism, telecommunications and the cinema.

^ The development of American English

British people who came to the US in the 17th century spoke a variety of dialects. After they reached the US, their language developed independently of British English. When this new nation took its first census in 1790 there were four million Americans, 90% of them descendants of English colonies. Thus there was no question that English was the mother tongue and native language of the United States. By 1720, however, some English colonists in America had already begun to notice that their language differed seriously from that spoken back home in England. Almost without being aware of it, they had:

1 coined some new words for themselves;

2 borrowed other words from the Indians, Dutch, French

and Spanish;

3 been using English dialect words in their general speech;

4 continued to use some English words that had now

become obsolete in England;

5 evolved some peculiar uses, pronunciations, grammar and


Doing these things was natural. Many of the coinages and borrowings were for plants, animals, landscapes, living conditions, institutions and attitudes which were seldom if ever encountered in England, so the English had no words for them. The widespread use of English dialect words was also natural because the colonists came from different parts of England and brought local dialects with them. The colonists were isolated from the niceties of current English speech and education. Thus, naturally, a hundred years after the Pilgrims landed, English as spoken in America differed from that spoken in England. By 1735 the English began to call that new variant of their language “barbarous”. When the anti-American Dr. Johnson used the term American dialect he meant it as an insult( in 1756 he published his Dictionary of the English Language). In 1780, soon after the American revolution began, the word American was firstly referred to the language; in 1802 the term the American Language was first recorded in the US Congress;

and in 1806 Noah Webster coined the more precise term ^ American English.

Numerous attempts were made both in the state legislatures

and in Congress, to declare officially that the name of the

language spoken in the United States was the “American

language”, and there were even unproven stories to the

effect that after the Revolution certain members of Congress

advocated that English be altogether discarded and replaced

by Hebrew or Greek as the official language of the United

States. As late as 1920, an attempt was made to coin the

term ‘Unitedstatish’ to describe the language of the American Union.

^ American English Dialects

General American English (GAE) is the dialect that is closest to being a standard. It is especially common in the Midwest but is used in many parts of the US.The associated Midwestern accent is spoken across most of the northern states, and by many people elsewhere.

The main dialect groups are the Northern, the Coastal

Southern, the Midland, from which GAE is derived, and the Western.

Northern dialect spread west from New York and Boston.

New England has its own accent, though many people there

have a Midwest accent. The old, rich families of Boston

speak with a distinctive Bostonian accent.

^ Midland dialects developed after settlers moved west from

Philadelphia. Both Midland and Western dialects contain

features from the Northern and Southern groups.

The Southern dialects are most distinctive. They contain old words no longer used in other American dialects. French, Spanish and Native American languages also contributed to Southern dialects. Since black slaves were taken mainly to the South and most African Americans still live there, Black English and Southern dialects have much in common. More careful investigation reveals the presence of many well-defined regional dialects, most of which are located east of the Mississippi.

In addition to regional dialects, the speech of the United

States is characterized by special localisms typical of a

single city or even borough, and by immigrant dialects.

^ Language and immigration

For a long time English helped to unite immigrants who had

come to the United States from many countries. Today Hispanic immigrants, especially in south-eastern states, want to continue to use their own language, and many Americans are afraid that this will divide the country. The Hispanic population is growing and will reach 80 million by 2050. This situation lead to the founding of the English Only Movement, which wants to make English the official language of the US. Supporters believe that this will help keep states and people together, and that money spent on printing forms in both English and Spanish would be better spent on teaching the immigrants English. Others think that an official language is unnecessary. They argue that children of immigrants, and their children, will want to speak English anyway, and that a common language does not always lead to social harmony.

^ 1 Make a list of factors that had lead to the appearance

of American English.

2 What socio-linguistic and political problems of the

Americans are touched on in the text?

3 Do you know anything about Noah Webster?

4 Are social tensions and conflicts caused by language

differences unavoidable? What governmental

language policy should be established to avoid


Unit 8

1 Do you happen to know what “Cockney” is?

2 Can you speak “Pidgin English”?

3 Read the text.

Some other “Englishes”

The dialects of Britain are far more numerous and divergent

than anything we have in America. There are nine principal

dialects in Scotland, three in Ireland, thirty in England and


Cockney, the lower-class dialect of London, seems to be

linked with Cockaigne, an imaginary country where the

rivers flowed with wine and streets were paved with pastry

and roast geese.

More than any other world language, English has given rise

to pidginized versions. The basis of a pidgin language is

what the scientists call “hypocorism” and the layman “baby

talk”. It stems from the erroneous belief that it is easier for a

baby or an untutored native to learn to speak if the

language is “simplified”. The simplification often takes

form of grammatical incorrectness. Modern psychology

shows us that hypocorism is not only unnecessary but

definitely harmful, and that a young child may be taught to

speak a language as correctly as a university professor. The

word “pidgin” itself is the Cantonese corruption of English


The total number of people using some form or other of

pidgin English is estimated at about thirty million. Most of

them are located on the China coast, the South Sea islands,

Australia, Malaya, and the west coast of Africa.

^ 1 Are Cockney and pidgin English related somehow to

cocks and pigeons?

2 Can English of today escape simplification?

Unit 9

1 Make sure that you can understand and pronounce

correctly the words from the text :

to exert, geolinguistic, oligopoly, allegiance, shift

^ 2 Try to explain the meaning of the following word


patterns of contact, single world standard English,

supranational variety, global uniformity cultural

identities, area of influence

3 Read the text and be ready to discuss the future of the

English language:

^ Will English remain English?

The world is in transition, and the English language will take new forms. The language and how it is used will

change, reflecting patterns of contact with other languages

and the changing communication needs of people.

One question that arises about the future role of the English language is whether a single world standard English will develop. This could result in a supranational

variety that all people would have to learn.

The widespread use of English as a language of wider communication will continue to exert pressure toward global uniformity. This could result in declining standards, language changes, and the loss of geolinquistic diversity.

On the other hand, because English is the vehicle for international communication and because it forms the basis for constructing cultural identities, many local varieties could instead develop. This trend may lead to fragmentation of the language and threaten the role of English as a lingua franca*.However, there have always been major differences between varieties of English.

There is no reason to believe that any one other language will appear within the next 50 years to replace English. However, it is possible that English will not keep its monopoly in the 21st century.

Rather, a small number of languages may form an oligopoly* - each with a special area of influence. For example, Spanish is rising because of expanding trade and the increase of the Latino population in the United States. This could create a bilingual English-Spanish region.

A language shift, in which individuals change their linguistic allegiances, is another possibility. These shifts are slow and difficult to predict. But within the next 50 years, substantial language shifts could occur as economic development affects more countries.

Because of these shifts in allegiance, more languages may disappear. Those remaining will rapidly gain more speakers. This includes English.

Internal migration and urbanization may restructure areas, thereby creating communities where English becomes the language of interethnic communication – a neutral language.

^ Notes:

Lingua franca any language that is widely used as a means of communication among speakers of other languages, a language adopted for local communication over an area in which several languages are spoken.

Oligopoly a market situation in which prices and other factors are controlled by a few sellers.

^ 1 Look at the word building elements given below.

What meaning do they give to the words? Find in the

text the words with these elements:

a) suffix -tion

b) prefix re-

c) prefix inter-

2 Find in the text synonyms to the words:

norm n -

emerge v -

wants n -

influence v -

3 Find in the text antonyms to the words:

uniformity –

appear -

rapid -

4 Match the verbs below with the nouns they go

together with in the text. Mind the passive forms. See

hints if you cannot remember them all:

to arise … to change…

to construct… to predict…

to decline… to create…

to keep … to occur…

to expand… to form…

Hints: communities, identities, standard, region, monopoly,

question, basis, trade, shift, allegiances.

^ 5 Say what might result from:

fragmentation, migration , urbanization

6 Complete the statements with the reasons indicated in

the text:

a) A supranational variety can appear as … ;

b) Many local varieties might develop if … ;

c) Spanish is rising because … ;

d) Substantial linguistic shifts could occur due to …

^ 7 Make a list of predictions suggested in the text. Speak

on each point considering the text read as well as

your personal knowledge and experience gained .

8 Give in writing your own predictions as for the future

development of the Ukrainian and Russian languages

in Ukraine.

Unit 10

1 What aspect of the English language (sounds,

vocabulary, grammar, spelling , etc. ) is the most

difficult for you? Explain why. What do you do to

solve the problem?

2 Dictate any passage of the text below to your

classmates, check it and correct their spelling


3 Read the text and be ready to discuss it from your

personal point of view.

Letters and Sounds

English spelling is a monument to traditionalism so weird as to be practically incredible.

It is conceivable that a foreigner, with the aid of a good

grammatical introduction to pronunciation and a few lessons

from a teacher, could learn to speak acceptable Spanish,

Italian, Russian, German, Portuguese, even French. This is

not true of English, where every word is a law to itself.

In this respect English is a tongue of infinite difficulty, far

harder than any of its kindred Indo-European languages.

Indeed, the only comparison possible is with languages like

Chinese and Japanese, where the ideogram for each word

must be individually learned. Every English word is at least

in part an ideogram, with the pronunciation offering some

clue, but never a complete key to the spelling.

When the Normans conquered England in 1066, they introduced a number of Norman-French customs, including their own style of writing. The alphabet itself has remained fairy stable.

The Roman alphabet has always been inadequate for the phonetic representation of the English language, most strikingly so for Modern English. We have, for example, only five vowel symbols, a, e, i, o and u ; that this number is wholly inadequate is indicated by the fact that the first of these alone may have as many as six different sound vowels, as in cat, came, calm, any, call and was. Today many experts insist on the easiest and most practical way of treatment of English sounds: to use a way of writing in which the same symbols consistently represent the same sounds, rather than using the awkward expedient of riming words or of referring to the initial consonant.

Contemporary spelling is the heir of thirteen centuries of English writing in the Latin alphabet. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that modern orthography has its traces of its earlier history. Whenever we set pen to paper, we participate in a tradition that started with Anglo-Saxon monks, who had learned it from Irish scribes. The tradition progressed through such influences as the Norman Conquest, the introduction of printing, the urge to reform spelling in various forms, and the recent view that speech should conform to spelling. Nowadays, in fact, we are likely to forget that writing in the history of humanity or even of a single language like English, is relatively recent. Before writing there were no historical records of language, but languages existed.

^ 1 Give your personal view on the problem.

2 Is it practically necessary to follow traditions in the

language use?

3 Offer some improvements as for English spelling.

4 Would you like to introduce some spelling reforms

into your native language system? Give examples of

some new possible spelling rules.


Unit 1

1 Read the text. Consult a dictionary as for correct

pronunciation of proper names:

The relatives of English

The national language that is the closest relative of English is Dutch, with its Belgian variant, Flemish, and its South African variant, Afrikaans. Next comes standard German, while the Scandinavian languages are slightly more remote. Frisian, a variant of Dutch spoken along the Dutch and German North Sea coast, is the foreign speech that comes closest to modern English. Icelandic, a Scandinavian tongue with less than two hundred thousand speakers which has undergone very little change since its inception as a branch of Old Norse, carried by Viking explorers to the land of the geysers, is the modern tongue that most resembles ancestral Anglo-Saxon as spoken in the days of King Alfred.

^ 1 Answer the questions:

1 Where are Flemish and Frisian spoken?

2 What country do we call “the land of the geysers”?

3 Are there many speakers of Icelandic?

4 Why does Icelandic resemble Anglo-Saxon English?

5 When did King Alfred reign?

^ 2 Give synonyms to the words below:

slightly, remote, tongue, inception, to undergo,

to resemble

3 Build up derivatives of the words:

relative, variant, speaker, explorer, resemble.

Unit 2

1 Have you ever thought that some particular sounds

themselves can be meaningful? Is there any

interconnection between sounds and sense?

2 Let’s start with a little experiment. Find someone

who does not speak English very well and ask them to

guess which of these two words means a heavy knock

and which a gentle knock: tap and thud. They will

almost invariably guess right. Why? The sound of the

word thud must somehow be closer to the noise made

by a heavy knock. How about two words with just one

vowel different? If you drop a key and a heavy

hammer onto a stone floor, which one falls with a clink

and which a clunk? It’s easy, isn’t it?

3 Read the text paying special attention to the words in

bold type:

Symbolic Sounds

English is not a particularly onomatopoetic language, by which we mean that the sounds make up a word seldom reflect or symbolize the properties of the objects which the word refers to. But it does happen. We talk of the pitter-patter of raindrops against a window and in that word we almost hear the sound that rain makes. Similarly, we talk of the boom of cannon fire or distant thunder but of a thunder clap when it is overhead. A clock ticks, a switch clicks when it is turned on or off, and the wood crackles and spits as it burns.

But sometimes similar seems to happen when there is no sound at all in the meaning of the word, which is perhaps more surprising. Let’s go back to our experiment. Tell someone you are going to give them two English words which differ only in their vowel sound: one is associated with bright light, the other with darkness, the lack of light. The two words are gloom and gleam. Which is which? Again most people will guess right.

Try the same experiment with these two groups of words:

lean, thin, slim, skinny, slender, slight on the one hand, and plump, tubby, chubby, buxom, large, stout, rotund, gross on the other. Tell that one group of words is associated with people who do not weigh very much and the other with people who weigh a lot. We find that some vowels are associated with lightness and thinness, whilst others with bigness and heaviness.

^ 1 Think of Ukrainian or Russian equivalents of the

words in bold type. Do the sounds in them add much

to their meaning?

2 Share your ideas as for the phenomenon discussed.

Unit 3

1 Think of some things unpleasant ( filthy, dirty, ugly,

etc). Now think of unpleasant words we say to name

these things. What makes them sound so unpleasant?

2 Read the text with the main focus on the words in bold

type. As they are not commonly used in everyday

English, look them up in a dictionary for translation.


For some reason English words beginning with “sl-“ are for the most part rather unpleasant. When snow begins to thaw it produces a muddy mixture of ice and water called slush or slosh. Snow that thaws as it falls is called sleet. Those first two letters seem to be associated with particular physical condition. Nobody likes that slimy creature we find in the garden, the slug; it lives in sludge and of course it doesn’t walk, it doesn’t even creep, it slithers along on its own slime.

When “sl-“ words apply to people, they are almost invariably negative characteristics – sly, slick, slovenly, sluggish, sloppy, slipshod. The verbs slobber, slaver, slurp and slouch conjure up quite a revolting image of someone who spits as he speaks and can’t drink without making a revolting noise. Even if he has plenty of money, with behaviour like that his home no doubt looks like a slum. And if he ever goes out, he probably spends his time in sleazy nightclubs.

A similar , though smaller group of words could be produced beginning with “sn-“. A sneer is a very unpleasant kind of smile and a snigger is not as nice as a giggle or titter. When a child sneaks on his classmates they call him a snitch; if that makes him cry, he snivels. There are lots more like snob, snotty and snide, but we are running out of space.

1 Take a dictionary and write down some of “sl-“ and

sn-“ words which may contribute to the list of

unpleasant words. Is it easy?

2 Memorize the unpleasant words you came across

when both reading the text and working with the


Unit 4

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