Instructions for practical studies on the discipline \"History of Medicine\" icon

Instructions for practical studies on the discipline "History of Medicine"




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Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine

Sumy State University




3377 METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS

for practical studies

on the discipline “History of Medicine”

for the students of speciality 7.110101“Medical Care”


Part 1


Sumy

Sumy State University

2012


Methodological instructions for practical studies on the discipline “History of Medicine” / compilers: V. A. Smiyanov, S. V. Pavlicheva, O. I. Smiyanova, Yu. K. Vasylyev. – Sumy : Sumy State University, 2012. – P. 1. – 26 p.

Department of social medicine and public health protection


CONTENTS




P.

The purpose and tasks of the discipline teaching, its place in the scientific process…………………………………………………


4

Module 1. History of medicine as a science and scientific discipline. Healing in the primitive society. Healing in the Ancient World……………………………………………………



5

Lesson 1. History of medicine as a science and scientific discipline. Periodization and historical sources. Healing in the primitive society…………………………………………………



6

Lesson 2. Healing in the Ancient East……………………….......

8

Lesson 3. Healing in the Ancient Mediterranean……………......

17



^ The Purpose and Tasks of the Discipline Teaching, its Place in the Scientific Process


The purpose and tasks of the discipline teaching

The studying of the discipline promotes formation of scientific thinking and worldview of students. In the process of the course studying students get acquainted with the achievements and trends of the medical science during the whole human history and the perspective of modern medicine development.


^ The place of the discipline in the scientific process

The course of history of medicine is an important part of scientific introduction into future profession.


List of modules:

Module 1. History of medicine as a science and scientific discipline. Healing in the primitive society. Healing in the Ancient World.

Module 2. Middle Ages Medicine. Medicine of Kyiv Rus. History of Medicine of Ukraine in the IX–XVII century.

Module 3. Medicine of the modern period.


MODULE 1. History of Medicine as a Science and Scientific Discipline. Healing in the Primitive Society. Healing in the Ancient World


Purposes of the work:

- to interpret the development of medicine in historical perspective;

- to interpret the basic historical and medical events;

- to know the definition of the history of medicine as a science, the general periodization and chronology of medicine, periodization and chronology of the healing in the primitive society, the main characteristics of the primitive society;

- to understand the purpose and objectives of the history of medicine;

- to analyze the sources of history of primitive culture and medicine;

- to define features of the scientific and medical knowledge, characteristics of healing in the ancient world;

- to interpret the basic historical and medical events of the Ancient East and the countries of classical antiquity.


Themes of module 1

Lesson 1. History of medicine as a science and scientific discipline. Periodization and historical sources. Healing in the primitive society.

Lesson 2. Healing in the Ancient East.

Lesson 3. Healing in the Ancient Mediterranean.


LESSON 1

History of Medicine as a Science and Scientific Discipline. Periodization and Historical Sources. Healing in Primitive Society


The purpose is to review the incipience and development of healing in the primitive society (periods of incipience, development, and decay).


Questions for self-control

1. History of medicine as a science and scientific discipline.

2. Sections of the history of medicine.

3. Periodization of the history of medicine: definition of periodization; periodization of world history of medicine and different medical disciplines; history of medicine of different countries and different regions of the country (medical centres and organizations).

4. Periodization and chronology of world history of medicine: periods, chronologic limits, absolute age.

5. Periodization and chronology of healing in primitive society.

6. Sources of the history of healing in primitive society.

7. Incipience of healing in primitive society.

8. Healing in the period of the greatest development of primitive society.

9. Healing in the period of decay of primitive society.

10. The main characteristics of healing in the Ancient World.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil: Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 4–17.


Test questions

1. What are the sections of the history of medicine?

* general and private;

- different medical disciplines (anatomy, physiology, surgery) and activity of scientists;

  • world and different countries;

  • activity of scientists and history of medical discoveries.

2. Periodization of world history of medicine coincided with:

* periods of general world history;

  • logic of the medicine development;

  • activity of prominent scientists-physicians;

  • features of the medical disciplines development.

3. Healing in primitive society was in:

* about 2 million years ago – 4000–1000 BC;

  • about 4 million years ago – 10000–8000 BC;

  • about 3 million years ago – 7000–5000 BC;

  • about 1 million years ago – 1000–5000 BC.

4. Healing of the Ancient World was in:

* 4000–1000 BC – 476 BC;

- 10000–8000 BC – 276 BC;

- 7000–8000 BC – 376 BC;

- 1000–500 years BC – 576 BC;

5. Medicine of the Middle Ages was in:

* 476–1640;

  • 276–1400;

  • 376–1500;

  • 576–1700.

6. The medicine in the period of the new time was in:

* 1640–1918;

  • 1400–1914;

  • 1500–1917;

  • 1700–1919.

7. Medicine in the period of the modern time began in:

* 1918 year;

  • 1914 year;

  • 1917 year;

  • 1919 year.

8. Individual treatment appeared in:

* the period of decay of primitive society;

  • the period of incipience of primitive society;

  • the period of the greatest development of primitive society;

  • other period.


Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


LESSON 2

Healing in the Ancient East


The purpose is to become familiar with the development of healing in Mesopotamia (Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria), Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, and Ancient India.


Questions for self-control

1. Periodization and chronology of healing in Mesopotamia.

2. Historical sources of healing in Mesopotamia.

3. Healing in Sumer.

4. Healing in Babylonia and Assyria.

5. Influence of mythology on healing in Babylonia and Assyria.

6. Periodization and chronology of healing in Ancient Egypt.

7. Historical sources of healing in Ancient Egypt.

8. Healing in Ancient Egypt.

9. Influence of mythology for healing in Ancient Egypt.

10. Periodization and chronology of healing in Ancient India.

11. Historical sources of healing in Ancient India.

12. Sanitary work during the Harappan civilization in Ancient India.

13. Healing during the Vedic period of Ancient India.

14. The healing during the Classical period of Ancient India.

15. Periodization and chronology of healing in Ancient China.

16. Historical sources of healing in Ancient China.

17. Healing in Ancient China.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine / O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 17–26.


Test questions

1. One of the common features of healing in the ancient world is:

* invention of writing and creation of the first medical text;

- flora and fauna for the first time began to be used for treatment;

- healing was the collective activity of community members;

- the beginning of healer’s individual activity.

2. Ancient cuneiform plate with medical content from Nippur (Sumer) dates:

* end of the III millennium BC;

- end of the II millennium BC;

- XXIV century BC;

- XXII century BC.

3. Ancient cuneiform plate with medical content from Nippur (Sumer) contains:

* 15 formulations of drugs;

- description of the surgical operations;

- information about medical ethics;

- legal aspects of the healer’s activity.

4. Seal of healer Ur-Lugal-Edin from the Lagash (Sumer) dates:

* XXIV century BC;

- end of the III millennium BC;

- XXII century BC;

- end of the I millennium BC

5. Cup of the governor Lagash-Gudea (Schumer) is dated:

* XXII century BC;

- end of the III thousand BC;

- XXIV century BC;

- end of the I millennium BC.

6. Asutu and ashiputu texts on cuneiform plates date:

* II–I millennium BC;

- XXIV century BC;

- XXII century BC;

- III millennium BC.

7. Asutu and ashiputu texts on cuneiform plates contain:

* prescribing drugs, healer’s instructions, spell;

- invention instruments of healing;

- legal aspects of the healer’s activity;

- description of the cranial trepanation.

8. Goddess of treatment and healing in Babylon is:

* Gula;

- Ereshkigal;

- Ishtar;

- Hygieia.

9. The laws of Hammurabi date:

* XVIII century BC;

- XIV century BC;

- VII century BC;

- XI century BC.

10. Mukkalim’s letters date:

* XIV century BC;

- XVIII century BC;

- VII century BC;

- XV century BC.

11. Mukkalim’s letters contain:

* correspondence of healer-empiricist;

- invention instruments of healing;

- legal aspects of the healer’s activity;

- prescribing drugs.

12. Sennacherib's aqueduct date:

* VII century BC;

- XIV century BC;

- XVI century BC;

- XV century BC.

13. Sennacherib's aqueduct supplied water in:

- Nineveh;

- Akkad;

- Assur;

- Heliopolis.

14. Asutu and ashiputu as the main direction of healing in ancient Mesopotamia were formed:

* in the middle of the II millennium BC;

- in the middle of the I millennium BC;

- in the middle of the II millennium AD;

- in the middle of the I millennium AD.

15. The ancient centre of Egyptian civilization was the valley of the river:

* Nile;

- Tiger;

- Euphrates;

- Ganges.

16. Egyptians developed a system of hieroglyphic writing and have mastered the papyrus in the era of:

* Early Kingdom;

- Old Kingdom;

- Middle Kingdom;

- New Kingdom.

17. The building of Egyptian pyramids began in the era of:

- Old Kingdom;

- Early Kingdom;

- Middle Kingdom;

- New Kingdom.

18. The oldest of the Egyptian papyruses belong to the period of:

* Middle Kingdom;

- Old Kingdom;

- Early Kingdom;

- New Kingdom.

19. The greatest development of ancient Egyptian civilization belongs to the period of:

* New Kingdom;

- Middle Kingdom;

- Old Kingdom;

- Early Kingdom.

20. In the history of healing in ancient Egypt the following periods are distinguished:

* Imperial, Greco-Roman, Byzantine;

- Royal, Mycenaean, Byzantine;

- Polis, Greco-Roman, Byzantine;

- Royal, Polis, Mycenaean.

21. Papyrus from Kahun date:

* 1850 BC;

- 1550 BC;

- 1450 BC;

- 1650 BC.

22. IV and V papyruses from the Ramesseum date:

* 1850 BC;

- 1550 BC;

- 1650 BC;

- 1450 BC.

23. Edwin Smith papyrus date:

* 1550 BC;

- 1650 BC;

- 1850 BC;

- 1450 BC.

24. Brugsch papyrus date:

* 1450 BC;

- 1650 BC;

- 1550 BC;

- 1350 BC.

25. Leyden papyrus date:

* 1250 BC;

- 1350 BC;

- 1450 BC;

- 1650 BC.

26. 48 cases of traumatic damages are described in:

* Smith papyrus;

- Ebers papyrus;

- Herst papyrus;

- Brugsch papyrus.

27. Papyrus which contained about 900 recipes for treatment of different diseases is:

* Ebers papyrus;

- Smith papyrus;

- Brugsch papyrus;

- Herst papyrus.

28. The methods of child's diseases treatment are described in:

* Brugsch papyrus;

- Smith papyrus;

- Ebers papyrus;

- Herst papyrus.

29. Ur-Lugal-Edine was a famous healer from:

* Mesopotamia;

- Ancient Egypt;

- Ancient India;

- Ancient China.

30. Mukkalim was a healer from:

* Mesopotamia;

- Ancient Egypt;

- Ancient India;

- Ancient China.

31. Imhotep was a healer from:

* Ancient Egypt;

- Ancient India;

- Ancient China;

- Mesopotamia.

32. Imhotep lived in:

* 28th century BC;

- 24th century BC;

- I–II century AD;

- IV century AD.

33. Charaka was a doctor from:

* Ancient India;

- Ancient China;

- Mesopotamia;

- Ancient Egypt.

34. Characa lived in:

* I–II century AD;

- II–III century AD;

- 28th century BC;

- 24th century BC.

35. Sushruta was a doctor from:

* Ancient India;

- Ancient Egypt;

- Mesopotamia;

- Ancient China.

36. Sushruta went down in history of medicine as:

* the surgeon who described method of rhinoplasty (“Indian method”);

- the creator of medical gymnastics chiang-shi;

- the author of work about acupuncture and cauterization;

- the author of work about pulse.

37. Sushruta lived in:

* IV century AD;

- II–III century AD;

- 28th century BC;

- 24th century BC.

38. Bian Chiu was a doctor from:

* Ancient China;

- Mesopotamia;

- Ancient Egypt;

- Ancient India.

39. Hua Tuo was a doctor from:

* Ancient China;

- Mesopotamia;

- Ancient Egypt;

- Ancient India.

40. Hua Tuo lived in:

* II–III century AD;

- IV century AD;

- 28th century BC;

- 24th century BC.

41. Hua Tuo went down in history of medicine as:

* the creator of medical gymnastics chiang-shi;

- the surgeon who described method of rhinoplasty (“Indian method”);

- the author of work about acupuncture and cauterization;

- the author of work about pulse.

42. Huanfі Mi was a doctor from:

* Ancient China;

- Mesopotamia;

- Ancient India;

- Ancient Egypt.

43. Huanfі Mi lived in:

* III century AD;

- IV century AD;

- 28th century BC;

- 24th century BC.

44. Hunfi Mi went down in history of medicine as:

* the author of work about acupuncture and cauterization;

- the creator of medical gymnastics chiang-shi;

- the surgeon who described method of rhinoplasty (“Indian method”);

- the author of work about pulse.

45. Wang Shukhe was a doctor from:

* Ancient China;

- Mesopotamia;

- Ancient India;

- Ancient Egypt.

46. Wang Shukhe lived in:

* III century AD;

- IV century AD;

- 28th century BC;

- 24th century BC.

47. Wang Shukhe went down in history of medicine as:

* the author of work about pulse;

- the author of work about acupuncture and cauterization;

- the creator of medical gymnastics chiang-shi;

- the surgeon who described method of rhinoplasty (“Indian method”).

48. The first texts of the medical contents appeared in:

* the period of ancient history;

- the period of incipience of primitive society;

- the period of the greatest development of primitive society;

- the period of decay of primitive society.


^ Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


LESSON 3

Healing in the Ancient Mediterranean


The purpose is to become with the development of healing in ancient Greece and ancient Rome.


Questions for self-control

1. Periodization and chronology of healing in Ancient Greece.

2. Historical sources about healing in Ancient Greece.

3. Influence of mythology on healing in Ancient Greece.

4. Healing in Cretan-Mycenaean period of Ancient Greece.

5. Healing in Prepolis period of Ancient Greece.

6. Healing in Polis period of Ancient Greece.

7. Croton’s medical school of Ancient Greece.

8. Knid’s medical school of Ancient Greece.

9. Sicilian medical school of Ancient Greece.

10. Koses medical school of Ancient Greece.

11. Hippocrates and his role in the development of medicine.

12. Corpus Hippocratic: history of creation and content.

13. Medical ethics in Ancient Greece.

14. Healing in Hellenistic period of Ancient Greece.

15. Periodization and chronology of healing in Ancient Rome.

16. Historical sources about healing in Ancient Rome.

17. Healing in Royal period of Ancient Rome.

18. Sanitary work in Republic period of Ancient Rome.

19. Organization of medical work in Republic period of Ancient Rome.

20. Asclepiades and his role in the development of medicine.

21. Military medicine in the Imperial period of Ancient Rome.

22. Organization of medical work Imperial period of Ancient Rome.

23. Aulus Cornelius Celsus and his works.

24. Pedanius Dioscorides and Soranus from Ephesus: their role in the development of medicine.

25. Galen and his works.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine / O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 26–31.


Test questions

1. The first period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* Cretan-Mycenaean;

- Polis;

- Classical;

- Hellenistic.

2. The main historical and medical sources about healing in Cretan-Mycenaean period of Ancient Greece:

* archaeological;

- medical literature;

- works of historians and philosophers;

- works of art.

3. The first period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* III–II millenniums BC;

- IV–I millenniums BC;

- IV–III millenniums BC;

- III–I millenniums BC.

4. The second period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* Prepolis;

- Polis;

- Classical;

- Hellenistic.

5. The main historical and medical sources about healing in Prepolis period of Ancient Greece were:

* Poems “Iliad” and “Odyssey” of Homer;

- Works of Aristotle;

- Corpus Hippocratic;

- Works of Aulus Cornelius Celsus.

6. The second period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* XII–IX centuries BC;

- XXI–XI centuries BC;

- VIII–VI centuries BC;

- V–IV centuries BC.

7. The third period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* Polis;

- Cretan-Mycenaean;

- Classical;

- Hellenistic.

8. The third period of the healing history in Ancient Greece is characterized by:

* creation of temples healing;

- presence of four main medical schools – the centres of medicine development;

- the activities of Hippocrates;

- the activities of Empedocles from Akragant.

9. The third period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* VIII–VI centuries BC;

- V–IV centuries BC;

- XII–IX centuries BC;

- XXI–XI centuries BC.

10. The fourth period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* Classical;

- Cretan-Mycenaean;

- Polis;

- Hellenistic.

11. The fourth period of healing history of in Ancient Greece is characterized by:

* presence of four main medical schools – the centres of medicine development;

- creation of temples healing;

- activities of Herophilos;

- the main centre of medicine development – Alexandria Egyptian.

12. The fourth period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* VI–IV centuries BC;

- VIII–VI centuries BC;

- XII–IX centuries BC;

- XXI–XI centuries BC.

13. The fifth period of the healing history in Ancient Greece:

* Hellenistic;

- Polis;

- Cretan-Mycenaean;

- Classical.

14. The fifth period of the healing history in Ancient Greece is characterized by:

* the main centre of medicine development – Alexandria Egyptian;

- presence of four main medical schools – the centres of medicine development;

- creation of temples healing;

- activities of Herophilos.

15. The fifth period of the healing history:

* IV century BC – I century AD;

- V–IV centuries BC;

- VIII–VI centuries BC;

- I century AD – IV century AD.

16. Autopsy of the dead was allowed to Ptolemy in:

* Hellenistic period;

- Classical period;

- Cretan-Mycenaean period;

- Polis period.

17. The first Greeks who began to perform autopsy of the dead:

* Herophilos;

- Alcmaeon;

- Hippocrates;

- Erasistratus.

18. The first who began to describe the pathological changes during autopsy:

* Erasistratus;

- Herophilos;

- Alcmaeon;

- Hippocrates.

19. The first who described duodenum:

* Herophilos;

- Erasistratus;

- Alcmaeon;

- Hippocrates.

20. The presence of two types of nerves (sensory and motor) was proved by:

* Erasistratus;

- Herophilos;

- Alcmaeon;

- Hippocrates.

21. Healers of ancient Greece began to use direct auscultation in:

* Classical period;

- Cretan-Mycenaean period;

- Polis period;

- Hellenistic period.

22. It was showed that the wall of arteries, stomach, intestines, and uterus is composed of several tissues by:

* Galen;

- Asclepiades;

- Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides.

23. Vivisection (surgery of animal for scientific research) in ancient Rome was practiced by:

* Galen;

- Asclepiades;

- Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides.

24. Foreigners, who were engaged in the medical practice in Rome, got the right of Roman citizenship from edict of:

* Gaius Julius Caesar (100–44 years BC);

- Claudius Neron (37–68 AD);

- Antoninus Pius (86–161 AD);

- Marcus Aurelius (180–121 AD).

25. The first anatomical and physiological description of the organism was given by:

* Galen;

- Asclepiades;

- Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides.

26. In the healing history of Ancient Rome the following periods are distinguished:

* Royal, Republic, Imperial;

- Polis, Classical, Hellenistic;

- Classical, Royal, Imperial;

- Republic, Polis, Hellenistic.

27. Asklepiades – creator of the … trend in medicine:

* methodical;

- empirical;

- dogmatic;

- all of them.

28. The title of doctor in the Roman Empire was:

* archiater;

- city physician;

- physician-in-ordinary;

- Natural philosopher.

29. The first sanitary facilities – wastewater system (cloaca maxima) – appeared in Ancient Rome in the … period:

* Royal;

- Republic;

- Imperial;

- Hellenistic.

30. Sanitary legislation was in Ancient Rome in the … period:

* Republic;

- Royal;

- Imperial;

- Hellenistic.

31. Asklepiades lived in the … period:

* Republic;

- Royal;

- Imperial;

- Hellenistic.

32. Galen lived in the … period:

* Imperial;

- Royal;

- Republic;

- Hellenistic.

33. Soranus from Ephesus lived in the … period:

* Imperial;

- Royal;

- Republic;

- Hellenistic.

34. Pedanius Dioscorides lived in the … period:

* Imperial;

- Royal;

- Republic;

- Hellenistic.

35. The author of treatise about drugs (I century AD) is:

* Pedanius Dioscorides;

- Galen;

- Asclepiades;

- Soranus from Ephesus.

36. The author of works about gynaecology, obstetrics, and paediatrics (II century AD) is:

* Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides;

- Galen;

- Asclepiades.

37. The author of encyclopedic work about medicine in 8 volumes (AD I century) is:

* Aulus Cornelius Celsus;

- Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides;

- Galen.

38. Treatment system which can be characterized by three words: “safely, fast, pleasant” was offered by:

* Asclepiades;

- Aulus Cornelius Celsus;

- Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides.

39. The first who used tracheotomy was:

* Asclepiades;

- Aulus Cornelius Celsus;

- Soranus from Ephesus;

- Pedanius Dioscorides.

40. Valetudinary – treatment institution for soldiers and slaves in:

* Ancient Rome;

- Ancient Greece;

- Ancient Egypt;

- Mesopotamia.


Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


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