3395 Krok-1 Pharmacology icon

3395 Krok-1 Pharmacology




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Ministry of Education, Science, Youth, and Sports of Ukraine

Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine

Sumy State University


3395 Krok-1

Pharmacology


Collection of test items


Sumy

Sumy State University

2012

Krok-1. Pharmacology / compilers: I. Yu. Vysotsky, R. A. Chramova, A. A. Kachanova. – Sumy : Sumy State University, 2012. – 181 p.


Biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, and biomolecular engineering department

General Pharmacology


1. Drug A. has been prescribed to a patient. After several days the action of drug has significantly decreased and the increased dose of drug is necessary for achievement of initial effect. What is the name of this phenomenon?

A. Idiosyncrasy.

B. Tachyphylaxis.

C. Drug dependence (drug addiction).

D. Cumulation.

*A. Tolerance.

2. Drug A., which decreases the blood clotting, has been prescribed to a patient with thrombosis of veins. After several days the signs of overdose have developed in patient. The level of drug A. in blood significantly exceeded the top border of therapeutic concentration. What is the name of this phenomenon?

A. Antagonism.

B. Tachyphylaxis.

C. Tolerance.

D. Potentiation.

*E. Cumulation.

3. Substance A. increases the tone of smooth muscles of intestine. This effect is not observed in presence of substance B. But the tone of intestine is increased, if concentration of substance A. is enhanced 10 times and concentration of substance B. is not changed. What is this type of drugs interaction called?

A. Indirect antagonism.

B. Equilibrium antagonism.

C. Potentiation.

D. Synergism.

*E. Non-equilibrium antagonism.

4. The biological activity of xenobiotics in human organism is decreased due to reactions of:

A. Hydration.

B. Amination.

C. Carboxylation.

D. Dehydration.

*E. Hydroxylation.

5. The synthesis of ATP in cells is blockaded in pharmacological experiment. What type of drugs transport through the biomembranes will undergo the greatest changes?

A. Filtration.

B. Passive diffusion.

C. Osmosis.

D. Simplified diffusion.

*E. Active transport.

6. A man, 36-year-old, with craniocerebral trauma has diminished breath sounds, thread pulse, reflexes are absent. What route of administration of pyracetame is the most appropriate in this case?

A. Inhalation.

B. Subcutaneous.

C. Peroral.

D. Rectal.

*E. Intravenous.

7. A man abused drug A. during a long time. After the interruption of this drug use, the abstinence has developed in this patient. But the signs of abstinence are eliminated after the use of drug B. This phenomenon is an example of:

A. Psychic dependence.

B. Potentiation.

C. Tolerance.

D. Physical dependence.

*E. Crossdependence.

8. For the passive diffusion of medicinal substance through the biological membranes the following is typical:

A. The possibility of competition of two substances for one transport mechanism.

B. Presence of protein carrier in membranes.

C. Presence of external source of energy.

D. Moving of molecules through membrane by means of their kinetic energy.

*E. Moving of molecules according to concentration gradient.

9. What property of medicinal substances promotes their cumulation?

A. High degree of dissociation.

B. High degree of biotransformation.

C. High solubility in lipids.

D. Low degree of binding with proteins.

*E. High degree of binding with proteins.

10. Amebiasis was diagnosed in patient, who had appealed to the doctor. Doctor prescribed tetracycline to this patient. What type of action was used in this case?

A. Irreversible action.

B. Direct action.

C. Reflex action.

D. Main action.

*E. Etiotropic action.

11. It is necessary to introduce the drug into organism in definite period of time for creation of effective concentration of drug in organism. Call the pharmacological parameter which should be taken into account at a choice of drugs introduction rhythm.

A. Constant of elimination.

B. Breadth of therapeutic action.

C. Coefficient of diffusion in intestine.

D. Degree of binding with proteins.

*E. Period of half-life.

12. The tranquilizer diazepam in average therapeutic doses was prescribed to patient with disturbing-imaginary state. But due to the genetically determinant enzymopathy the action of drug was so strong, that the marked hypnotic action was showed in patient. What is such atypical reaction to drug called?

A. Dependence.

B. Allergy.

C. Tachyphylaxis.

D. Tolerance.

*E. Idiosyncrasy.

13. What is the name of the psychic and physical disturbances in narcomaniac, which develop due to interruption of narcotic intake?

A. Idiosyncrasy.

B. Tachyphylaxis.

C. Euphoria.

D. Tolerance.

*E. Abstinence.

14. The recommended route of drugs administration to comatose patient:

A. Rectal.

B. Inhalation.

C. Peroral.

D. Subcutaneous.

*E. Intravenous.

15. A woman intakes tranquilizers in the second part of pregnancy. The delivery develops in time, but child was born with different anomalies of development (labium leporium, polydactylia). What is such drug action called?

A. Carcinogenic action.

B. Mutagenic action.

C. Enbriotoxic action.

D. Fetotoxic action.

*E. Teratogenic action.

16. Several injections of ephedrine hydrochloride had been given in short period of time to patient with acute dropping of blood pressure. But the reaction of vessel to the last introduction was much lower, than to previous injections. What is the cause of this phenomenon?

A. Ricochet syndrome.

B. Idiosyncrasy.

C. Tolerance.

D. Cumulation.

*E. Tachyphylaxis.

17. The significant psychic, neurologic, and somatic disturbances develop in addict after the cessation of narcotic action. What is the name of this phenomenon?

A. Tolerance.

B. Physical dependence.

C. Sensibilization.

D. Cumulation.

*E. Abstinence.

18. A pregnant woman had taken high doses of retinol during the first trimester of pregnancy. This had caused hypervitaminosis. The pregnancy had developed normally, but the newborn has the anomalies of development. What is such negative drug action called?

A. Carcinogenic.

B. Embryotoxic.

C. Fetotoxic.

D. Mutagenic.

*E. Teratogenic.

19. Some drug in tablets was prescribed to patient with hypertensive disease. What factor has not the influence upon the absorption of drug from intestine?

A. Reception of other drugs.

B. Food intake.

C. Solubility of drug in water or in lipids.

D. Acidity of stomach juice.

*E. Activity of microsomal hepatic enzymes.

20. Digitoxin was prescribed to patient with chronic heart failure. After several weeks of treatment the following symptoms of glycoside intoxication had developed in patient: bradycardia, nausea, extrasystoles. But the dose did not exceed the average therapeutics and the term of treatment course did not terminate. What is this phenomenon called?

A. Idiosyncrasy.

B. Functional cumulation.

C. Tolerance.

D. Tachyphylaxis.

*E. Material cumulation.

21. A doctor has prescribed diclofenac-sodium and prednisolone to patient with serious polyarthritis. The doctor takes into account, that in case of simultaneous introduction of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids their action is significantly increased because drugs have different mechanisms of action. What is such type of drugs interaction called?

A. Pharmacokynetical interaction.

B. Direct synergism.

C. Physicochemical interaction.

D. Pharmaceutical interaction.

*E. Indirect synergism.

22. It is known that the substance has significant hydrophilic properties. What pharmacological peculiarity is typical for this substance?

A. Ability to penetrate through blood-brain barrier freely.

B. High bioavailability.

C. Biotransformation in liver.

D. Ability to penetrate into cells.

*E. Rapid renal elimination.

23. During experiment the acetylsalicylic acid was introduced in different parts of gastrointestinal tract. What part of GI-tract this drug is absorbed with maximal speed in?

A. Large intestine.

B. Oral cavity.

C. Duodenum.

D. Small intestine.

*E. Stomach.

24. The following type of reaction should be expected in case of prescription of drugs for pregnant woman:

A. Mutagenic.

B. Teratogenic.

C. Embryotoxic.

D. Fetotoxic.

*E. All from above.

25. Indicate the properties of drug which depend on the time of drugs introduction.

A. Speed of drug absorption.

B. Toxicity.

C. Quantitative activity.

D. Qualitative activity.

*E. All from above.

26. A doctor has introduced the caffeine intramuscularly for patient with alcohol intoxication. What is the principle, which is the base of expediency for such treatment?

A. Summation.

B. Synergism.

C. Potentiation.

D. Competitive antagonism.

*E. Physiological antagonism.

27. The metabolism of drugs in embryo is significantly slower than in adult organism. This feature of embryo pharmacokinetics is due to:

A. Insufficiency of tissue receptors.

B. Significant permeability of blood-tissue interfaces.

C. Significant volume of extracellular fluid.

D. Capacity of skin to absorb and excrete the drugs.

*E. Functional insufficiency of enzymes or their absence.

28. The influence of some adverse factors, such as drugs, before pregnancy increases the possibility of birth of the child with genetic abnormalities. What is this action called?

A. Carcinogenic.

B. Embryotoxic.

C. Teratogenic.

D. Fetotoxic.

*E. Mutagenic.

29. It is known that in persons with genetically determined insufficiency of glucoso-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of erythrocytes the prescription of some antimalarial drugs can cause the haemolysis of erythrocytes. What is this atypical reaction upon drugs called?

A. Tolerance.

B. Allergy.

C. Sensibilization.

D. Tachyphylaxis.

*E. Idiosyncrasy.

30. The drug A. with significant solubility in lipids was prescribed to patient. What is the main mechanism of its absorption?

A. Interaction with transport proteins.

B. Filtration.

C. Active transport.

D. Pinocytosis.

*E. Passive diffusion.

31. During operation the anaesthesiologist used the nitric oxide as general anaesthetic. This drug has significant lipophilic properties. What is the mechanism of this drug penetration through biological membranes?

A. Pinocytosis.

B. Active transport.

C. Simplified diffusion.

D. Filtration.

*E. Passive diffusion.

32. Benzylpenicillin sodium is injected to a patient with pneumonia in dose of 500,000 units of action 6 times daily. After another injection there arose fever, spasms, and then the patient lost consciousness. What has happened to the patient?

A. Medicines tolerance.

B. Idiosyncrasy.

C. Tachyphylaxis.

D. Cumulation.

*E. Anaphylactic shock.

33. A victim was delivered to an emergency station by an ambulance with the following diagnosis: displaced fracture of the middle one-third of the hip. With the purpose of bone fragments reposition 10 ml of 2% dithyline solution was injected to the patient intravenously. In consequence of that a long-lasting apnoea and muscle relaxation developed. What enzyme deficiency causes such side effect?

A. N-acetyltransferase.

B. Acetylcholinesterase.

C. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

D. Methemoglobine reductase.

*E. Pseudocholinesterase.

34. A medicine A was prescribed to a patient. In a few days the drug effect has considerably decreased and to get the initial effect it was necessary to increase the dose. What is this phenomenon called?

A. Idiosyncrasy.

B. Tachyphylaxis.

C. Drug dependence.

D. Cumulation.

*E. Tolerance.

35. During an operative intervention with the use of muscle relaxants breath disorder appeared. Injection of proserin led to improvement. What is such drug interaction called?

A. Cumulation.

B. Synergism.

C. Incompatibility.

D. Tachyphylaxis.

*E. Antagonism.

36. A patient suffering from epilepsy was receiving daily 0.2 grams dose of phenobarbital continuously. Recently, attacks became more frequent, dysphoria was observed. Which process became the cause of the deterioration of the patient’s status?

A. Glycolysis inhibition.

B. Liver monooxygenase system enzymes inhibition.

C. Lipolysis activation.

D. Gluconeogenesis activation.

*E. Liver monooxygenase system enzymes induction.

37. In the postoperative period promedolum was injected continuously to a patient. Withdrawal of the drug caused serious mental and somatic disturbances. What is this phenomenon called?

A. Output syndrome.

B. Idiosyncrasy.

C. Tachyphylaxis.

D. Steal syndrome.

*E. Abstinence syndrome.

38. A man, 36-year-old, with a craniocerebral trauma has dimi-nished breath sounds, thread pulse, reflexes are absent. What route of pyracetame administration is the most appropriate in this case?

A. Inhalation.

B. Subcutaneous.

C. Peroral.

D. Rectal.

*E. Intravenous.

39. Ambulance has been called to a 22-year-old man for the reason of bronchial asthma attack. What route of salbutamole introduction is the most appropriate in this case?

A. Sublingual.

B. Intramuscular.

C. Intravenous.

D. Subcutaneous.

*E. Inhalation.

40. Angina pectoris attack happened to a man, 48-year-old. A doctor prescribed him a pill of nitroglycerine sublingually. Why has the doctor chosen a sublingual method of medicine administration?

A. Only because it damaged the liver.

B. Drug elimination by gastric juice.

C. Low intestinal absorption.

D. It is activated by saliva.

*E. Effect develops faster.

41. Ambulance has been called to a 22-year-old man because of asthmatic status. What route of adrenaline hydrochloride administration is the most appropriate in this case?

A. Sublingual.

B. Inhalation.

C. Intramuscular.

D. Subcutaneous.

*E. Intravenous.

42. Intramuscular injection of benzylpenicillin sodium was made to a man, 28-year-old, because of a shoulder phlegmon. After that the man had tachycardia, thready pulse and arterial pressure decreased to 80/60 mm Hg. What kind of pharmacological reaction has deve-loped?

A. Peripheral effect.

B. Central effect.

C. Reflex effect.

D. Potentiation.

*E. Anaphylactic shock.

43. Phenobarbital was prescribed to a man, 56-year-old, suffering from insomnia. The sleep rhythm has been normalized. But gradually, during 2 months, the effect of the medicine decreased and insomnia arose. What reason has caused the reduction of the hypnotic effect?

A. Tachyphylaxis.

B. Low solubility.

C. Bad absorption in the stomach.

D. Accumulation in lipids.

*E. Tolerance.

44. During the fetal period metabolism of medications is consi-derably slower than in adult age. The specified feature of a fetus pharmacokinetics is caused, first of all, by the following:

A. “Maturation” of receptors in organs in different terms.

B. High permeability of blood-tissue interfaces.

C. Significant volume of extracellular liquid.

D. Ability for absorption and release of water-soluble drugs by skin.

*E. Functional imperfection of the most enzymes, their absence.

45. It is known that people with genetically caused insufficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrohenase of red blood cells may develop haemolysis of these cells as a reaction to some antimalarial medications prescription. What is such atypical reaction to medications called?

A. Tolerance.

B. Sensitization.

C. Allergy.

D. Tachyphylaxis.

*E. Idiosyncrasy.

46. How can the fact that for tuberculosis treatment an isoniazid dose is being selected individually with obligatory control of contents of the medication in urine after its first intake be explained?

A. Development of haemolytic anaemia.

B. Hyperglycaemia after the drug intake.

C. Development of renal insufficiency.

D. Irritative effect of the drug.

*E. Genetically caused speed of acetylation of the drug.

47. A patient with hypertension has been taking an antihypertensive medication for a long time, but suddenly he stopped the intake. After that the patient’s status worsened, the hypertensive crisis developed. What kind of collateral action has developed?

A. Dependence.

B. Cumulation.

C. Tolerance.

D. Sensitization.

*E. Syndrome of withdrawal.

48. An out-patient with chronic cardiac insufficiency has been taking digoxin in therapeutic doses during several months. At a certain stage of treatment overdose symptoms appeared. What phenomenon underlies the development of such complication?

A. Tachyphylaxis.

B. Drug habituation.

C. Sensitization.

D. Functional cumulation.

*E. Material cumulation.

49. At a stomatologist a patient developed an attack of bronchospasm, which was cured with 5% ephedrine hydrochloride solution injection. In 20 minutes the attack repeated. An additional injection of ephedrine had no effect due to tachyphylaxis. What mechanism underlies this phenomenon?

A. Induction of microsomal enzymes of the liver.

B. Inhibition of adrenoreceptors.

C. Activation of adrenoreceptors.

D. Material cumulation of the drug.

*E. Exhaustion of noradrenaline depot in presynaptic endings.

50. A patient with atypical reaction developing in the result of drug administration is delivered to intensive care unit. Indicate the name of increased sensitivity and atypical reaction to the drug.

A. Summation.

B. Tolerance.

C. Dependence.

D. Cumulation.

*E. Idiosyncrasy.

51. A patient with morphinism is delivered to narcological unit. In the result of examination, a doctor indicated the decrease of morphine action. What is the phenomenon of drug action weakening in the result of repeated drug administration called?

A. Summation.

B. Material cumulation.

C. Functional cumulation.

D. Antagonism.

*E. Tolerance (accustoming).

52. What medicinal form provides the fastest and most complete absorption of drug in gastrointestinal tract?

A. Granules.

B. Tablets.

C. Capsules.

D. Dragee.

*E. Solutions for internal use.


^ DRUGS INFLUENCING PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


Drugs Affecting the Afferent Innervation


1. A patient had received the trauma of eye due to the hits of the metal shaving. Patient has oedema of eye, significant hyperaemia, and acute pain. The removal of an alien body is possible only with local anaesthesia. Choose the drug for local anaesthesia in this case.

A. Benzocaine (anaesthesinum)1.

B. Cocaine.

C. Procaine (novocainum).

D. Trimecaine.

*E. Tetracaine (dicainum).

2. An unconscious patient was delivered to the hospital. The doctor has given him to smell the ammonia solution to restore him to consciousness. What is the type of action, which provides the pharmacological effect of this drug?

A. Etiotropic action.

B. Resorptive action.

C. Local action.

D. Selective action.

*E. Reflex action.
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