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1 Basic vocabulary

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1 Basic vocabulary

Your family: your mother, father, brothers and sisters or, if you are married – your husband, wife and your sons and daughters.

Your relatives or your relations: all your immediate family plus your grandparents, great-grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins.

Use these words below.

aunt grandfather niece

uncle grandsons cousins

grandmother nephew granddaughters

1. Your parents' parents are your.......and your........

2. Your father's brother and sister are your......and your........

3. Your aunt's and uncle's children are your.......

4. Your brother's son and daughter are your......and your......

5. Your children's children are your.........and your.............

2 Read and translate the text

Hawk’s Family

The Hawks live in London. George Hawk is a tall, stout man of about forty. He is the head of the export department of a large engineering firm. Of course, he is a very busy man.

Linda, Mr. Hawk's wife, is thirty-six. She is a good-looking woman with brown hair and dark eyes. She works as a doctor in one of the London hospitals. The Hawks have three kids. Marge, which is short for Margaret, is their elder daughter. She is fifteen. Bob, which is short for Robert, is fourteen. And William or Billy as everybody calls him, is only seven.

Marge is a pretty, quiet, serious girl. She goes to a comprehensive school. She is doing very well at school. She is one of the top pupils in her class. Her favourite subject is English literature. She is fond of reading. She reads a lot. She is also fond of music and has a good collection of records. But Marge isn't very sociable. She stays at home most evenings. She reads, listens to music, watches television or helps her mother about the house.

Bob also goes to school. He is different from Marge. He spends too little time on his homework and too much time on sports. Bob's main interest is sports. He plays football very well. He wants to be a professional footballer. Bob is a member of the local junior team.

William is the baby of the family. He goes to primary school. His teachers say he is a bright boy. He can learn a lot in a short time. He's got a very good memory. Mr. Hawk thinks William can become a scientist. He spends a lot of time with William. He likes to play with him and often tells him a lot of interesting things about physics.

Linda's mother, Grandma or Granny, as the children call her, lives with them. She is a kind sixty-year-old woman. She is retired and looks after the house and her daughter's family.

George's parents live in a little cottage in the seaside town of Chacewood. They love visitors and the Hawks often visit them. The children are fond of their grandparents and are always happy to see them.

1 What kind of family is the Hawks?

2 Who is very fond of sport in the family?

3 Who can become a scientist in the family?

^ UNIT 2

Flat / House

1 Basic vocabulary

Types of houses / places people live

detached house: not joined to any other house

semi-detached house (informal: semi-): joined to one other house

cottage: small house in the country or in a village

bungalow: house with only one storey (no upstairs)

bedsit: bedroom and living room all in one

villa: large house with big gardens or a rented house in a holiday resort

time-share: holiday flat or house where you have the right to live one or two weeks a year

^ Places in the home

shed: small building separated from the house usually for storing garden tools

attic: room in the roof space of a house (could be lived in)

loft: space in the roof of a house usually used only for storage •

cellar: room below ground level, no windows, used for storage

basement: room below ground level, windows, for living/working

landing: flat area at the top of a staircase

hall: open area as you come into a house

porch: covered area before an entrance-door

pantry or larder: large cupboard (usually big enough to walk into) for storing

terrace or patio: paved area between house and garden for sitting and eating, etc.

study: a room for reading/writing/studying in

2 Fill the gaps with a suitable word

1 I've got a darkroom in the..........................where I develop films. It's perfect because there are no windows down there.

2 We keep our skis up in the..........................during the summer. They're out of the way up there.

3 You'll find the garden-chairs in the ............................. at the bottom of the garden. Bring them up and we'll have
a drink on the ................................. and watch the sunset.

4 The light-switch for the stairs is on the...........................as you come out of your bedroom.

^ 3 Answer these questions about you and, if possible, find out how someone else would answer them

1 Is your house detached? What sort is it if not?

2 Are time-shares common in any part of your country?

3 Do houses still have pantries in your country?

4 Is it common to rent bedsits in your country? If so, what sorts of people do so?

4 Read and translate the text

Where We Live

We live in Hendon. It is a suburb in north London. Our house has five rooms; two downstairs and three upstairs. There is also a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet. The kitchen is downstairs. The other two rooms downstairs are the lounge and the dining-room. We usually have our meals in the dining-room. But mother and Dennis have their lunch in the kitchen. They are alone at lunch time. We watch the television or entertain our friends in the lounge.

You enter the house from the front door. There is a hall leading to the staircase. A hallstand is on one side of the hall. There are two doors on the other side and one door at the end. This leads to the kitchen.

The three rooms upstairs are bedrooms. The bathroom and toilet are also upstairs. My parents sleep in the big bedroom. Dennis also sleeps there. It faces the back garden. I share the small bedroom with Tommy. It faces the street. Betty's room is very small. It also faces the street.

In winter we must heat the house. Many English houses and flats now have central heating. We have a boiler in our kitchen. It is gas-fired. It heats the water and the house. Electric fires are expensive to run. The heating and lighting go wrong sometimes. The householder has a lot of problems. It is good if he knows something about electricity. Furniture may be in need of repair. He has to knock nails into the wall. Sometimes he has to screw screws into the cupboards and other wooden articles. My father can do this very well.

We all help mother with the housework. I sweep the floor and hoover the carpets. Betty does the dusting and tidies up the rooms. We each make our own bed.

Dad helps mum with the washing up. She washes the dishes. He dries them. Mother washes the clothes. She sends some to the laundry. Sometimes father does the ironing but usually either Betty or mother does it.

We do not own the house. It is a council house. We pay our rent to the council. The rent is rather high now. My grandparents own the house they live in. They must pay off for it. It usually takes 25 years. Most English people still live in houses.

Memorize the words and word-combinations
from the box


divan bed


to screw

upstairs lounge staircase




laundry electricity furniture

to sweep

to tidy up

to hoover

hallstand banisters boiler

central heating repair

washing up


to share

to pay off

to face smth

to be tucked in

to go wrong

^ UNIT 3

Meals and Food

Family eating habits

1 Read and translate the text

Our Food

Since most of us eat their meals with the family, suppose we talk about family meals.

Have you ever thought of different kinds of food? We get food from animals and birds, plants and fish. We get meat from the cow, the pig and the sheep. Pork is the meat we get from the pig. From the sheep we get mutton. From the cow we get meat, which is called beef. We also make butter and cheese. From the duck and the hen we get poultry and eggs.

Still a large number of people in the world have to depend on plants (these include fruit, vegetables and cereals). What kinds of food come from cereals? First think of bread, made from wheat, rye, oats and corn. Then there are so called "pastes" ('pasta') like macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and many others. Barley is used in delicious soups.

Let's talk about fruit and vegetables. Can you imagine how drab our meals would be if we had no gardens? We would miss most of the colour in our meals - the colour of the ripe tomato, a bright orange, the greenness of fresh peas or spring onion. We would also miss much flavour in our meals.

We eat many kinds of fish too. As for drinks we have tea, coffee, cocoa, milk, wine and beer.

Memorize the words and word-combinations
from the box







meat (pork, mutton, beef)


drinks (tea, coffee, cocoa, milk, wine, beer)

^ 2 Answer the questions

1 What do we get food from?

2 Are the cereals very important? Why?

3 What kinds of vegetables, fruit and berries do you know?

The national food

1 Read the texts and comment on the national peculiarities of the Ukrainian and English cuisine

Ukrainian Cuisine

The hospitality of Ukrainian people is well-known throughout the world. Ukrainian cuisine is rich and varied. In Ukraine there is a large variety of milk products: cottage cheese, sour cream, several types of sour milk products of the yoghurt type. Sour cream can be used with almost anything: a part of it in the borshch (a kind of sour-sweet aromatic and nourishing vegetable soup typical for Ukraine), a spoonful eaten with meat dish, or strawberries and apples sliced up small and eaten mixed with sour cream or cream. It is also used on pancakes or vareniki (cottage cheese or cherry dumplings).

There is a big choice of appetizers, soups, hot and dessert dishes. As for cold meat dishes our guests can taste ham, lean cold boiled pork with spices, jellied tongue, meat jelly and horse-radish sauce and various salads (beginning with salad "Stolychniy" up to Russian salad).

How about soups? There are plenty of them. Ukrainian borshch with beetroot, cucumber soup (rassolnik), mushroom soup and fish soup, soups in season -okroshka and cold beetroot soup are very popular with our guests.

For the hot dish guests can order meat dishes to their taste: roast veal and mashed potatoes, chicken cutlets Kiev style, special pot-roast, stuffed cabbage rolls, stewed rabbit or hare, meatballs with buckwheat.

There is a large variety of poultry and game dishes: roast chicken, roast duck and goose stuffed with apples and sauerkraut. They are juicy and tender. As for dessert you can have vareniki, a great variety of buns and cakes, stewed fruit and different kinds of fruit and berries: water-melon and melons, grapes, pears, apricots, peaches, strawberries, red and black currant.

The usual meals in Ukraine are breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper.

Breakfast is the first meal of the day. Dinner is the chief and the most substantial meal. It isn't served at a definite hour in our country.

In great many Ukrainian homes dinner is followed by a cup of tea with a slice of lemon, jam or home-made pastry.

^ British Meals

Two things never fail to confuse foreigners when they come to Britain: cricket and British meals. However, whereas the visitor can live without understanding cricket (indeed, most British people have little grasp of the rule of the game), it is almost impossible to survive without any understanding of British eating habits. The following passage may help to make things clearer.

Understanding British meals is one of the great mysteries to the foreign visitor. Over the centuries, the British have shown the tendency to name and re-name their meals, and to move them about the day in an apparently random fashion. Further to confuse outsiders, it is the rule with them to give different names to each meal depending on the social class and part of the country they live in.

Breakfast, which was once taken at 5 o'clock in the morning, can now be at any time before 11.30. It has thus overtaken dinner. In Norman times - the 12th century dinner was at 9 a.m., by the 15th century it had moved to 11 a.m., and today it can be eaten at any time between noon and 2.30. in the afternoon and is called lunch by a large proportion of the population, especially the middle and the upper classes and people from southern Britain. Many farm labourers, however, who start work at sunrise and have their breakfast before they go to work, still stop for a lunch break at about nine o'clock.

In the 14th century supper was at 4 o'clock - which is now called tea-time. But outside the south-east of England, working families have tea or high tea at about six in the evening while the rest of their fellow-countrymen have dinner, which is often also called supper, at about 7.30. p.m.

^ UNIT 5


1 Basic vocabulary

1 Translate marked words into Ukrainian or Russian and memorize them.

Cold weather

In Scandinavia, the chilly (1) days of autumn soon change to the cold days of winter. The first frosts (2) arrive and the roads become icy. Rain becomes sleet (3) and then snow, at first turning to slush (4) in the streets, but soon settling (5), with severe blizzards (6) and snowdrifts (7) in the far north. Freezing weather often continues in the far north until May or even June, when the ground starts to thaw (8) and the ice melts (9) again.

2 Put the following adjectives into the correct pattern below:

lovely miserable beautiful horrible fabulous glorious terrible foul

a What......../......../......../........weather! It hasn't stopped raining all day.

b What......../......../......../........weather! Let's go down to the beach.

^ 3 Match each group of adjectives with one of the nouns on the right:

1 light, steady, heavy, torrential a storm

2 light, stiff b fog

3 dense, thick, patchy c sky

4 severe, tropical d breeze

5 clear, blue, grey, cloudless e rain

4 Read and translate the texts


Spring, summer, autumn and winter are the four seasons. March. April and May are the spring months; June, July and August are the summer months; December, January and February are the winter months.

When winter sets in the days are short and the nights are long. It is often cold and sometimes it freezes hard, Cold winds blow from the North. It often snows. The temperature is below zero, sometimes it drops to 30 degrees below zero Centigrade (-30 °C). There is much snow on the roads. The water freezes in the rivers and lakes. It's often windy and frosty. Some people are fond of winter. They like to ski and skate.

In spring it gets warm. The snow thaws, the ice on the rivers melts. The temperature rises. The trees begin to bud, the flowers begin to bloom. The gardens are full of flowers, it sometimes rains heavily, but spring rains are warm arid pleasant. In May we sometimes have thunderstorms.

In summer it is very warm and sometimes even hot. On some days the temperature rises to 30 degrees above zero Centigrade (+30 °C).

At the beginning of autumn it was still warm. But then it got cool. It often drizzled. The sky was overcast. The leaves on the trees turned red and yellow. But when the days were sunny and warm we often went to the forest.

At the end of autumn it gets dark rather early. The weather is often unpleasant. It often drizzles and it's foggy.


The climate of Great Britain varies considerably depending upon the time of the year and the area. Great Britain includes four different countries: England in the south, Wales to the west of England, Northern Ireland off the western coast of Wales and also Scotland in the north. England's driest months are July and August with very little rainfall. Temperatures are warm with an average of around 25° C throughout England. During the winter months, however, the rainfall increases amazingly. Almost every day during January and February sees rain or cold winds. Temperatures fall to a little above 0° C and the sun is very rarely seen.

Wales to the west has a large number of mountains, the main range is the Cambrians. This is the first natural barrier encountered by clouds passing over from the Atlantic, and it causes a large amount of rainfall in this area. Rainfall is much higher than in England but the temperatures are very similar during both the summer and winter months.

Scotland is almost a thousand kilometers to the north of London. This results in a much lower average temperature year-round. Indeed the highlands of Scotland, the area furthest north, has temperatures in January and February as cold, if not colder, than Kyiv. Temperatures of -20° C and below are common. The rainfall is huge. There are many jokes from the south of England about how cold and wet Scotland is.

Ireland faces the Atlantic Ocean. This means that whatever comes across the Atlantic meets Ireland before it meets anything else. On the western coast of Ireland there are a few low mountains which catch a lot of rain. The exposed situation of Ireland also results in very cold winds blowing across from the ocean. The high rainfall in both Ireland and Scotland however means that both countries are amongst the greenest and the most beautiful in the whole Europe.

^ 5 Use these words to complete the sentences:

freezing cool mild warm humid chilly

  1. It's absolutely out. I'd put a coat on if 1 were you.

  2. We've had lovely sunshine. It's been so ... I've been on the beach every day.

3 I was on holiday in Thailand last month. It was so……… all the time. Thank goodness the hotel had air-conditioning.

  1. It was pretty hot down at the beach but there was a lovely breeze.

  2. It's a bit in here. 1 think I'll put the heating on.

  3. We haven't had a bad winter at all. It's been very………for the time of year.

6 Choose the correct ending for each sentence:

1 It's pouring

2 I'm soaked! 1 just got caught

3 It looks like it's going to rain. If I were you, I'd take……

4 The weather's terrible. 1 hope it clears up

5 It suddenly started pouring down. 1 had to shelter……

6 My feet are soaking wet. I got out of the car and stepped……

a a bit later.

b in a doorway.

c an umbrella.

d in a huge puddle.

e in that heavy shower.

f with rain out there!

^ UNIT 6


1 Basic vocabulary

Translate into your language:

cotton ................

wool .................

linen .................

silk .................

denim .................

leather .................

suede .................

fur .................

striped .................

floral :.:..:...........

plain ...............

checked ...............

chic ................

elegant ................


messy ................


scruffy ................

smart ...............

trendy .................

^ 2 Write the following words with the correct group below:

shirt skirt shoes trousers

1 tight, baggy, flared ......................

2 long, knee-length, short .....................

3 flat, platform, running .....................

4 long-sleeved, short-sleeved, collarless ......................

^ 4 Answer the questions

1 Which do you prefer for clothing: wool, cotton, silk, nylon, mixed fabrics?

2 Do you hesitate when you buy new clothing?

3 What clothing do you prefer: fashioned, comfortable, tight, free?

4 What clothing do you prefer: expensive, cheap, new, old? Why?

5 What do you usually wear at home?

6 What do you wear when it's warm?

7 What do you wear when it's cold?

8 What do you wear on rainy days?

9 What do you wear in your office?

10 What colours are only for men (for women, for both)?


All towns have a shopping centre, where most of the shops are to be found. In large towns many of these separate shops are combined to form a department store where the shopper can buy almost all he needs under one roof. The big stores started in America, and the idea was brought to England by Gordon Selfridge about fifty years ago. Selfridge's is still one of the biggest stores in London as well as Harrods. The department stores which sell the cheaper kinds of goods in London are Woolworth's and Marks and Spencer's. Branches of these stores are to be found in almost every town in Britain. There are two of them in Oxford Street and you must be sure to visit them. The important thing about shopping in England is to decide exactly what you want and how much you are prepared to pay before going into the shop. Shop assistants are specially trained in advertising. Many shops have retained their old looks, but not their old prices which go up steadily.

The store is divided into departments: women's clothes, men's clothes, shoes, hosiery, toys, sports goods, leather goods, china and glass, food and so on. Sometimes there is a tea-room and a restaurant as well. There is a room where you can write letters, and a post-office to post them. You will also find a room where you can rest if you are tired. There are men's and women's hairdressers and an office where you book seats for the theatre or arrange to travel anywhere in the world. If you are with someone who does not want to do the shopping, leave him at some of these places to have a rest or to watch people go by. Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street are rightly considered the shopping streets in London. Though Chelsea, the King's Road in particular, is still a great favourite for the young because they can find all the latest fashions at various price levels. Most shops in London are open from 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. from Monday to Saturday although a few close on Saturday afternoons.


In order to cook something good you need to have a good supply of food products. If you are not in the mood to cook, you can buy semi-prepared food.

There are several forms of shopping for food in Ukraine. You can go to supermarkets, grocery stores or open-air market places. Today we will take you shopping at the supermarket.

So it's a supermarket. There are many customers in it. There one can buy all the necessary foodstuffs: meat, fish, milk, grocery, baking items, sweets, the cooked sausages, smoked foods, vegetables and fruit.

In the meat aisle the customers can buy beef, pork, mutton, sometimes veal, poultry and game.

They have a wide choice of fish: There is live carp, pike and bream.. There is much fresh-frozen fish: perch, cod and some other. There is herring and kipper. There is much tinned fish. They have a wide choice of milk products: bottled and unbottled milk, cream, kefir, sour cream, cheese, curds, cottage cheese, pot cheese, cream cheese, eggs, mayonnaise, margarine and butter (salted and unsalted).

In the grocery aisle there are all kinds of cereals: oatmeal, semolina, rice, buckwheat, millet, cooking soda, spices, flour, pea and potato flour. You can buy salt, matches, oil, macaroni, vermicelli, noodles and some other products. Everything is sold ready packed.

You go for white and brown bread to the bread counter.

There is a rich choice of items in the confectionery: sugar, granulated sugar, caramel, rich sweets, chocolates, bars of chocolate, biscuits, pastry, jam-puffs, fancy-cakes, tarts, fruit cakes, wafers, marmalade and also tea, coffee, cocoa. Next to this is the delicatessen and smoked meats and sausages. It offers you all kinds of sausages: boiled, half-smoked and smoked, liver paste, ham; lean boiled pork with spices (buzhenina), tinned beef and pork.

The green grocery and fruit aisles look very attracting. Here you can buy fresh, tinned and dried vegetables and fruits; potatoes, carrots, beets and onions are in string bags, fine fresh cabbages, spring onions and lettuce. Don't forget about cauliflower, radishes and green peas!

Pears, apples and plums look very appetizing. You can also buy grapes, oranges, tangerines, bananas, lemons and pineapples. In spring and summer the shop has a great variety of berries: strawberries, cherries, raspberries, black and red currants, gooseberries. In autumn and winter - red bilberries and cranberries and all year round you can have fruit and berry jams. The shop is clean and fine.

Every day I do shopping. When I come into the shop, I take a food basket and choose the necessary products. It doesn't take much time. I come up to the cashier's desk, pay the

money and leave the shop. The saleswomen and salesmen are very polite.

^ 12 Complete the following using these words:

aisle checkout baskets plastic bag organic trolley

1 I hate carrying those wire..................I use a.................at the supermarket.

2 I think working on a.....................must be a really boring job.

3 If everyone uses one.....................every time they go shopping, that's an awful lot of pollution.

4 Could you tell me where the coffee is, please? > Third...................... on the right.

5 Excuse me, are these potatoes.........................? >No, the.....................section is over there, sir.


Working Day


Jeff Fuller is a salesman. He has a wife and three children and lives in San Francisco. He travels a lot. Every week he goes to New York or Washington or Chicago. He brings home presents for his wife and children.

Last week he had to go to Chicago on business. He left San Francisco on Monday morning. He got to Chicago at noon. He went to the Park Hotel and had lunch. In the afternoon he talked to some businessmen. That evening he called his friend, Carlos, and they had dinner at the hotel.

On Tuesday he worked all morning. In the afternoon he went shopping. He bought toy cars for the children. He got a present for his wife, too. On Tuesday evening he was alone. At 7.30 he called his wife. He talked to the children, too. Then he was happy.

On Wednesday morning he got up at 6.00. He took the 8.00 plane to San Francisco. He didn't want breakfast on the plane, but he drank some coffee and read the paper. He got to San Francisco at 9.30. He took a taxi and went home. His wife and daughter were at home. They were glad to see him and get their presents.

After breakfast Mr. Fuller went to his office. When he entered the office he found a number of business letters on his desk. Mr. Fuller sat down and began to look through the letters. Suddenly the telephone rang. Mr. Fuller took up the receiver and heard the voice of his chief. The chief asked Mr. Fuller to come over to his office and discuss the results of the trip.

After the talk with the chief Mr. Fuller came back to his office and continued his work.

At 1 o'clock he went out for lunch. In the afternoon he had several visitors. At 5 o'clock he took part in a meeting and made a report on his trip to Chicago.

Mr. Fuller came home later than usual that day. His wife and children were waiting for him. They all had dinner together. After dinner Mr. Fuller told his wife and children about his business trip and his friends in Chicago. Then he looked through the papers and watched television. At half past ten he switched off the TV set and went to bed.

^ 7 Find in the text appropriate English phrases for the following:

Нісенітниця! Ми все - таки працюємо! Тобі пощастило. Ми не починаємо раніше ніж о 9.30. Вчитель не любить, коли ми хоча б на хвилинку запізнюємося. Я не для того приїхав в Англію, щоб марнувати час. О котрій годині ви починаєте заняття у вашій школі, я вважаю, ви небагато працюєте у вашій школі.

^ 4 Use the correct form of these verbs to complete the sentences:

relax take give it up learn get spend join take up

l I'm................to play the guitar.

2 I..........all my free time doing karate. I..........a club three years ago and I've just got my black belt.

3 I used to go windsurfing every week but now I had to .......... when I started university because I didn't have the time.

4 I paint most evenings and weekends. I find it relaxing and it..........my mind off work.

5 I go fishing quite a lot. It........me out of the house and it helps me.........and forget all my worries.

6 I........ golf when I was about 40, when I had to stop playing rugby.


At weekends in England people like to relax. You can relax in many different ways. Some people like to stay at home with their families, and others like to go out and enjoy themselves. Young people enjoy going out to pubs, to the cinema or to nightclubs. Many young people also like to play different kinds of sports. Tennis is very popular in England in the summer when you can play outdoors. Other popular sports are badminton, football, basketball and cricket. Cricket is a very traditional English game. It is played a lot at schools and in villages in the summer.

If you have children, you often go on day-trips to the seaside or take your children to amusement parks or perhaps to the zoo. In the summer, many parents like to take their children on picnics in the countryside, especially if they live in a big city. It is nice to get away from the noise and the traffic at weekends and relax in a country.

If you have a house in the country you probably spend a lot of your time in the garden. Gardening is another very traditional English pastime. People are very proud of their gardens and spend many hours trying to grow beautiful flowers and rare bushes.

English people usually have about 5 weeks' holiday a year apart from public holidays like Christmas and Easter. Many people like to go abroad for their holidays because the English weather is not always sunny. People want to lie in the sun and swim in the sea. So they cross the Channel and go to France, Spain or Italy. Some people fly, but a lot of people drive in their cars to the beaches in Southern Europe. However, many people also enjoy staying in Britain and visiting other regions of their own country. They like going to the seaside in the south of England or the Lake District in the north. Many people also go to Scotland. It all depends on what you enjoy doing. You can relax in many different ways in England.


Deep Snow

A spring blizzard covered the north of Nebraska in deep snow within only one hour. Winds and heavy snow broke down trees. Airports were closed and cars, buses and trains were stuck in the deep snow. By three o'clock in the afternoon it was already dark.

Susan Fletcher was returning home from a shopping trip in her father's car. She had done the week's shopping at a supermarket fifteen miles away from her parents' farm. She was on a small side road. In the light of the headlamps the snow was like a white wall. She had heard the weather warnings on the radio, but she had expected to be home before the storm came. But now, in the heavy storm and snow fall, she could hardly see where she was driving. She was alone on the road and began to sing.

Suddenly she saw something big and dark in front of the car. Was it a tree or was it a house? She stepped on the brake. There was a soft crash. Then the car stood still.

She wanted to start the engine, but it wouldn't start. Then she tried to open the doors or windows but she couldn't. They were frozen. The car was stuck in the snow. All around the car there was deep snow. She couldn't get out! She waited in the darkness. Somebody would find her. But when? There was no sound. How quiet it was! She felt the icy air around her. First she put on her thick coat. But it didn't help. She got colder and colder. Then she put empty shopping boxes round her body. This helped for a while. She fell asleep. She heard the noise of snow ploughs and helicopters in her dream, but she didn't wake up.

Next day a rescue team found the white car deep in the snow beside a big tree. Only a bit of the roof could be seen. The men got through the snow to the car and broke a window. They could see somebody moving on the seat. "Hello. Wake up. You're saved." Susan slowly turned her head.

One man in the rescue team told the reporters: "The snow that almost killed the young lady saved her life. The car was completely covered with snow. This kept the temperature inside the car above zero. But if she had stayed there much longer, it would have been too late for Susan."

^ Answer the questions on the text:

1 Where did Susan live?

2 Why was she out in her father's car?

3 Why couldn't she open the doors?

Our school trip last year

One of the things I like best at school is going on outings and trips. Once a year every class goes on a school trip. Our school trip last year was in July. We began planning our five-day trip in October. First we couldn't decide what to do. There were many ideas. Some of us wanted to visit a big city like Berlin or Frankfurt. Others wanted to go to a different country, to the sea or to the mountains. Sometimes we prepared our meals ourselves, sometimes we went to the restaurant. We didn't have any trouble with our teacher and so it was a really good holiday!

But we didn't want to spend a lot of money and so we finally decided to go camping. One of my class mates had a good idea. He had been to a camping site on the German coast the year before. He showed us some photos and soon we knew that this was the camping site for us. Our teacher also thought that it was a good idea, and so we started to plan everything. During the next few months we were very busy: we wrote letters to a camping site near the Northern Sea and to the German railway. We began saving money, because we needed a lot of things (like tents and airbeds, cookers and pots). But everything was ready just in time. We went by train. When we left it was beautiful weather but when we arrived in the North, it was raining, cold and windy. We took a bus from the station to the camping site. It took us quite a long time to put up our tents, On the site there was a little shop, a small restaurant, a pub and a swimming pool. The beach was only five minutes away. The next morning the weather changed. It became warm and sunny, and stayed beautiful for the rest of our stay. In the evenings we danced in the little pub. We met some Dutch pupils there who were staying on the same camping site. We could talk to them in English and we had a lot of fun together. It was a pity that we had to leave after only five days. But we decided to write letters to each other. I hope that we'll meet again one day

^ Answer the questions:

1 You went to the sea. Where else can you go on vacation trips?

2 Where did some classmates want to go (instead of camping at the seaside)?

3 A trip needs a lot of planning. What do you have to plan?

4 You saved your money for the trip. How else can you get money?

5 You went by train. Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of going by train.

6 You had a nice camping holiday. But sometimes camping can be very uncomfortable. When? Why?

7 What was your favourite activity at the camping site?

8 You took part in a wind-surfing course. Talk about the course and the teacher.

^ A Hairy Friend

John is 25 years old. He lives on the third floor of a house in Manhattan, New York.

When he was nineteen he had a car accident. Since then he hasn't been able to move his feet, 5 arms or even his head. He is paralyzed and can move only his left hand.

When John was sent home from hospital his life had changed. His job was gone. He was no longer able to play football, and his friends didn't visit him as often as they did before.

But it didn't take him long to learn how to get around in a wheelchair. His chair is equipped* with a computer. By pressing the keys of the computer he can turn left or right and move 15 forwards or backwards. With a small radio John can open and close doors and can control the elevator. But he always needs someone to help him and do his housework. Sometimes he feels as helpless as a baby.

For many months John's family and friends helped him, but his life became more difficult every day till something wonderful happened

A scientist* gave John one of her "students", a girl monkey called Gillian, to help him

Now John uses a lazer light to point to things he needs. When he wants his hair combed, he points at the comb with his lazer light and Gillian picks up the comb and does his hair. Or he points to a book and Gillian fetches the book and opens it at page one.

Gillian is a really good girl, and she gets something nice when she has done a good job. Then John gives her some juice on a little plate. Gillian and John have become very good friends, and they always want to stay together

^ Which of the sentences are right? One or two sentences may be right.

1) When John was eighteen...

a) he was paralyzed

b) he was only able to move his left hand.

c) he was able to play football

d) his friends often visited him

2) After the accident...

a) he had to look for a new job

b) he wasn't able to move his arms or hands.

c) his family helped him for some time. . .

d) he lost his job

3) Gillian is really...

a) a girl

b) a scientist

c) a monkey

d) a student

4) How does Gillian help John?

a) She fetches the things John is pointing at.

b) She picks up the lazer light

c) She gets some juice on a little plate. . .

d) She can do his hair

^ Answer the questions. Give short answers

a) When was John paralyzed?

b) What is special about his wheelchair?

c) What can John do with the small radio on his wheelchair?

d) How does John show Gillian what to do?

My dream job

When I've finished school I'd like to become a car mechanic. There are a number of reasons why I want to be a mechanic.

The first reason is that I'm very interested in repairing engines. When I was four or five years old I liked taking things to pieces and putting them together again. And when something in the house was broken, like a lamp, a vacuum cleaner or a record player, or a tap was dripping, my parents let me repair it.

The first reason is that I'm very interested in repairing engines. When I was four or five years old I liked taking things to pieces and putting them together again. And when something in the house was broken, like a lamp, a vacuum cleaner or a record player, or a tap was dripping, my parents let me repair it.

The second reason is that I like doing things with my hands. At the age of twelve I built my first model plane which could really fly. It had a small motor and was radio controlled. I was very proud of it. At school woodwork and metalwork are my favourite subjects.

The third reason is that a car mechanic's job is secure, because there'll always be cars to repair and to inspect. And the number of cars is still growing.

Another advantage is that a car mechanic is well-paid. And you can earn money by repairing your friends' cars.

To be fair I must say the job also has its disadvantages. The work can be hard, dirty, and even dangerous. But there are many tools and machines to help you. There are even computers for checking the engine. And I'm interested in working with computers, too.

I've already applied for an apprenticeship at a local garage. I hope they are going to take me.


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