Методичні вказівки для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей, слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів icon

Методичні вказівки для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей, слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів




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НазваМетодичні вказівки для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей, слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів
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ТипМетодичні вказівки


Міністерство освіти і науки України

Сумський державний університет


До друку та в світ

дозволяю на підставі

“Єдиних правил”,

п.2.6.14

Заступник першого проректора –

начальник організаційно-методичного

управління В.Б. Юскаєв


THE WAY TO A SUCCESSFUL CAREER


Методичні вказівки

для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей,

слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів


Усі цитати, цифровий та

фактичний матеріал,

бібліографічні

відомості перевірені,

запис одиниць

відповідає стандартам


Укладач Л.П.Ярмак


Відповідальний за випуск Г.І. Литвиненко


Декан гуманітарного факультету Л.П. Валенкевич


Суми

Вид-во СумДУ

2009

Міністерство освіти і науки України

Сумський державний університет


^ THE WAY TO A SUCCESSFUL CAREER


Методичні вказівки

для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей,

слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів


Суми

Вид-во СумДУ

2009


^ THE WAY TO A SUCCESSFUL CAREER. Методичні вказівки

для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей, слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів

/Укладач Л.П.Ярмак.-Суми:Вид-во СумДУ,2009.-46 с.


Кафедра іноземних мов


Навчальне видання


^ THE WAY TO A SUCCESSFUL CAREER


Методичні вказівки

для студентів 4-5-х курсів технічних спеціальностей,

слухачів курсів з вивчення англійської мови для професійного спілкування, аспірантів


Відповідальний за випуск Г.І.Литвиненко

Редактор Н.О. Кравченко

Комп’ютерне верстання Н.О. Кравченко


Підп. до друку .2009, поз.

Формат 60х48/16.Папір офс.Гарнітура Times New Roman Суг.Друк.офс.

Ум. друк.арк. Обл.-вид.арк.

Тираж 100 пр. Собівартість вид.

Зам. №


Видавництво СумДУ при Сумському державному університеті

40007, м.Суми, вул.Р.-Корсакова, 2

Свідоцтво про внесення суб’єкта видавничої справи до Державного реєстру

ДК №3062 від 17.12.2007.

Надруковано у друкарні СумДУ

40007, вул. Р.-Корсакова, 2.


ПЕРЕДМОВА


Направленість даних методичних вказівок - навчити говорити з метою професійного спілкування за зразками діалогічного та монологічного мовлення.

Вказівки розроблені за принципом ситуативного навчання мовленню. Навчальний матеріал подається в ситуаціях, можливих під час спілкування на професійні теми («Університет», «Лабораторія», «Експеримент», «Конференція»). Ситуації створюють умови ініціативного мовлення. Значна кількість ситуацій спрямована для рольового виконання.

Організація матеріалу передбачає послідовність формування мовленнєвих вмінь, від первинних – використання лексичних одиниць за даною тематикою – до ситуативних вправ творчого та дискусійного характеру, що готують слухачів до спонтанного діалогічного мовлення або непідготованого висловлювання.

^ Кожна тема завершується списком лексичних одиниць для обов`язкового запам`ятовування.


UNIT ONE

UNIVERSITY

  1. Next to each letter write a word, a phrase or a sentence characterising a student. Follow the example.

S – serious when dealing with serious matters

T -

U -

D -
E -
N -
T` -

S –


L -

I -

F -

E –

  1. ^ A) Use the vocabulary from the box and fill in the blanks. Use the article if necessary. One word is repeated twice.

( an applicant, a first-year student (BE)= a freshman (AE), a graduate (student)=a grad student, a group monitor, a junior (AE), a post-graduate(student), a second year student (BE)= a sophomore (AE), a senior (AE), an undergraduate (student).

My brother`s main ambition in life was to go to University. He was hard-working and did well at school. The subjects he was especially good at were Chemistry and Biology. He applied to Harvard University and became one of the successful _______________ (1) who scored high and managed to take place in this university and become _______________ (2). A year later when he was ________ ______________(3) he started to major in Biology and made good progress in his studies. He did serious research work though he was only _______________ (4) student. All the professors noted his abilities and considered him a promising researcher in future. When he became _______________(5) student he began working for his first degree. After he completed his university degree successfully, he had every chance to go on to ___________(6) studies for his master`s degree. He is now ________(7) student and doing his research in the field of Microbiology and working at this thesis. Our family is really proud of him.

^ B) Now finish the sentences below with information about yourself and your plans for the future.

1) After I handed in all the required papers to the admissions office I became...

2) My parents/ teachers wanted me to ...

3) When I was in my fourth year I had to ...

4) Being a university student I was supposed to...

5) I thought I was capable of ...

6) After I finished university I hoped I would ...

7) But I changed my mind and decided to...


3. Find the words in the box that match the definitions below.


University teachers

  • a dean

  • a deputy dean

  • the head of the department

  • an instructor= a university teacher

  • a lecturer

  • a professor

  • a rector

  • teaching stuff=faculty (AE)

  • a tutor

  • a vice-rector



  1. all the teachers at a department or university

  2. a person who is directly below the dean in rank and who is officially in charge when the dean is away; a person responsible for a certain area.

  3. a teacher in a British university or college who gives private instructions to one student or a small group of students.

  4. a person next in rank below the rector in authority; who can represent him/her or is responsible for a certain area of work.

  5. a university teacher of the highest rank.

  6. a person who is in charge of the department members, who monitors the department members.

  7. a person who, as a rule, has a doctorate degree and gives lectures.

4. Characterise two types of students using the word combinations in the box. Describe what kind of student you were.

1) to have a good ear for languages

2) to have a good /disappointing/ poor academic performance

3) to have a good/ poor attendance

4) to make progress in smth.

5) to master smth.

6) to neglect one`s studies

7) to put things off (until later/next week)

8) to have good command of smth.

9) to miss/skip classes/ to play truant

10) to fall behind a group

11) to catch up with the group/material

12) to be absorbed by/with/in

13) to do well in

14) to meet the deadline

15) to be (on) top of the class

5. Fill in the gaps with suitable prepositions if necessary.

  1. For my cousin getting ________________ university isn`t easy as his academic performance _______________ school was never good.

  2. To enter ____________ Oxford or Cambridge universities you must satisfy the university entrance requirements.

  3. ____________ most Ukrainian universities students sit ________________ their finals in June.

  4. Catherine took a three-year course ________________ Business Administration _____________ Ealing College of Higher Education.

  5. Most universities courses lead _________ either bachelor`s or master`s degrees.

  6. There are two types ___________ courses. The first type deals___________ one main subject and its additional subjects___________ related fields.

  7. The combined or double honours course covers ______________two main subjects ____________ the same level.

  8. If you skip classes and don`t revise properly ____________ your exam, you`ll do badly _________________ it.

  9. Susie was expelled ______________ her third year____________ her bad academic performance.

  10. My granny taught me never to put _______________ my project work even it was due to be handed ___________ a month later.

  11. Try never to be late ______________ classes as your late arrival disturbs the lesson.

  12. When I went to school I was always good __________________languages but didn`t do well ______________ sciences.

^ 6. Fill in the gaps with the right form of the verbs DO, MAKE, SIT or TAKE

  1. Have you _______________ exercise 3 yet?

  2. I can`t come this afternoon. I`m ________________ an English exam.

  3. Jack has ______________ very well this term.

  4. I`m afraid that you haven`t_________________ any progress.

  5. You all look tired. Let`s __________________ a break.

  6. This is a good composition, but you have _______________ a lot of mistakes.

  7. I think you should ____________ yourself more seriously.

  8. The teacher was delivering the lecture, and the class were ____________ notes.

  9. Paul finds phonetics difficult but he ___________ his best.

  10. If you want to pass that exam. you have to ____________ an effort.

^ 7. Choose the most appropriate word or expression in the following sentences. There is an example at the beginning (0).

0. A young child who goes to school is called a pupil /student.

1. A class at university is better known as a lesson/lecture.

2. Money which is given to students to help them study is called a fee/grant.

3. The people who work at school or college are called the crew/staff.

4. A person who has successfully completed a course at university is called a graduate/an undergraduate.

5. A teacher who gives talks to large groups of people at university is called a tutor/lecturer.

6. In Britain, the academic year is divided into three semesters/terms.

7. Courses in computer studies, retail management and other job training skills are known as vocational/postgraduate training courses.

8. You need a lot of self-discipline/self-control if you want to succeed at university.

9. Before an exam, you need to remember/revise everything for a few weeks.

10. I always used to get terrible marks/scores for my geography homework when I was at school.

11. Did you have to wear a uniform/an outfit when you went to school.

12. When I go to university, I want to do/study for a degree in Information Technology.

13. Don`t forget to do/make notes during the lesson.

14. I didn`t go to German lessons, but I managed to pick some up/ put some by when I was working in Berlin.

^ 8. Use the right form of the words in the box to complete the text.

to introduce, success, to satisfy, attentive, gift, to assign, toward, to fail, to revise, to punish, absent, to mistake, success, to read


Kathy decided to take sociology this term, and now everyone can clearly see that her _____________ (1) to the subject hasn`t been very ______________ (2). She must have chosen the subject because the boy she fancies also did it, so in class she doesn`t always pay ______________ (3) to what the teacher is saying, but keeps looking at the boy of her dream.

Her ________________(4) are often _______________ (5) because she is so untidy, and because of her ______________ (6) to check her work thoroughly. She did not have time to do any ________________(7) before the end of the term test as she had been to a party the previous night, so she had poor results. She seems to have a ________________ (8) idea that she can _____________ (9) without studying. She has also had many _____________ (10) and has frequently arrived late for classes. This has resulted in several severe ____________ (11). Although she is a _________________ (12) student in some respects and used to do well, this has not been a ___________________ (13) term.

9. Reading and speaking

^ "YOUR NAME AND COLLEGE, SIR?"

Who is a freshman?

What are BA and Ph.D?

What is Open University?

There are over a million students in the British higher education. The Government aims to have widened access to the point where 1 in 3 young people goes into higher education. All Britain's universities enjoy complete academic freedom. They appoint their own staff and decide what and how to teach. The tradition of excellence dates back to the Middle Ages when Oxford and Cambridge Universities were founded. The rest of Britain's 47 universities were set up in the last 200 years. First degree courses usually last 3 or 4 years. The Open University is a little different, because it relies on distance-learning.
England and Wales's 34 polytechnics tend to be more vocationally-orientated than universities. Many polytechnics have close links with business, and many students attend part-time. Non-graduates in teacher training take a four -year Bachelor of Education /Bed/ degree. Those who are already graduates undertake a one year Postgraduate Certificate of Education /PGCE/. At university or polytechnic people study for a degree. In general, the first degree is awarded after 3-4 years study and success in examination. It is either a BA /Bachelor of Arts/ or B.Sc. /Bachelor of Science/. If the graduate is awarded Honours it means his/her degree is of a higher standard than an ordinary pass.

Students can do further courses for special subjects such as medicine or law and get the appropri­ate qualifications. After another year or two of study and examinations in their subject they can achieve the second degree, an MA /Master of Arts/ or MSc / Master of Sciences/.

Finally, if they undertake research work and produce a thesis, after another few years, they can re­ceive the third, highest level degree, the ^ Ph.D. /Doctor of Philosophy/.

Oxford and Cambridge, thanks to their age, history and traditions, are the most famous British Universities. There are colleges for men and women. Examinations are few but important; for if the student does not pass any of them he is not given a second chance. There is an examination at the end of each year for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts /BA/ but only the final examination is taken into consideration. The final examinations are conducted by the university and not by the colleges.

The colleges of both universities are very beautiful. The most famous is the chapel of King's Col­lege, Cambridge. Most of the colleges are built in the form of squares. A new student or freshman, goes
either to lodgings in the town or to his college where he has a sitting room and a separate bedroom. Most students spend two years in lodgings and one year in a college. The new student has to visit his "tutor". He arranges with him what course of studies he will follow and what lectures he will attend. The year is di­vided into three terms of 8 weeks each: the long vacations last from mid-June till mid-October. Of all sports the most famous is rowing. The University Boat Race is the oldest of the sporting competitions between Oxford and Cambridge. The most interesting are the races for eight-oared boats or "bumping". They were invented in Oxford and Cambridge. Student traditions include wearing academic dress-cap and gown. There is a special official, the "Proctor", whose duty is to see that this rule is obeyed. He is accom­panied by two college servants, "bulldogs". They run fast to catch the student. They take him to the Proc­tor who asks, "Your name and college, sir?" The student must visit the Proctor later and pay a fine, called

"angel ".

The University of London is the only university in Great Britain that has an External Degree for which students may present themselves without any qualifications of residence or attendance at lectures.

10. Comprehension.

A. Scan for details and fill in the gaps

1) Oxford and Cambridge, are the most _______________________ universities.

2) There are _______________________ for men and women.

3) College examinations are ___________________ but very important.

4) If the student does not pass any of them he is not given a ___________________ chance.

5) The final examinations are conducted by the _____________ and not by the colleges.

6) The most famous in the __________________ of King`s College, Cambridge.

7) The colleges of both universities are very ________________.

8) Most of the colleges are built in the form of __________________.


B. Match the line A with the line B.


1. Bed

a. Bachelor of Science

2. BA

b. he arranges courses of studies

3. B. Sc

c. Bachelor of Education

4. ph D

d. a new student

5. freshman

e. Doctor of philosophy

6. tutor

f. Bachelor of Arts

7. bumping

g. External degree

8. cap and gown

h. academic dress

9. the University of London

i. the races for eight-oared boats

C. Discuss what we have in common and different concerning university life

1. How is academic year divided ?

2. Where does a freshman reside ?

3. What does a new student arrange with his tutor?

4. The long vacations last from mid-June till mid-October.

5. What is the most famous sport for students ?

6. What do students traditions include?

11. Speaking. Look at the sample first-year schedule offered to students at the School of Education of an American University. Compare with your curriculum and answer the following questions.

Freshman year Fall Semester:

      • College writing

      • Foundation of education

      • Theology or philosophy

      • History of early America

      • Introduction to Sociology

Freshman year Spring Semester:

      • Effective Speech

      • Fundamental ideas of Math

      • Theory or philosophy

      • A course on/in your Major

      • General Psycology

  1. What is different ? What is similiar? ( compare the list of subjects and their number)

  2. Which curriculum seems more effective to you?

  3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each curriculum?

  4. Would you make any changes in your curriculum? What kind of changes would they be?

12. Speaking.

Speak about your university. Below there are the things to take into account.

1) Location and transport approach

2) Number of buildings, departments and faculties


  • a campus

  • dean`s office

  • a faculty office

  • a day-time (full-time) department

  • an evening department

  • a correspondence department

  • a domitory/hall of residence

3) Facilities:

  • a canteen

  • a gym

  • language laboratories

  • lecture theatres

  • classrooms

  • cloakrooms

  • a library

  • video classrooms

  • on-line education

  • computer classrooms

4. Timetable (schedule):

  • number of shifts

  • number of lessons a day/ a week

5. Syllabus/Curriculum:

  • optional and compulsory subjects

  • courses

  • length of courses

  • exams tests

6. Extra-curricular activities:

  • a musical studio

  • a choir

  • student`s newspapers

  • sport club

  • a drama club

7. Cost:

  • free or charge

  • annual/term/monthly fees

8. Student`s accomodation:

  • halls of residence/hostel/domitory

  • renting rooms/flats

9. Discipline control of attendance and academic performance:

  • group registers

  • intermediate/ continuous assessment

  • expulsion

  • re-sitting exams

10. Planning one`s scientific career:

  • to take up maths as one`s special field

  • to do / to carry out/to conduct research

  • to do/ to make/to carry out/to conduct/ to perform an experiment

  • to prove/disprove one`s hypothesis.

  1. A. Reading and speaking.

The following is an extract from a letter written by an Ukrainian girl, Olga, studying at a grad school in California, to her former teacher in Ukraine.

Being in grad school takes a lot of discipline and self-policing. If you are an undergrad, usually you have a somewhat more rigid schedule, less homework and there is time left for extramural activities, so to say. So, my regular day is not quite regular in a regular sense.

This said, my usual day starts at around sevenish/ seven-thirtiesh with a disturbing chorus of about three alarm clocks. I try to get up early, but I like to sleep a lot. Thus, most of the days I manage to cheat my alarms and snooze for about half an hour. Uh, the wonders of technology.

Eventually, I wake up and glance over my to-do list; which is at most times quite ambitious and requires more than one day's time to complete. My daily planner is usually full of to-read, to-write, to-email and to-talk-to-people lists. The first two take about ninety percent of the day. This term I am in class for only seven hours a week. When it's not a Thursday or Tuesday (the two days when I have classes), I am usually in a local cafe by about 8.30 with my laptop and a pile of articles (or books) to work through. I read, I take notes, I write papers I have to. This process takes patience and a lot of coffee. By about lunch-time I am usually ready to grab a snack and go to the department, where I write all the e-mails (to professors, student-colleagues in other universities): e-mails would normally go with a sentence or two of some text, and an attachment — a working paper, a presentation, a report or whatever people want from me. I print out more articles. At days when I feel extremely productive I go to the library and pick up a couple of books I think I need and that, at the moment, I have every intention to read (hah, they add a line or two on my day's to-do-list and always get pushed over to tomorrow. You have to put off till tomorrow what you can't do today. Literally).

On a nice day, though, I would go out and do my work in a little park down the road — you can lay out on the grass and read all you want. In winter time it is mostly raining and, thus, grass-laying and sun-bathing could be quite complicated.

Then — I head home, cook or warm up dinner, chat with my roommate for a while (while trying to watch some TV, read some article or all of the above at the same time). The working day continues. I stay up till about midnight, or later at days of long to-do-lists and then I crash. Then it all starts all over. In the worst case to-do-lists demand twenty-four hour attention and the next day becomes a part of the previous day.


B. Say, whether you have the same routine being in your last year of University studies using the follow expressions:

1) a rigid schedule

2) extramural activities

3) to snooze for about half and hour

4) to glance over my ambitious to-do list

5) to grab a snack

6) to get pushed over to tomorrow ( about a task)

7) to lay out on the grass

8) to crash


^ 14. Explain how you understand the following quotatations

1) «A university should be a place of light, of liberty and of learning» (Benjamin Disraeli)

2) «Knowledge is a city, to the building of which every human being brought a stone» (Ralph W. Emerson)

3) «Education is what remains when we have forgotten all we have been taught» (Lord Halifax)

^ Useful language box


My subject/ special fields in..

I major in

I`m doing/taking a post graduate course in ..

I study full/part time, on line

to specialize in ...

to do/ to carry out/ to conduct research

to be good at

a supervisor

to do well/badly in

to have a rough time

a tough problem

to get on with

an elective course

a guest lecturer

to study in depth

to conduct a seminar

a leading authority

to feel confident

to give a talk on

to make progress in

to master smth

to neglect one`s studies

to rehearse

to revise for an exam in

to take/to sit for/to do an exam

to fail an exam in a subject

to resit/retake an exam

to cram

faculty (department)

rector (principal, head of university)

dean

deputy dean

to acquire skills in research

under the guidance of a supervisor

professional journal publication

to defend thesis (dissertation)


UNIT II

^ RESEARCH WORK


  1. Research opportunity of Sumy State University

A. Read the text and discuss research opportunities you have got to become prominent scientist in your field

With the full range of non-degree, undergraduate, and graduate programs presently in place, the University offers advanced study not only in the complete spectrum of basic disciplines, but also in many unique areas. Every department has its own special strengths, possesses special resources, centres of investigation, and research opportunities.

There are 15 special research laboratories and centres providing for investigation and research projects. Some projects are supported by the local community, industrial enterprises, institutions, and companies in the area. Some are of national interest. There are also programs supported by international grants. The University is in possession of intellectual rights for more than 150 innovations.

The University offers unlimited opportunity for the aspiring students. A lot of them are deeply involved in research. In this way the students develop proficiency in their special field and become highly qualified specialists.

Every year the University hosts from 8 to 10 all-Ukrainian and international scientific conferences in the field of Physics, Mathematics, Medicine, Economics. More than 1000 research papers by the University faculties, students and research assistants are published in scientific journals in Ukraine and abroad.

The University offers 25 post-graduate programs, 9 doctoral programs, and a program for advanced military studies. It has specialized academic boards for conferring scientific degrees (Kandidat Nauk, Doctor Nauk) in the following fields: Physics of Instruments, Cells and Systems; Physical Electronics; Solid-State Physics; Economics and Management of Scientific and Technological Progress; Environmental Economics and Environmental Protection; Vacuum Equipment and Compressors; Hydraulic Machines and Hydropneumatic Units; Chemical Machinery and Processes.

There is published a periodical journal “Sumy State University Bulletin” in the following series: “Technical Sciences” (Mechanical Engineering, Automation, Electronic Engineering, Information Science); “Medicine”; “Economics”, “Physics, Mathematics, Mechanics, Linguistics”, as well as a scientific journal dealing with history and culture of Ukraine “Sumska Starovyna”.

The University has developed major research strengths in the following fields:

– automatic lines development and optimization;

– machines and tools for mechanical-engineering production;

– advanced methods of metal treatment;

– ecological problems of chemical production;

– problems of environmental economics and environmental protection;

– the creation of mathematical models and algorithms of design processes and complex systems optimization;

– basic research in the field of physics and mathematics;

– the investigation of the state of health of children and grown-ups under the influence of unfavourable social, economic and ecological factors;

– cultural and humane aspects of transformations in society, etc.

Some innovative programs are top-ranked both nationally and internationally. Among them:

– problems of pump and compressor production;

– granulation of fertilizers and other substances;

– environmental economics and environmental protection;

– machine rotor sealing and diagnostics of engineering systems;

– interaction of physical fields in bodies under deformation and stress;

– sustained development of economic systems;

– processes in microelectronic films;

– physics of relativistic plasma-like systems;

– theory of disbalanced systems;

  • magnetic self-organized structures.

Every postgraduate working on a research program is provided with an adviser and referees for the refereering and evaluation of his thesis.

On completing his course of study every candidate must submit a thesis which must comply with the following conditions:

  1. The greater portion of the work submitted therein must have been done subsequently to the registration of the student as a postgraduate;

  2. It must form a distinct contribution to the knowledge of the subject and afford evidence of originality, shown either by the discovery of new factors or be the exercise of independent critical power.

If the thesis is satisfactory on all points the candidate defends it and he is awarded the degree of Kandidate Nauk in his field.


^ II. LABORATORY

Both students and postgraduates work in the laboratories of an University to supplement their theoretical knowledge with practical training.

A. Have a talk with someone. Make up dialogues using modifications:

  1. I`d like to get lab experience; I think I ought to get more practical experience; It`s a field that interests me very much.

  2. Laboratory assistants help to do research in the lab (to keep laboratory equipment in good order, clean instruments and apparatus, repair meters, check and adjust devices).

  3. A laboratory chief has got some big ideas about the lab (to re-equip our lab with up-todate machines and devices; staff the lab with more research workers and engineers; improve the working conditions of the staff; get funds to build a new lab block; start a new series of experiments; improve research activities).

  4. A laboratory chief is equipping the laboratory with machines

( installations, instruments, mechanisms, apparatus, units).

  1. They are installing new equipment (adjusting an amplifier; mounting the generator; assembling a new device; repairing a meter.

  2. The new equipment does not work properly (locate, diagnose and repair the faults; it`s the only way of copying with equipment failures).

B. Below are a series of situations. Imagine you are in these situations. Discuss things, make your own suggestions, put forward objections to other people`s suggestions if you can think of reasons why they wouldn`t work.

  1. Imagine you are the chief of the lab. You have been told to modernize your laboratory. You need the help of your staff. You have a short talk with each member of the lab in turn. Sometimes you agree, sometimes you disagree, but all these talks are very helpful.

Key words: Our laboratories must be modernized.

The lab efficiency must be increased. We must use the latest scientific and technical aids. We ought to do it quickly. We are not ready to do it yet. Our methods should be changed. We are not properly financed.

  1. You are the assistant chief of the lab. You are making plans for increasing the scope of research. You are considering some very complicated problems and consulting your research workers on the ways to solve these problems. Whether these problems have any solutions. Teams to be organized. Devices to be used. Cooperations with other labs and plants. Terms of completing the research programme. Some researchers are for increasing the scope of research, others are against. All give their reasons.

Key words: Some installations are out-of-date. We are pressed for time. We can`t get the most modern equipment. We must get modern instrumentation. We will not accept the defeat.

  1. You are a junior research worker. You have written a very successful thesis. You are defending your thesis. You are very optimistic about your ideas. But your opponents are not inclined to share your views. In fact, your views do not quite coincide.

Key words: The method is reliable. To give constant productivity. It is easy to operate. It is difficult to foresee the outcome. More disadvantages than advantage. You should not forget how much it costs. You are not careful enough with the data obtained. It is not intended for immediate use.

C. Complete the text speaking about the chief of your laboratory:

Dr. N. is a famous scientist. His special field is sealing. He is an expert in computers. He graduated from our University 15 years ago and obtained his doctor`s degree 3 years ago. Now he is a chief of the laboratory. He does research but he is a good organizer as well. Dr. N has published many papers and takes part in numerous conferences and symposia. He is fond of making speaches. He is very enthusiastic about ....

D. Compose the dialogue about the chief of the laboratory using such information:

Dr. N. is a broad-minded person. His special field in .... He is interested in .... He has imagination for .... He wants to construct .... He is very enthusiastic about .... He is actively engaged in .... He is a clever and able executive.

The following phrases may help you:

As far as I know (remember); In my opinion; They say; To tell the truth....

Useful language box

to get more practical experience

to keep equipment in good order

to repair

to check

to adjust (to regulate)

to re-equip

to improve research activities

advanced instrumentation

to order some devices

I`m very enthusiastic about

a very complicated problem

to set up a laboratory

to be actively engaged in research

a fascinating project

reliable research

to cope with equipment failures


^ III. Experiment

Both students and post graduates take part in experimental work which is usually performed in the laboratories of an University.

A. Have a talk with someone. Make up dialogues using modifications:

1. It is necessary to perform (to do, to carry out, to conduct) an experiment.

2. The information we possess is very incomplete. There is a lack of data. We want reliable information on the subject. It is the only way to verify our assumption (to prove or disprove our hypothesis).

3. The experiment is going to be very promising (it is a very specific experiment, it is highly technical experiment, it is carefully designed experiment).

4. Theories should be built on experimental data (to test our hypothesis, to obtain some necessary data, to confirm our theory, to study certain phenomena, to master a new technique, to test a new approach, to make some measurements).

5. A real scientist must be able to overcome difficulties/obstacles, lack adequate equipment (reliable machines, suitable techniques, highly skilled men, high precision instruments).

6. We are going to apply a newly-developed method (to learn the technique for our experiment, to look for suitable technique, to find the right approach, to work out a new approach).

7. We are making preparations for an experiment (building the apparatus, designing the apparatus, preparing instruments, checking the devices, getting the equipment ready).

8. We are finally ready to start (to make all the necessary measurements, to take readings of the apparatus, to write down the measurements, to record the data, to carry out observations).

9. The experiment was a failure/ the experiment was poorly designed, the apparatus was not properly built, there was a shortage of high precision instruments/ of specialized equipment, highly skilled specialists, the method was rather unsuitable.

10. This time the experiment is success. It is time to take a rest. No, it is necessary to process the results (to organize the data, to classify the data, to evaluate the data, to summarize the results, to make conclusions).

11. We`ve got very interesting results (the data are in full agreement with the theory, the data prove our hypothesis, the results confirm our assumption, the data are quite convincing, our findings are very significant, the method is good, the approach is correct).

B. Practise with someone asking and answering.

1. Why is it necessary to experiment ?

2. How many stages does any experiment consist of ?

3. Is it possible to do an experiment without suitable appliances and devices ?

4. Have you performed any experiment ?

  1. What devices and instruments were necessary for your last experiment ?

  2. Was the experiment a success ?

  3. What results were obtained ?

  4. What does the reliability of experimental results depend on ?

  5. Are you going to give a talk or to write an article on the results of your investigation ?

  6. Where can the results of your experiment be used ?

  7. Is it possible to prove the hypothesis without doing an experiment ?

C. Imagine you are interviewing a laboratory chief. You want to know his opinion about the results of the experiment. Ask him:

  1. if the experiment was a success.

  2. if the results are very significant.

  3. if the data prove his hypothesis.

  4. if the data agree with the prediction.

  5. if the method appeared to be reliable.

  6. if the team are pleased with the results of the experiment.

D. Make a short dialogue or a story using some hints:

We decided to perform an experiment:

a highly specific experiment; an experiment to provide information about electron penetration through thin monocrystals of various materials-copper, silver and gold; this experiment is going to be; the leader of the experimental group/optimistic, full of energy, fond of science, interested in research, good at experimenting, to make a good team, to explain some facts, to varify some data.

E. Try your skills:

There are some situations. Imagine you are in these situations. Discuss things, make your own suggestions.

  1. A department meeting. There is one item on the agenda whether to begin a new series of experiments or not. There is a difference of opinion on the matter. Are you for or against? Give your reasons.


Some hints to help you

FOR: It is the only way to prove or disprove our hypothesis. We want reliable information. The information we possess is very limited. There is a lack of data. We should obtain additional data, make some extra measurements, check some results, master new technique.

AGAINST: We aren`t ready yet.We`ll face a lot of difficulties. We need work out a new technique, get some new appliances and devices. The researchers are very tired. There is a lack of adequate instruments and devices.

  1. Unfortunately your experiment has ended in a failure. Why? You are completely at a loss. Your collegue seems to know the reason.

Some words to help you: bad experimental conditions, lack of skilled specialists, lack of reliable information and specialized equipment, out-of-date precision instrument, low degree of measurement accuracy, the approach is wrong, the method is unsuitable.

  1. The experiment is success. You are planning to make a publication or to go to a conference with a report but your scientific supervisor is against it. You try to bring him round to the points of yours.

Use the words: to take very important data, the results are very promising, to prove the hypothesis, to confirm the theory, no publications on this subject-matter.


^ USEFUL LANGUAGE BOX


a research team

to forecast (to say in advance)

to check (to inspect)

to adjust (to regulate)

to take the readings

to end in failure

to be discouraged

a thorough-examination

to evaluate the data

to process the data

to make calculations

accurate measurements

to make a report

to face problems

to master new techniques

to come to a conclusion

convincing

promising

reliable

to justify the approach

high precision instruments

to be very enthusiastic about

to be helpful

to give a complete account of the work done

to support a viewpoint

to arrange (to hold) conferences (symposia)

to be through with the research (to complete)

at one`s disposal

to be in charge of

a prominent scientist

an expert in

he has courage in making decisions

to collaborate closely with

a charming personality

to criticise

to give his (her) arguments

to make suggestions

to get on well with research

to be actively engaged in research

to share experimental data

to join forces in work

to be grateful to

to get results valuable for a journal publication


^ UNIT THREE

Scientific conference

A conference (symposium) is an important event in a researcher`s life. The Laboratory of Environmental studies is the host to the international ecology symposium. Among those participating we can see many foreign guests who come here specially for the occasion. Let`s see who is who.


Text One

WHO IS WHO

Vladimir Kovalenko, Ukraine – Dr. Sc.(Econ) chairman of the organizing Committee interested in forecasting the needs of a big city and ecological problems connected with it.

Prof. S. Ponomarenko – member of the State Committee (Ukraine) for the Control of Natural Environment, does much ecological research on health effect of air pollution.

Prof. Thomas Clark (Gr.Britain)- Ph D, in charge of a research team studying water pollution problems.

Dr. Adam Pavlovsky (Poland)-transport planner, concerned with the problems of transport and environmental protection.

Dr. Samuel N. Canon (USA)- author of many publications on the protection of the biosphere.

E. Krammer (Germany) - concerned with the problems of noise pollution, to be exact, with the industrial noise regulations.

A. Try your skills:

  1. Imagine you are one the participants of the conference. Speak about yourself in more detail (age, place of birth, family status, scientific interests, place of work).

  2. Introduce other members of the conference.

Use the hints:

    • My English is rather poor;

    • I don`t know English well enough;

    • I`m not good at languages;

    • I would like you to meet my collegue;

    • This is Mr.Pike, a research scientist from the USA;

    • How do you do Mr.Pike. Glad to meet you. How nice to see you again. I`ve read your papers in scientific journals;

    • I would highly appreciate your sending me the reprints of your last publication;

    • What nationality are you, Kate;

    • You know Steve, don`t you. He stayed with us during the symposium in 2007;

    • Well, allow me to introduce Michael Gross from the USA;

    • Call me Mike for short. My friends call me so;

    • And this is Mrs. Sharp , I think. I`m Miss Sharp, but not Mrs. I`m not married yet. Sorry, miss Sharp. Glad to see you;

    • May I introduce myself I`m ......;.

    • We have met once at the conference 3 years ago, if I`m not mistaken;

    • I do research in the field of smog problems. What is your field ?

    • What city are you from?

    • Good morning Prof. Vasylenko. I`m looking forward to hearing your paper at the symposium. We work in the same field-noise measurements.

    • Your face seems familiar to me but I can`t place you.

    • Meet my friend, prof. Brown. Prof. Brown, are you through with your research ? I hear you developed new chemicals to fight oil pollution on water surface.



TEXT II

Before the symposium

The symposium will take place between the 5th. and 10th of June. The theme of the symposium is to be «Man and the Environment». Those giving papers are asked to supply short abstracts to the Programme Committee that plans to present every participant with a book of abstracts before the opening of the symposium. All papers accepted for the symposium will be published in the symposium proceedings ( the printed record of the activities of the symposium). We will also be very happy to welcome those who intend to take part in the discussions which will follow each paper. The major part of the programme will be devoted to sectional meetings and informal group discussions. The headquarters for registration, the information office and travel office will be located in the Main building. Accomodation (place to live) will be provided in the student`s hall of residence.

^ A. TRY YOUR SKILLS:

Give some detail information about the symposium. Accept the invitation and ask for some details. Say you can`t attend the symposium. Explain why (I`m sorry to have to decline your invitation …).

TEXT III

Opening speech

Vl. Kovalenko, Ukraine: Ladies and gentlemen. On behalf of the Organizing Committee I would like to welcome you all to our ecology symposium which opens today. Should anyone attempt to outline (to give the main points) all the present day environmental problems, he would find it beyond his competence. The environmental situation, as we know, has long been a subject of separate and joint research efforts by specialists of interrelated fields- biologists, chemists and others who have to combine their knowledge with the information available to specialists in physics, geology, oceanography and meteorology or to the experts in sociology, psychology etc.

Scientific exchange and discussions are always useful because they contribute to general scientific advance. All scientists agree that Man`s intervention in Nature is steadily increasing which is a growing threat to the environment. The air we breathe, the earth we live on and it`s rivers and seas are becoming contaminated with ever more dangerous materials – the by-products of Man`s activities. I declare the symposium open and would like to wish you all success in your discussions.

^ TRY YOUR SKILLS:

Practise with someone asking and answering:

  1. The problem of environmental protection has become the object of growing world concern.

  2. A town should have definite facilities to house an international conference. What facilities?



TEXT IV

We are thankful to the organizing Committee…

E.Kramer, Germany: Let me take, if I may, one or two minutes more. I`m sure all the participants will join me expressing my deepest gratitude to the organizers for arranging this symposium. Particular thanks must go to the Organizing Committee who spent many hours planning the symposium and anticipating our needs in order to make our visit so pleasant. The symposium has given us sufficient food for thought, the free interchange of opinions by excellent interpretation services. I therefore suggest that we all express our thanks to the interpreters who have helped us so much and ensured the smooth working of the symposium.

TEXT V

Closing speech

Vl. Kovalenko, Ukraine: Ladies and gentlemen, I`d like to thank you for joining our discussions. We certainly haven`t solved the world`s problems by any means but we have had a helpful exchange of different points of view. The laws of Nature do not depend on national boundaries and its development becomes faster due to international cooperation. We work in different countries but in the same or very sumilar fields and it often occurs that in one country we often use the results obtained in another country. I wish you all a very pleasant time during your stay in our city and success in your work for the wellfare (benefit) of Mankind.

I now declare the symposium closed. Thank you and good luck to all of you.

^ A. TRY YOUR SKILLS

  1. Imagine you are taking part in the symposium and making a speech

You are: a) a member of the Organizing Committee making an opening (closing) speech;

  1. You express your gratitude to the conference organizers for a good arrangement of work;

  2. You organize all sorts of informal gatherings during the breaks for establishing contacts;

  3. You arrange some formalities of the conference participants as the host.

  4. You organize entertainment programme for the conference participants.

^ USEFUL LANGUAGE BOX

Central (major) theme of the conference

Topics for discussion

Chairman of the conference

Papers

Speakers

Opponents

Short abstracts

To be brief

To break off the discussion

To keep to the point

An excellent presentation

To sum up the discussion

To make suggestions for the conclusions

Point by point

To come to the conclusion

As far as …is concerned

I agree entirely

Data (datum)

Evidence

Assumption

In my opinion (to my mind)

It goes without saying

On the contrary

I agree (disagree) with you

I mean to say that

You haven`t quite caught what I mean

In other words

Do you follow me

Do not go into details

Let`s keep to the point

You are getting away from the point

To sum it up

I give in (I admit I was wrong)

To crown it all

I must admit

Words fail me

To be exact

To outline the problem

To round up the discussion

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