Instructions for practical studies on the discipline \"History of Medicine\" icon

Instructions for practical studies on the discipline "History of Medicine"




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Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine

Sumy State University




3379 METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS

for practical studies

on the discipline “History of Medicine”

for the students of speciality 7.110101 “Medical Care”


Part 3


Sumy

Sumy State University

2012

Methodological instructions for practical studies on the discipline “History of Medicine” / compilers: V. A. Smiyanov, S. V. Pavlicheva, O. I. Smiyanova, Yu. K. Vasylyev. – Sumy : Sumy State University, 2012. – P. 3. – 30 p.

Department of social medicine and public health protection


CONTENTS

P.

Module 3. Medicine of the modern period……………………

4

Lesson 1. Medical-biological direction in the medicine of the modern period…………………………………………………


5

Lesson 2. Clinical direction in the medicine of the modern period………………………………………………………….


18

Lesson 3. Development of preventive medicine in the modern period…………………………………………………………..


26



^ MODULE 3. Medicine of the Modern Period


Purpose of the work:

- to interpret the development of medicine in historical perspective;

- to interpret the basic historical medical events of the modern period;

- to define the main features of the natural-scientific and medical knowledges in the modern period;

- to analyze the historical and medical sources of the modern period.


Themes of module 3

Lesson 1. Medical-biological direction in the medicine of the modern period.

Lesson 2. Clinical direction in the medicine of the modern period.

Lesson 3. Development of preventive medicine in the modern period.


LESSON 1

Medical-Biological Direction in the Medicine of the Modern Period


The purpose is to become familiar with the development of medical-biological subject in the modern period (1640–1918).


Questions for self-control

1. Netherlands anatomical school.

2. Anatomists of the Russian Empire of ХVIII century.

3. Development of anatomy in the Russian Empire in XIХ century.

4. Premicroscopic period in the development of histology.

5. Microscopic period in the development of histology.

6. Embryology in the modern period.

7. Macroscopic period in the development of pathologic anatomy.

8. Carl von Rokitansky and his role in the development of medicine.

9. Rudolph Carl Virchow and his role in the development of medicine.

10. Pathologic anatomy and pathologic physiology in the Russian Empire in XIХ century.

11. History of the vaccination.

12. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis and his role in the development of medicine.

13. Joseph Lister and his role in the development of medicine.

14. Louis Pasteur and his works.

15. Cellular (phagocytic) and humoral theories of immunity.

16. The development of microbiology in Germany in the second half of XIХ century.

17. The development of physiology in France in XIХ century.

18. The development of physiology in Germany in XIХ century.

19. Ivan Mikhaylovych Sechenov and his works.

20. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and his works about the conditioned reflexes and the higher nervous activity.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 54–68.


Test questions

1. The greatest development of Netherlands anatomical school was in:

* ХVII century;

  • ХV century;

  • ХVI century;

  • ХVIII century.

2. The founder of the first anatomical school in the Russian Empire was:

* P. A. Zagorskiy;

  • І. V. Buyalskiy;

  • К. І. Shchepin;

  • N. I. Pirogov.

3. In the development of histology the following periods are identified:

* premicroscopic and microscopic;

  • prescientific and the scientific;

  • empirical and experimental;

  • empirical and scientific.

4. The border between two basic periods in the development of histology lied in:

* the beginning of XIX century;

  • the beginning of XVII century;

  • the beginning of XVIII century;

  • the beginning of XX century.

5. M. Malpighi lived in:

* XVII century;

  • XV century;

  • XVI century;

  • XVIII century.

6. M. Malpighi discovered:

* capillaries;

  • stage of embryonic development – blastula;

  • the nervous cells of the gray substance of the spinal cord and brain;

  • spermatozoon.

7. Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek lived in

* XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XV–XVI centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XVIII–XIX centuries.

8. Leeuwenhoek discovered:

* spermatozoon;

  • capillaries;

  • stage of embryonic development – blastula;

  • the nervous cells of the gray substance of the spinal cord and brain.

9. Marie Francois Xavier Bichat lived in:

* XVIII century;

  • XV century;

  • XVI century;

  • XVII century.

10. Bichat considered that the basic structural and functional units of life are:

* tissues;

  • organs;

  • cells;

  • organ systems.

11. Johannes Evangelist Purkinje lived in:

* 1787–1869;

  • 1687–1769;

  • 1587–1687;

  • 1487–1587.

12. Johannes Evangelist Purkinje:

* discovered the fiber conduction system of the heart;

  • described large pyramidal neurocytes in the brain;

  • described the structure of neuron;

  • described leukocytosis.

13. V. A. Betz lived in:

* XIX century;

  • XVI century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVIII century.

14. V. A. Betz:

* described large pyramidal neurocytes in the brain;

- discovered the fiber conduction system of the heart;

- described leukocytosis;

- discovered the alveolar structure of the lungs.

15. Camillo Golgi lived in:

* XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVIII–XIX centuries.

16. Santiago Ramon y Cajal lived in:

* XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVIII–XIX centuries.

17. Camillo Golgi:

* proposed the method of impregnation by silver salts;

  • constructed one of the first microtoms;

  • discovered erythrocytes;

  • discovered the alveolar structure of the lungs.

18. Santiago Ramon y Cajal:

* was the creator of the neuron theory;

- was the founder of the cellular pathology;

- was the author of the theory of tissue pathology;

- initiated clinical and anatomical basis in medicine.

19. William Harvey:

* generalized the idea about the egg as the source of the development of all animals;

- observed blood microcirculation;

  • discovered the alveolar structure of the lungs;

  • discovered the principle of dynamic polarization of the neuron.

20. Regnier de Graaf lived in:

* XVII century;

  • XVI century;

  • XVIII century;

  • XIX century.

21. Regnier de Graaf:

* described vesicles in female genital glands;

- described spermatozoon;

- described Glial cells;

- discovered the stage of embryonic development – blastula.

22. The founder of the theory of epigenesis was:

* K. Wolff;

  • Johannes Evangelist Purkinje;

  • Marie Francois Xavier Bichat;

  • Giovanni-Battista Morgagni.

23. Karl Maksimovich Baer lived in:

* XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XIX–XX centuries.

24. The stage of embryonic development – blastula was discovered by:

* Karl Maksimovich Baer;

  • William Harvey;

  • Regnier de Graaf;

- Girolamo Fabrizio.

25. The border between macroscopic and microscopic periods of the development of general pathology was in:

* the middle of the XIX century;

- the end of XVII the century;

  • the middle of the XVIII century;

- the end of XVIII century.

26. Laid the foundation of the pathologic anatomy as the science was by:

* Giovanni-Battista Morgagni;

  • M. Malpighi;

  • Marie Francois Xavier Bichat;

- Rudolf Virchow.

27. Morgagni’s work "De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis libri" was published in:

* 1761;

  • 1561;

  • 1661;

  • 1861.

28. Giovanni-Battista Morgagni:

* determined organ as the place of pathologic process localization;

  • was the author of the theory of tissue pathology;

  • was the author of cellular pathology;

  • was the representative of humoral direction in the pathology.

29. Marie Francois Xavier Bichat:

* was the author of the theory of tissue pathology;

- was the author of cellular pathology;

  • determined organ as the place for pathologic process localization;

  • was the representative of humoral direction in the pathology.

30. Baron Carl von Rokitansky:

* was the representative of humoral direction in the pathology;

  • was the author of the theory of tissue pathology;

  • was the author of cellular pathology;

- determined organ as the place of pathologic process localization.

31. Virchow’s scientific activity took place in:

* XIX century;

  • XVI century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVIII century.

32. Rudolf Virchow:

* was the author of cellular pathology;

- was the representative of humoral direction in the pathology;

- was the author of the theory of tissue pathology;

  • determined organ as the place of pathologic process localization.

33. Who was the representative of the Netherlands anatomic school in XVII century?

* Nicolaes Tulp;

  • M. Malpighi;

  • Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek;

  • Marie Francois Xavier Bichat.

34. Betz's activity is connected with:

* Kyiv university;

  • Berlin university;

  • Warsaw university;

  • Parisian university.

35. Frederik Ruysch was:

* the representative of the Netherlands anatomic school;

  • representative of Prague histological school;

  • French pathologist;

  • German embryologist.

36. Nicolaas Bidloo has received medical education in:

* Holland;

- Russia;

- France;

- Germany.

37. Nicolaas Bidloo lived in:

* 1670–1735;

  • 1770–1835;

  • 1870–1935;

- XIX–XX centuries.

38. Who taught anatomy and surgery at Moscow hospital school?

* Nicolaas Bidloo;

  • Nicolaes Tulp;

  • Frederik Ruysch;

  • P. А. Zagorsky.

39. P. А. Zagorsky lived in:

* XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XIX–XX centuries.

40. I. V. Bujalsky was a student of:

* P. А. Zagorsky;

  • S. P. Botkin;

  • N. I. Pirogov;

  • М. І. Shein.

41. Scientific activity of P. А. Zagorsky is related to:

* medical surgical academy in St. Petersburg;

  • Moscow university;

  • Kharkiv university;

  • hospital school in Elizabethgrad.

42. Scientific activity of I. V. Bujalsky is related to:

* medical surgical academy in St. Petersburg ;

  • Moscow university;

  • Kharkiv university;

  • hospital school in Elizabethgrad.

43. I. V. Bujalsky lived in:

* XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XIX–XX centuries.

44. M. Malpighi’s name is used for:

* renal corpuscle;

  • large pyramidal neurocytes in the brain;

  • the fiber conduction system of the heart;

  • pear-shaped nervous cells in the gray substance of the cerebellum cortex.

45. The founder of Prague histological school was:

* Johannes Evangelist Purkinje;

  • Marie Francois Xavier Bichat;

  • V. A. Betz;

  • Nicolaes Tulp.

46. For the first time described nervous cells in gray substance of the brain were by:

* Johannes Evangelist Purkinje;

  • Marie François Xavier Bichat;

  • V. A. Betz;

  • Nicolaes Tulp.

47. Johannes Evangelist Purkinje discovered:

  • * pear-shaped nervous cells in gray substance of the cerebellum cortex;

  • renal corpuscle;

  • glomerulus;

- commissure in forebrain.

48. In 1906 for contribution to studies of the nervous system structure the Nobel Prize was awarded to:

* Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal;

  • I. P. Pavlov;

  • Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich;

  • Emil Theodor Kocher.

49. The antiseptic method in surgery has been offered in:

* 1867;

  • 1767;

  • 1667;

  • 1567.

50. The antiseptic method in surgery has been offered by:

* Joseph Lister;

  • Christian Albert Theodor Billroth;

  • Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch;

  • Emil Theodor Kocher.

51. In 1904 for works about the physiology of digestion the Nobel Prize was awarded to:

* I. P. Pavlov;

- Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal;

  • І. І. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich;

  • Emil Theodor Kocher.

57. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis lived in:

* XIX century;

  • XVIII century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries.

58. The method of the fight against postnatal sepsis was discovered by:

* Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis;

  • Louis Pasteur;

  • Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch;

- Edward Anthony Jenner.

59. For the first time activities against surgical infection were developed by:

* Joseph Lister;

  • Paul Ehrlich;

  • Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch;

  • Edward Anthony Jenner.

60. Louis Pasteur lived in:

* XIX century;

  • XVIII century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVI century.

61. The founder of scientific microbiology was:

* Louis Pasteur;

  • Edward Anthony Jenner;

  • Joseph Lister;

  • Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis.

62. The founder of the rabies vaccine was:

* Louis Pasteur;

  • Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch;

  • Paul Ehrlich;

  • Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov.

63. The causative agent of cholera was discovered by:

* Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch;

  • Joseph Lister;

  • Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis;

  • Edward Anthony Jenner.

64. In 1905 for discoveries in the field of tuberculosis the Nobel Prize was awarded to:

* Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch;

  • R. Ross;

  • Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran;

  • Alexis Carrel.

65. Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch lived in:

* XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries;

  • XVIII century.

66. In the development of physiology the following periods are distinguished:

* empirical and experimental;

  • macroscopic and microscopic;

  • prescientific and scientific;

  • premicroscopic and microscopic.

67. Frederik Ruysch:

* proved the presence of valves in lymphatic vessels;

- described the scheme of the reflex arc;

  • made a contribution to treatment of gunshot wounds;

- for the first time estimated the metabolism of human.

68. Godefridus Bidloo lived in:

* Holland;

- Italy;

- France;

- England.

69. Proved that nerves contain a great number of thin fibers:

* Godefridus Bidloo;

  • Girolamo Fracastoro;

  • Daniil Samoylovich;

  • Michael Servetus.

70. P. А. Zagorsky was born in:

* Chernigiv province;

- Livonia province;

- Estonia province;

- Bessarabia province.

71.The author of the first national textbook about normal anatomy is:

* P. А. Zagorsky;

  • Daniil Samoylovich;

  • Nestor Ambodik-Maksimovich;

  • V. A. Betz.

72. I. V. Bujalsky was born in:

* Chernigiv province;

- Livonia province;

- Estonia province;

- Bessarabia province.

73. Blood cells were discovered by:

* M. Malpighi;

  • Girolamo Fracastoro;

  • Ambroise Pare;

  • Michael Servetus.

74. Glomerulus of renal corpuscle was discovered by:

* M. Malpighi;

  • Giovanni Alfonso Borelli;

  • Santorio Santorio;

  • R. Descartes.

75. Bacteria and protozoan were discovered by:

* Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek;

  • Giovanni Alfonso Borelli;

  • Santorio Santorio;

- R. Descartes.

76. The founder of histology as a science was:

* Marie Francois Xavier Bichat;

  • Giovanni Alfonso Borelli;

  • Santorio Santorio;

- R. Descartes.

77. The elements of neuroglia described were described by:

* Johannes Evangelist Purkinje;

  • Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek;

  • Santorio Santorio;

  • R. Descartes.

78. The founder of embryology as a science was:

* William Harvey;

  • Girolamo Fracastoro;

  • Ambroise Pare;

- Michael Servetus.

79. In 1909 for his work in physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland the Nobel Prize was awarded to:

* Emil Theodor Kocher;

- Christian Albert Theodor Billroth ;

- Jules-Émile Péan;

  • Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch.

Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


LESSON 2

Clinical Direction in the Medicine of the Modern Period


The purpose is to become familiar with the development of clinical subject in the modern period (1640 -1918).


Questions for self-control

1. Introduction of the clinical teaching in the Western Europe.

2. Thermometers and thermometry in clinical practice.

3. Direct and indirect percussion.

4. Mediate and immediate auscultation.

5. The development of medical education in the Russian Empire in XIХ century and in the beginning of ХХ century.

6. The development of internal medicine in Russia in the beginning of XIХ century.

7. Sergey Petrovich Botkin as a founder of scientific therapeutical school.

8. V. P. Obraztsov: his life and activity.

9. Medicine and Zemstvo in the Russian Empire.

10. S. P. Hotovitzky: his life and activity.

11. Nil Fyodorovich Filatov and his role in the development of medicine.

12. Philippe Pinel: his role in the development of medicine.

13. Sergei Sergeievich Korsakov: his life and activity.

14. Teaching about blood transfusion.

15. The surgery in the Western Europe of the modern period.

16. Efrem Osipovich Mukhin: his activity.

17. Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov: his role in the development of medicine.

18. General anaesthesia: discovery and use.

19. Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky: his life and activity.

20. The development of obstetrics in the Western Europe in the modern period.

21. Obstetrics and gynaecology in Russia in XIХ century.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 68–81.


Test questions

1. The main role in the beginning of studying clinical disciplines in the Western Europe had:

* Leiden University;

2. Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738):

* started clinical teaching in the Western Europe;

  • promoted development of anatomy;

  • discovered percussion;

  • described the method of sliding palpation of organs of the abdominal cavity.

3. One of the founders of the medical school in Vienna (XVIII century) was:

* Gerard van Swieten;

  • А. Piоrry;

  • Herman Boerhaave;

  • Nicolaas Bidloo.

4. Josef Leopold Auenbrugger wrote his work “A New Discovery that Enables the Physician from the Percussion of the Human Thorax to Detect the Diseases Hidden Within the Chest” in:

* 1761;

  • 1561;

  • 1661;

  • 1861.

5. Josef Leopold Auenbrugger:

* described direct percussion;

- described indirect percussion.

6. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec wrote his work “On Mediate Auscultation or Treatise on the Diagnosis of the Diseases of the Lungs and Heart” in:

* 1819;

- 1519;

- 1619;

- 1719.

7. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec:

* described mediate auscultation;

  • described indirect percussion;

- described direct percussion;

8. Philippe Pinel:

* was the reformer on treatment of mentally ill patients;

- was the first, who used chloroform as anaesthetic;

- made a resection of the part of the stomach;

- described methods of the surgical treatment of the thyroid gland.

9 The first surgical operation with ether anaesthesia was in:

* October 16, 1846;

- October 16, 1726;

- October 16, 1746;

- October 16, 1826.

10. Christian Albert Theodor Billroth:

* described the technique of operations on alimentary tract;

- offered to use aseptics and antiseptics in surgery;

- invented the obstetric forceps;

  • described the methods of the surgical treatment of the thyroid gland.

11. Josef Leopold Auenbrugger was a student of:

* Gerard van Swieten;

  • Jean-Nicolas Corvisart;

- Herman Boerhaave;

  • Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec.

12. А. Piоrry described:

* indirect percussion;

- mediate auscultation;

- direct percussion;

- immediate auscultation.

13. Immediate auscultation was arised:

* in the countries of the Antique Mediterranean;

  • in early Middle Ages;

  • in late Middle Ages;

  • in modern period.

14. The student of Herman Boerhaave was:

* Gerard van Swieten;

  • Josef Leopold Auenbrugger;

  • А. Piоrry;

  • Jean-Nicolas Corvisart.

15. The direct percussion became popular after works of:

* Jean-Nicolas Corvisart;

  • Herman Boerhaave;

  • Gerard van Swieten;

  • Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec.

16. One of the first, who used a thermometer for the body temperature measurement, was:

* Herman Boerhaave;

  • Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec;

  • Joseph Skoda;

  • А. Piоrry.

17. The method of indirect percussion was described in:

* 1826;

  • 1726;

  • 1862;

  • 1762.

18. A thermometry began to be used in practice at the beginning of:

* XVIII century;

  • XIX century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVI century.

19. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec was a student of:

* Jean-Nicolas Corvisart;

  • Gerard van Swieten;

  • Joseph Skoda;

  • Josef Leopold Auenbrugger.

20. А. Piоrry was a student of:

* Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec;

  • Joseph Skoda;

  • Josef Leopold Auenbrugger;

  • Gerard van Swieten.

21. Sergey Petrovich Botkin lived in:

* XIX century;

  • XVIII century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVI century.

22. The creator of clinical and experimental direction in medical science in Russia was:

* Sergey Petrovich Botkin;

  • М. Mudrov;

  • V. P. Obraztsov;

  • І. Е. Dyadkovskiy.

23. V. P. Obraztsov lived in:

* XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries.

24. The founder of the medical school in Kyiv was:

* V. P. Obraztsov;

  • Sergey Petrovich Botkin;

  • М. Mudrov;

  • І. Е. Dyadkovskiy.

25. V. P. Obraztsov:

- described the method of sliding palpation of organs of the abdominal cavity;

- was the first, who organized physical, chemical and bacteriological laboratory in the Russian Empire;

- was the founder of the fundamental clinical pharmacology;

- was one of the first, who used the method of the mediate auscultation in the Russian Empire.

26. The follower of Sergey Petrovich Botkin was:

* V. P. Obraztsov;

  • М. Mudrov;

  • І. Е. Dyadkovskiy;

  • Danila Samoilowitz.

27. The founder of the blighty scientific pediatrics was:

* S. Hotovitzky;

  • Danila Samoilowitz;

  • V. P. Obraztsov;

  • Sergey Petrovich Botkin.

28. S. Hotovitzky lived in:

* XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries.

29. S. Hotovitzky:

* is the author of the first original blighty handbook about children’s diseases “Pediatrika”;

- described the early symptoms of measles;

- described the method of sliding palpation of organs of the abdominal cavity;

- was the founder of the fundamental clinical pharmacology.

30. S. Hotovitzky was born in:

* Volhynian province;

  • Smolensk province;

  • Kursk province;

  • Vitebsk province.

31. Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky lived in:

* XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries.

32. Philippe Pinel lived in:

* XVIII–XIX centuries;

  • XIX–XX centuries;

  • XVII–XVIII centuries;

  • XVI–XVII centuries.

33. ABO group blood system was discovered by:

* Karl Landsteiner;

  • Joseph Lister;

  • Christian Albert Theodor Billroth;

  • К. Long.

34. ABO group blood system was discovered in:

* 1900;

  • 1850;

  • 1800;

  • 1750.

35. Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov lived in:

* XIX century;

  • XVIII century;

  • XVII century;

  • XVI century.

36. Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov:

* was one of the founders of topographical anatomy;

- offered to use a bandage for surgical haemostasis.

37. Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch:

* offered to use a bandage for surgical haemostasis;

  • was one of the founders of topographical anatomy;

  • was the first, who used aether anaesthesia during operation;

  • elaborated the method of asepsis.

38. Nikolai Vasilyevich Sklifosovsky:

* was one of the first, who conducted operations on the cavities;

  • was the first in the Russian Empire, who used general anaesthesia;

  • offered to use a bandage for surgical haemostasis;

- was the founder of the fundamental clinical pharmacology.

39. Who discovered the function of the thyroid gland and described methods of the surgical treatment on it?

* Emil Theodor Kocher;

  • Christian Albert Theodor Billroth;

  • Jules-Emile Pean;

  • Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch.

40. The founder of the surgery of gastrointestinal tract was:

* Christian Albert Theodor Billroth;

- Jean Palfyn;

- Philippe Pinel;

- Joseph Lister.

41. The obstetric forceps in practice were invented by:

* Jean Palfyn;

- Christian Albert Theodor Billroth;

  • Philippe Pinel;

  • Herman Boerhaave.

42. The obstetric forceps were introduced into clinical practice in:

* 1723;

  • 1823;

  • 1793;

  • 1893.


Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


LESSON 3

Development of Preventive Medicine in the Modern Period


The purpose is to become familiar with the development of social medicine and hygiene in the modern period (1640–1918).


Questions for self-control

1. Appearance of demographic statistics.

2. Formation of professional hygiene.

3. Development of the social hygiene in the Western Europe in ХVIII–XIХ centuries.

4. Development of the experimental hygiene in the Western Europe.

5. Experimental hygiene in the Russian Empire in XIХ century.


Basic references

1. Lecture material.

2. History of medicine // O. Holyachenko, G. Konopelko, O. Lytvynova et al. – Ternopil : Ukrmedknyha, 2004. – P. 88–90.


Test questions

1. In the development of microbiology the following periods are distinguished:

* empirical and experimental;

- macroscopic and microscopic;

- prescientific and scientific;

- premicroscopic and microscopic.

2. The method of vaccination was discovered by:

* Edward Anthony Jenner;

- Louis Pasteur;

- Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch;

- Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov.

3. The method of vaccination was discovered in:

* 1796;

- 1696;

- 1896;

- 1906.

4. Variolation is a method in which:

* a content of pustules from patients with smallpox is rubbed into the skin of healthy person;

- a content of cowpox pustules is vaccinated into the healthy person;

- a content of pustules from patients with chickenpox is rubbed into the skin of healthy person;

- a content of cowpox pustules is vaccinated into the patient with smallpox.

5. Vaccination is a method in which:

* a content of cowpox pustules is vaccinated into the healthy person;

- a content of pustules from patients with smallpox is rubbed into the skin of healthy person;

- a content of pustules from patients with chickenpox is rubbed into the skin of healthy person;

- a content of cowpox pustules is vaccinated into the patient with smallpox.

6. The first, who offered the idea about the state organization of medical care, was:

* Joseph Frank;

- Jean Palfyn;

- Philippe Pinel;

- Christian Albert Theodor Billroth.

7. Joseph Frank lived in:

* XVIII–XIX centuries;

- XIX–XX centuries;

- XVII–XVIII centuries;

- XVI–XVII centuries.

8. The founder of experimental hygiene was:

* Max Joseph von Pettenkofer;

- Joseph Frank;

- Philippe Pinel;

- Joseph Lister.

9. The experimental hygiene appeared in:

* XIX century;

- XX century;

- XVIII century;

- XVII century.

10. The Nobel Prize on physiology and medicine in 1908 was awarded for work on the study of immunity to:

* Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich;

- Ivan Petrovich Pavlov;

- Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal;

- Emil Theodor Kocher.

11. George Roshar first used the term “social hygiene” in:

* 1838;

- 1746;

- 1888;

- 1913.

12. The book “Treatise of social hygiene and health statistics” by George Roshar was published in:

* 1888;

- 1746;

- 1838;

- 1913.

13. The society of social hygiene and health statistics was founded in 1905 by:

* Alfred Grotyan;

- Fridrig Printsing;

- Ludwig Teleki;

- Alphonse Fіsher.

14. Teaching a course of social medicine in Kyiv university was first started by:

* B. Korchak-Chepurkovsky;

- A. M. Merkov;

- S. M. Іgumnov;

- S. A. Tomіlіn.

15. The first department of Social Hygiene in Ukraine was opened in:

* Kharkiv medical university;

- Dnipropetrovsk medical university;

- Donetsk medical university;

- Kyiv medical university.

16. The first department of social hygiene in Europe was opened in:

* Berlin medical university;

- Kharkiv medical university;

- Paris medical university;

- Kyiv medical university.

17. The author of the first Ukrainian textbook on social medicine, published in 1932, was:

* S. S. Kagan;

- B. Korchak-Chepurkovsky;

- S. M. Іgumnov;

- S. A. Tomіlіn.


Manuals: atlas, album, literature.


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