Instructions for practical studies on the discipline \"History of Medicine\" icon

Instructions for practical studies on the discipline "History of Medicine"




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Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine

Sumy State University




3378 METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS

for practical studies

on the discipline “History of Medicine”

for the students of speciality 7.110101 “Medical Care”


Part 2


Sumy

Sumy State University

2012

Methodological instructions for practical studies on the discipline “History of Medicine” / compilers: V. A. Smiyanov, S. V. Pavlicheva, O. I. Smiyanova, Yu. K. Vasylyev. – Sumy : Sumy State University, 2012. – P. 2. – 29 p.


Department of social medicine and public health protection


CONTENTS




P.

Module 2. Middle Ages medicine. Medicine of Kyiv Rus. History of Medicine of Ukraine in the IX–XVII centuries…………………………………………………………



4

Lesson 1. Medicine of the Early and Middle Dark Ages (V–XV centuries)…………………………………………………………


5

Lesson 2. Medicine of the late Middle Ages (XV–XVII centuries)…………………………………………………………


11

Lesson 3. Medicine of Kyiv Rus. Medicine during the disintegration of Rus and development of feudal relations. Ukraine and the problem of Northern Renaissance…………….



21



^ MODULE 2. Middle Ages Medicine. Medicine of Kyiv Rus. History of Medicine of Ukraine in the IX–XVII century


Purposes of the work:

- to interpret the development of medicine in historical perspective;

- to interpret the major historical medical events;

- to determine features of the natural scientific and medical knowledge, characteristics of treatment in the Middle Ages;

- to distinguish between key historical medical events of the Middle Ages;

- to analyze the historical and medical sources of the Middle Ages.


Themes of module 2

Lesson 1. Medicine of the Early and Middle Dark Ages (V–XV centuries).

Lesson 2. Medicine of the late Middle Ages (XV–XVII centuries).

Lesson 3. Medicine of Kyiv Rus. Medicine during the disintegration of Rus and development of feudal relations. Ukraine and the problem of the Northern Renaissance.


LESSON 1

Medicine of the Early and the Middle Dark Ages

(V–XV centuries)

The purpose is to become familiar with the medicine in the Byzantine Empire, Arabic caliphates, Eastern and Western Europe.


Questions for self-control

1. Medicine of the Byzantine Empire: sanitary facilities.

2. Byzantine science and religion.

3. Oribasius from Pergamum and his work.

4. Aetius from Amida and his work.

5. Alexander from Tralles and his work.

6. Paul from Aegina and his work.

7. Medical work in the Byzantine Empire.

8. Medical education in the Byzantine Empire.

9. Periods of the History of Medicine of Arabic caliphates.

10. Arabic culture and medicine: translation of Arabic medical works, centres of medical science and higher education.

11. Muhammad ibn Zakariyā ar-Rāzī and his work.

12. Development of the study of eye disease in the Arabic caliphates.

13. Development of anatomy and physiology in the Arabic caliphates.

14. The role of Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi in the development of medicine.

15. Medical works of the Arabic East.

16. Contribution of Avicenna in the development of medicine.

17. Salerno Medical School.

18. Medical School in Montpellier.

19. Medical Faculty of the University of Bologna and its teachers.

20. Combating epidemics of infectious diseases in Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages and Middle Dark Ages.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 32–40.


Test questions

1. Medical science of the Byzantine Empire (basic value for humanity):

* carried achievements of Ancient medicine to the descendants;

- carried achievements of medicine in Ancient Egypt to the descendants;

- created its system in providing of medical care to population;

- all of them.

2. The most famous physicians of the Byzantine Empire are:

* Paul, Alexander, Aetius, Oribasius;

- Archigenes, Aetius, Alexander, Philoumenos;

- Rufos, Paul, Archigenes, Atenaya;

- Atenaya, Oribasius, Philoumenos, Rufos.

3. Oribasius from Pergamum lived in:

* the IV century;

- the V century;

- the VI century;

- the VII century.

4. Aetius from Amida lived in:

* the VI century;

- the IV century;

- the V century;

- the VII century.

5. Paul from Aegina lived in:

* the VII century;

- the IV century;

- the V century;

- the VI century.

6. Alexander from Tralles lived in:

* the VI century;

- the IV century;

- the V century;

- the VII century.

7. Paul from Aegina:

* the life and activities are related to Egyptian Alexandria, he is considered the most prominent surgeon of the time;

- the life and activities are related to Constantinople, his main contribution to the field of skin and venereal diseases;

- the life and activities were in Orchid, he is a great internist of the time;

- the life and activities were in Caesarea, he contributed to ophthalmology.

8. Oribasius from Pergamum studied medicine:

* in Alexandria, and Egypt, author of encyclopaedic work “Medical Fees”;

- at Pergamum, author of medical surgical collection;

- in Caesarea, author of works “Tetrabiblos”;

- in Constantinople, author of the work about women's diseases.

9. Alexander of Tralles is famous for his working on:

* internal medicine, participated in the struggle with the “Plague of Justinian”;

- surgery, worked in Orchid;

- eye diseases, worked in Rome;

- skin and venereal diseases, participated in the fight against leprosy.

10. Aetius from Amida studied in:

* Alexandria, author of works “Tetrabiblos”;

- Toledo, author of works on the plague;

- Montpellier, author of “Public cure”;

- Constantinople, author of “Synopsis”.

11. Medical work in the Byzantine Empire was:

* hospitals in cloisters;

- hospital of St. Lazarus (hospital);

- hospitals in temples;

- secular hospital.

12. Centres for medical education in Byzantium were:

* Alexandria, Constantinople, Orchid;

- Cordoba, Damascus, Bukhara;

- Cairo, Samarkand, Salerno;

- Montpellier, Toledo, Bologna.

13. The Arabic culture and medicine (centres of medical science and higher education):

* Cordoba, Damascus, Bukhara;

- Montpellier, Toledo, Orchid;

- Baghdad, Caesarea, Istanbul;

- Cairo, Samarkand, Salerno.

14. Muhammad ibn Zakariyā ar-Rāzī lived in:

* IX–X centuries;

- X–XI centuries;

- XII century;

- XIII century.

15. Avicenna lived in:

* X–XI centuries;

- IX–X centuries;

- XII century;

- XIII century.

16. Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi lived in:

* X–XI centuries;

- IX–X centuries;

- XII century;

- XIII century.

17. Ibn al-Nafis lived in:

* XIII century;

- IX–X centuries;

- X–XI centuries;

- XII century.

18. Muhammad ibn Zakariyā ar-Rāzī was the author of the work:

* “On smallpox and measles”;

- “Treatise on surgery and surgical instruments”;

- “Memorandum for oculists”;

- “On skin diseases”.

19. The role of Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi in the development of medicine:

* contributed to the development of surgery;

- made a contribution to the study of eye diseases;

- made a contribution to the anatomy and physiology;

- set forth theoretical and practical medicine in a strictly systematic form.

20. Ibn al-Nafis:

* described pulmonary circulation;

- put forward the idea of vision correction using lens;

- suggested depression by suction cannula;

- described a tool for removing foreign bodies from the pharynx.

21. Basic medical schools in Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages and High Middle Ages were in:

* Salerno, Montpellier, Bologna;

- Padua, Montpellier, Pisa;

- Naples, Salerno, Padua;

- Salerno, Pisa, Bologna.

22. Medical School of Salerno appeared in:

* IX century;

- X century;

- XI century;

- XII century.

23. Medical School of Montpellier appeared in:

* XII century;

- IX century;

- X century;

- XI century.

24. Medical Faculty of the University of Bologna appeared in:

* XII century;

- IX century;

- X century;

- XI century.

25. Activities of … are connected with Medical School of Salerno:

* Constantine the African;

- Michael Servetus;

- Guy de Sholiak;

- Ambroise Pare.

26. A holder of master’s degree in Montpellier was:

* Arnold from Villa Nova;

- Girolamo Fracastoro;

- Hieronymus Fabricius;

- Bartolommeo Eustachio.

27. … worked in the University of Bologna:

* Mondino de Lucci;

- Jacobus Sylvius;

- Realdo Colombo;

- Gabriele Falloppio.

28. The most distribution in Western Europe in the Early Middle Ages and the Middle Dark Ages had:

* leprosy and plague;

- syphilis and leprosy;

- plague and cholera;

- cholera and syphilis.

29. Pandemic plague in Western Europe in the Middle Ages was in:

* XIV century;

- XII century;

- XIII century;

- XV century.

30. The first quarantine in Western Europe was in:

* XIV century;

- XII century;

- XIII century;

- XV century.

31. The first quarantines in Western Europe appeared in:

* Italy;

- Greece;

- France;

- Spain.

32. The widest spread of leprosy in Western Europe was in:

* XI–XIII centuries;

- VII–IX centuries

- IX–XI centuries;

- XIII–XV centuries.


Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


LESSON 2

Medicine of the Late Middle Ages (XV–XVII centuries)


The purpose is to see the development of medicine in Western Europe in the late Middle Ages – Renaissance (XV–XVII centuries).


Questions for self-control

1. Andreas Vesalius and his work.

2. Michael Servetus: medical views and medical works.

3. Realdo Colombo, Gabriele Falloppio, Hieronymus Fabricius, Bartolommeo Eustachio and their works.

4. Formation of physiology as a science.

5. Iatrophysical, iatromechanical, and iatromathematical direction in medicine.

6. Contribution of Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) to the development of medicine.

7. Contribution of Girolamo Fracastoro to the development of medicine.

8. Features of surgical care in Medieval Europe. Three categories of surgery.

9. Contribution of Ambroise Pare to the development of medicine.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 41–52.


Test questions

1. Leading medical school in Europe in the late Middle Ages was in:

* Padua;

- Pisa;

- Paris;

- Naples.

2. Andreas Vesalius lived in:

* XVI century;

- XIV century;

- XV century;

- XVII century.

3. In the history of anatomy two main periods are distinguished:

* prehistory of scientific anatomy and period of scientific anatomy;

- empirical period of anatomy, experimental period;

- premicroscopic period of anatomy, microscopic period;

- the period of experimental anatomy, period of scientific anatomy.

4. The main work of Andreas Vesalius was published in:

* 1543;

- 1343;

- 1443;

- 1643.

5. The main work of Andreas Vesalius is named:

* “On the structure of the human body”;

- “On the anatomy”;

- “Epitome”;

- “Anatomical study on the movement of the heart and blood in animals”.

6. Reformer of anatomy was:

* Andreas Vesalius;

- Jacobus Sylvius;

- William Harvey;

- Mondino dei Lucci.

7. Realdo Colombo lived in:

* XVI century;

- XIV century;

- XV century;

- XVII century

8. Life and work of Girolamo Fracastoro is related to:

* Padua;

- Bologna

- Pisa

- Rome.

9. Hieronymus Fabricius lived in:

* XVI–XVII centuries;

- XIV–XV centuries;

- XV–XVI centuries;

- XVII - XVIII centuries.

10. Bartolommeo Eustachio lived in:

* XVI century;

- XIV century;

- XV century;

- XVII century.

11. Life and work of Bartolommeo Eustachio is related to:

* Rome;

- Padua;

- Pisa;

- Bologna.

12. Realdo Colombo studied:

* movement of blood in the lungs;

- the first established embryology and comparative anatomy;

- applied the method of comparative anatomical studies of adult and embryo;

- described the venous valves.

13. Hieronymus Fabricius:

* described venous valves;

- described the fallopian tubes;

- described the organ of hearing;

- is the first in European science who has raised the idea of pulmonary circulation.

14. Gabriele Falloppio:

* described the fallopian tubes;

- described the organ of hearing;

- the first in european science has raised the idea of pulmonary blood flow;

- described the venous valves.

15. Bartolommeo Eustachio:

* described in detail the organ of hearing;

- studied the movement of blood in the lungs;

- described venous valves;

- described the fallopian tubes.

16. Life and work of Realdo Colombo is related to:

* Padua;

- Salerno;

- Bologna;

- Montpellier

17. Life and work of Gabriele Falloppio is related to:

* Padua;

- Salerno;

- Bologna;

- Rome.

18. Life and work of Hieronymus Fabricius is related to:

* Padua;

- Salerno;

- Bologna;

- Rome.

19. Life and work of Andreas Vesalius is related to:

* Padua;

- Salerno;

- Bologna;

- Rome.

20. Michael Servetus lived in:

* XVI century;

- XIV century;

- XV century;

- XII century.

21. Michael Servetus:

* is the first in European science who said of an idea about pulmonary circulation of blood;

- described the organ of hearing;

- described the venous valves;

- described the fallopian tubes.

22. William Harvey lived in:

* XVI–XVII centuries;

- XIV–XV centuries;

- XV–XVI centuries

- XVII–XVIII centuries.

23. Life and work of William Harvey is related to:

* Padua;

- Paris;

- Bologna;

- Pisa.

24. William Harvey:

* discovered the basic laws of circulation;

- described the organ of hearing;

- described the fallopian tubes;

- is the first in European science who has raised the idea of pulmonary circulation.

25. The main work of William Harvey is named:

* “Anatomical study on the movement of the heart and blood in animals”;

- “On the structure of the human body”;

- “On the anatomy”;

- “Epitome”.

26. The main work of William Harvey was published in:

* 1628;

- 1328;

- 1428;

- 1528.

27. History of physiology has two basic periods:

* empirical and experimental;

- premicroscopic and microscopic;

- experimental and research;

- empirical and microscopic.

28. In the late Middle Ages there were generalized systems of medicine:

* iatrochemists and iatrophysicists;

- iatrochemists and iatrobiologists;

- iatrobiologists and iatrophysicists;

- iatromechanical and iatrogeometrics.

29. Giovanni Alfonso Borelli was:

* iatromechanic;

- iatrobiologist;

- iatrochemist;

- iatrogeometric.

30. Rene Descartes was:

* iatrophysicist;

- iatrobiologist;

- iatrochemist;

- iatrogeometric.

31. Santorius Santorio was:

* iatrophysicist;

- iatrogeometric;

- iatrochemist;

- iatrobiologist.

32. Santorius Santorio:

* made first assessment of the metabolism;

- developed a scheme of the reflex arc;

- is the first in European science who has raised the idea of pulmonary blood flow;

- described the venous valves.

33. Life and work of Santorio is related to:

* Padua;

- Pisa;

- Rome;

- Salerno.

34. Rene Descartes:

* developed a scheme of the reflex arc;

- is one of the founders of biomechanics;

- made a contribution to the treatment of gunshot wounds;

- discovered the basic laws of circulation.

35. Paracelsus was:

* iatrochemist;

- iatrophysicist;

- iatromechanic;

- iatromathematician.

36. Paracelsus lived in|

* XV–XVI centuries;

- XIV–XV centuries;

- XVI–XVII centuries;

- XVII–XVIII centuries.

37. A reformer of surgery in the Middle Ages was:

* Ambroise Pare;

- Santorius Santorio;

- Hieronymus Fabricius;

- Realdo Colombo.

38. Life and work of Ambroise Pare is related to:

* Paris;

- Pisa;

- Rome;

- Venice.

39. Ambroise Pare lived in:

* XVI century;

- XIV century;

- XV century;

- XVIII century.

40. In the late Middle Ages … were widely spread:

* syphilis and parasitic typhus;

- typhus and cholera;

- plague and syphilis;

- cholera and plague.

41. The first scientifically grounded conception of the contagious diseases spread was given by:

* Girolamo Fracastoro;

- Paracelsus;

- Zirve;

- Santorius Santorio.

42. The greatest scientific merit of Amboise Pare is:

* his contribution to the treatment of gunshot wounds;

- that he is one of the founders iatrochemistry;

- that he developed a scheme of the reflex arc;

- that he described the venous valves.

43. Giovanni Alfonso Borelly:

* is one of the founders of biomechanics;

- developed a scheme of the reflex arc;

- made a contribution to the treatment of gunshot wounds;

- discovered the basic laws of circulation.

44. Realdo Colombo was a student and receiver on an university department of:

* Andreas Vesalius;

- Bartolommeo Eustachio;

- William Harvey;

- Paracelsus.

45. Gabriele Falloppio was a student of:

* Andreas Vesalius;

- Bartolommeo Eustachio;

- William Harvey;

- Paracelsus.

46. Hieronymus Fabricius was a student of:

* Gabriele Falloppio;

- Andreas Vesalius;

- Michael Servetus;

- Paracelsus.

47. William Harvey was a student of:

* Hieronymus Fabricius;

- Andeas Vezalius;

- Michael Servetus;

- Paracelsus.

48. For the late Middle Ages … is typical:

* approval of research methods in science;

- scholastic method;

- dialectical thinking;

- the use of microscopic methods.

49. XVI century saw:

* “golden age” in the history of anatomy;

- the birth of pathological anatomy as a science;

- the emergence of physiology as a science;

- the development of histology.

50. XVII century saw:

* the emergence of physiology as a science;

- “golden age” in the history of anatomy;

- the birth of pathological anatomy as a science;

- the development of histology.

51. One of the main features of the late Middle Ages is:

* metaphysical method;

- scholastic method;

- dialectical thinking;

- the use of microscopic methods.

52. In the Late Middle Ages in Europe:

* there were new drugs;

- the first quarantines appeared;

- variolation was offered (immunization against smallpox by the introduction of healthy content variolar vesicles);

- the hospitals appeared at cloisters.


^ Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


LESSON 3

Medicine of Kyiv Rus. Medicine During the Disintegration of Rus and Development of Feudal Relations. Ukraine and the Problem of the Northern Renaissance


The purpose is to become familiar with the medicine in Kyiv Rus (IX–XII centuries), during the disintegration of Rus and development of feudal relations (XIII–XVIII centuries). Read the dissemination of Renaissance humanist ideas in Ukraine.


Questions for self-control

1. Written sources of Medicine study of Kyiv Rus.

2. Treatment in Kyiv Rus before the adoption of Christianity.

3. Monastic Medicine in Kyiv Rus. Activities of medical monks.

4. Secular Medicine in Kyiv Rus.

5. Sanitary cases, epidemics, and fight with them in Kyiv Rus.

6. Written sources of Medicine study of the Russian state in XV–XVII centuries.

7. Medicine and medical cases in the Western Ukrainian lands in XIII–XVII centuries.

8. Epidemics and fight against them in the Russian state in the XIX century.

9. The first pharmacy and drugstore order in Moscow state.

10. Training of doctors in the Moscow state in XV–XVII centuries.

11. Monastic and civil hospitals in Moscow state in the XV–XVII centuries.

12. Features of medical affairs in the Russian state in the XVIII century.

13. George Drohobych (Kotermak): his life and work.

14. Features of training doctors in Russian state in the XVIII century.

15. Nestor Maksimovich-Ambodik and his contribution to the national medicine.

16. Daniil Samoylovych and his contribution to the national medicine.

17. Distribution and establishment of the Renaissance and humanistic ideas in Ukraine.

18. Medical education in Ukraine. Zamayska Academy.

19. The emergence of fraternities (Lviv, Kiev (in 1615), Lutsk (1617). Cultural and educational activities of fraternities. Printing cases. Fraternal schools.

20. Public medicine. Monastic and fraternal hospitals. Craft medicine.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknuha, 2004. – P. 52–53.


Test questions

1. By the beginning of XI century Kyiv Rus had:

* three areas in medicine: national treatment, monastic medicine, secular medicine;

- a form of medicine – national treatment;

- two areas in medicine: state and monastic medicine;

- four areas in medicine: state, national, monastic, and secular.

2. То the medical writing sources of Ancient Rus belong:

* herbals;

- chronicles;

- hagiographic literature;

- ancient collections.

3. In the pagan period of Kyiv Rus existed:

* a form of medicine – national treatment;

- two areas in medicine: state and monastic medicine;

- three areas in medicine: national, monastic, and secular;

- four areas in medicine: state, national, monastic, and secular.

4. Adopting Christianity as state religion took place in Ancient Rus in:

* 988;

- 888;

- 1088;

- 1188.

5. The evidence of organizing of the first hospital in Ancient Rus is contained in:

* “Life of Caves of Theodosius”;

- “Nikon's chronicle”;

- “Russian truth”;

- “Miscellany”.

6. The first hospital in ancient Rus was organized in:

* Kyiv-Pecherskyi Monastery;

- Pereiaslav;

- Chernihiv;

- Novgorod.

7. The first hospital in ancient Rus was organized in:

* last quarter of the XI century;

- first quarter of the XI century;

- first quarter of the XII century;

- last quarter of the XII century.

8. The second by the time of formation hospital in ancient Rus was in:

* Pereiaslav

- Kyiv-Pecherskyi Monastery;

- Chernihiv;

- Novgorod.

9. The most famous doctor of Kiev-Pecherskyi Monastery was:

* Agapetus;

- Atanayisyn;

- Theodosius;

- Antony.

10. Reverend Agapetus lived in:

* XI century;

- X century;

- IX century;

- XII century.

11. The emergence of public medicine in the Russian state belongs to:

* XVI century;

- XV century;

- XVII century;

- XIV century.

12. The national treatment in Kyiv Rus is characterized by the fact that it was by traditions of:

* pagan beliefs;

- Christian Church;

- university of medical science;

- correct answer is absent.

13. Representatives of national treatment in Kyiv Rus were:

* volkhvys and wizards;

- monks;

- university graduates;

- among these the correct answer is no.

14. In the monastic hospitals medical care was provided for:

* all groups;

- poor;

- rich;

- only monks.

15. Reverend Agapetus treated mostly patients with:

* therapeutic diseases;

- skin diseases;

- surgical pathology;

- diseases of nervous system.

16. Reverend Olympiy was:

* a monk of Kiev-Pecherskyi Monastery;

- a fluent practitioner in Kyiv;

- a personal physician of Vladimir Monomakh;

- doctor from Chernihiv.

17. Reverend Olympiy treated mostly patients with:

* skin diseases;

- therapeutic diseases;

- surgical pathology;

- diseases of nervous system.

18. The First Ukrainian MD was:

* George Drohobych;

- Ivan Poletyka;

- Daniil Samoylovych;

- Gregory Bazylewicz.

19. George Drohobych lived in:

* XV century;

- XIV century;

- XVI century;

- XVII century.

20. George Drohobych received his first medical education in:

* Krakiw and the University of Bologna;

- University of Paris;

- University of Cambridge;

- University of Padua.

21. George Drohobych was MD in:

* University of Bologna;

- University of Paris;

- University of Cambridge;

- University of Padua.

22. Supreme Medical management in the Russian state till 1721 was:

* Pharmacist Order;

- Ministry of Healthcare;

- Medieval Office;

- Medical College.

23. Training of medical personnel in the XVIII century in the Russian Empire began in:

* hospital schools;

- universities;

- medical and surgical colleges;

- Military-Medical Academy.

24. In Russian state policemen doctors were founded in:

* 1737;

- 1837;

- 1637;

- 1537.

25. The orders of social care emerged in Ukraine in:

* 1775;

- 1875;

- 1675;

- 1575.

26. Hospital School in Ukraine was in:

* Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad);

- Kyiv;

- Lviv;

- Poltava.

27. The founder of the national epidemiology (science that studies the patterns of spread of infectious diseases and methods of dealing with them) was:

* D. S. Samoylovych;

- N. M. Maksimovich-Ambodik;

- I. A. Poletyka;

- G. I. Bazylewicz.

28. D. S. Samoylovych was born in:

* Chernihiv province;

- Poltava province;

- Volyn province;

- Podolsk province.

29. D. S. Samoylovych lived in:

* 1742–1805;

- 1842–1905;

- 1642–1705;

- 1542–1605.

30. The founder of the national obstetrics and paediatrics was:

* N. M Maksimovich-Ambodik;

- I. A. Poletyka;

- G. I. Bazylewicz;

- D. S. Samoylovych.

31. N. M. Maksimovich-Ambodik was born in:

* Poltava province;

- Volyn province;

- Podolsk province;

- Chernihiv province.

32. N. M. Maksimovich-Ambodik lived in:

* 1744–1812;

- 1844–1912;

- 1644–1712;

- 1544–1612.

33. The author of “Art of changing, or the science about babich’s work” was:

* N. M. Maksimovich - Ambodik;

- I. A. Poletyka;

- G. I. Bazylewicz;

- D. S. Samoylovych.


Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


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