3395 Krok-1 Pharmacology icon

3395 Krok-1 Pharmacology




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2. A patient who has been treated with diazepam on account of neurosis complains of toothache. Doctor administered him an analgesic, but its dose was lower than average therapeutic dose. What phenomenon did the doctor take into account while prescribing the patient an underdose?

A. Drug dependence.

B. Cumulation.

C. Tolerance.

D. Summation.

*E. Potentiation.

3. A 42-year-old man who has been injured in a car accident is brought into the emergency room. His blood alcohol level on admission is 250 mg/dL. Hospital records show a prior hospitalization for alcohol-related seizures. His wife confirms that he has been drinking heavily for 3 weeks. What treatment should be provided to the patient if he goes into withdrawal?

A. Phenitoin.

B. Pentobarbital.

C. None.

D. Phenobarbital.

*E. Diazepam.

4. A student asked doctor to help him to overcome the fear of stomatological manipulations. What drug has the doctor advised to take?

A. Pyracetam.

B. Aminazine.

C. Droperidol.

D. Dimedrol.

*E. Diazepam.

5. A woman, who leads an active way of life, has appealed to a polyclinic with complains of bad mood, migraine, emotional lability, heart pain. What drug for neurosis treatment should be prescribed, taking into consideration that the patient spends a lot of time at work?

A. Phenobarbital.

B. Aminazine.

C. Phenazepam.

D. Triftazinum.

*E. Gidazepam.

6. To perform oral surgery a dentist prescribed a combination of drugs with the purpose of analgesia. What tranquilizer – derivative of benzodiazepine – is used for this purpose?

A. Aminazine.

B. Droperidol.

C. Trioxazinum.

D. Sulpiride.

*E. Diazepam.

7. A patient suffers from repeating attacks of epileptic convulsions with loss of consciousness. What group of drug is used first of all for seizures elimination in this case?

A. Sedative drugs.

B. Neuroleptics.

C. Miorelaxants.

D. Analeptics.

*E. Tranquilizers.

8. After the psychical trauma, a patient began to complain of alarm, anxiety, and pavor. What derivative of benzodiazepine may be prescribed to the patient?

A. Heparin.

B. Analginum.

C. Bisacodyl.

D. Metoclopramide.

*E. Nitrazepam.

9. A 45-year-old patient suffers from neurosis characterized by irritability, sleeplessness, and motiveless anxiety. What drug would eliminate all the symptoms?

A. Ethosuximide.

B. Pyracetam.

C. Levodopa.

D. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

*E. Diazepam.


^ Psychostimulants, Nootropics, and Analeptics


1. Analeptical remedy of reflective type from the H-cholinomimetics group was given to the patient for restoration of breathing after poisoning with carbon monooxide. What medicine was prescribed to the patient?

A. Atropine sulfate.

B. Mesatonum.

C. Adrenaline hydrochloride.

D. Pentamine.

*E. Lobeline hydrochloride.

2. An aged patient complains of headache, dizziness, quick tiredness, worsening of memory. Anamnesis: craniocerebral injury. Medicine of what group should be prescribed?

A. Neuroleptics.

B. Sedatives.

C. Analgesics.

D. Hypnotics.

*E. Nootropics.

3. The CNS stimulation produced by methylxanthines, such as caffeine, is most likely due to the antagonism of one of the following receptors:

A. GABA receptors.

B. Cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

C. Glycine receptors.

D. Glutamate receptors.

*E. Adenosine receptors.

4. A patient with respiratory depression has been delivered to a hospital. What is the pharmacological group of drugs that can stimulate breathing?

A. Analgesics.

B. Tranquilizers.

C. Neuroleptics.

D. Antidepressants.

*E. Analeptics.

5. Parents have appealed to a neurologist with complaints of the disorder of mental work, reduction of learning abilities of their 9-year-old child. Decrease of mentality, memory, intellectual work capacity was detected. The prescription of what group of psychotropic drugs is needed in this case?

A. Adaptogenes.

B. Antidepressants.

C. Tranquilizers.

D. Neuroleptics.

*E. Nootropic agents.

6. An elderly man complains of headache, dizziness, rapid fatigability, memory impairment. In the anamnesis there is craniocerebral trauma. What group of drugs is needed to be prescribed?

A. Tranquilizers.

B. Soporific.

C. Neuroleptics.

D. Analgetics.

*E. Nootropic agents.

7. It is necessary to prescribe a patient a drug, which improves memory and mental work in case of organic damages of the brain. What drug should be prescribed?

A. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

B. Nitrazepam.

C. Mezapam.

D. Diazepam.

*E. Pyracetam.

8. A newborn child has asphyxia. What drug is it necessary to prescribe for the stimulation of breathing of the newborn?

A. Proserinum.

B. Lobeline hydrochloride.

C. Prazosin.

D. Atropine sulfate.

*E. Aethymizole.

9. During a tooth extraction a patient lost consciousness. What drug is it necessary to prescribe to bring the patient out of this condition quickly?

A. Papaverine hydrochloride.

B. Amitriptyline.

C. Analginum.

D. Novocainum.

*E. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

10. A 36-year-old male patient has a cardiocerebral trauma accompanied by weak breathing and thread pulse, reflexes are absent. What is the most expedient way of pyracetame introduction in this case?

A. Inhalation.

B. Rectal.

C. Subcutaneous.

D. Peroral.

*E. Intravenous.

11. A patient with complaints of memory impairment and intellectual work capacity decrease after a head trauma is hospitalized into the neurology department. What medicine can be recommended to improve brain tissues metabolism?

A. Analginum.

B. Meridilum.

C. Sydnocarbum.

D. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

*E. Pyracetam.


^ DRUGS INFLUENCING FUNCTIONS

OF INTERNAL ORGANS


Drugs Affecting Respiratory System


1. Spasm of smooth muscle of bronchi developed in the patient. Usage of activators of what membrane cytoreceptors is physiologically valid to decrease attack?

A. -Adrenoreceptors.

B. - and -adrenoreceptors.

C. M-cholinoreceptors.

D. H-cholinorceptors.

*E. -Adrenoreceptors.

2. A 13-year-old girl with history of asthma complained of cough, dyspnoea, and wheezing. Her symptoms became so severe that her parents brought her to the emergency room. Physical examination revealed diaphoresis, dyspnoea, tachycardia, and tachypnoea. Her respiratory rate was 42/min, pulse rate was 110 beats per minute, and blood pressure was 130/70 mm Hg. Choose from the following list the most appropriate drug to reverse the bronchoconstriction rapidly:

A. Cromolin sodium.

B. Ipratropium.

C. Methylprednisolone.

D. Beclomethasone.

*E. Salbutamol.

3. A 45-year-old woman suffers from allergic seasonal coryza caused by the ambrosia blossoming. What drug from the stabilizer of the adipose cells group can be used for prevention of this disease?

A. Dimedrol.

B. Tavegyl.

C. Diazoline.

D. Phencarol.

*E. Ketotifen.

4. Which of the following β-adrenoceptor agonists has such a slow onset of action that it is not indicated for the relief of acute asthma symptoms?

A. Isoproterenol.

B. Albuterol.

C. Epinephrine.

D. Terbutaline.

*E. Salmeterol.

5. A patient with bronchial asthma was treated by euphyllinum, after that the condition of patient was improved. What mechanism of action has this drug?

A. Prevention of histamine discharge from basophiles.

B. Activation of adenylcyclase.

C. Activation of Na,K-ATPase.

D. Blockade of M-cholinoreceptors.

*E. Blockade of phosphodiesterase.

6. A 12-year-old girl with a childhood history of asthma complained of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing after visiting a riding stable. Her symptoms became so severe that her parents brought her to the emergency room. Physical examination revealed diaphoresis, dyspnoea, tachycardia, and tachypnoea. Her respiratory rate was 42/min, pulse rate was 110 beats per minute, and blood pressure was 132/65 mm Hg. What drug is contraindicated in this patient?

A. Inhaled cromolin sodium.

B. Inhaled beclomethasone.

C. Inhaled ipratropium.

D. Inhaled albuterol.

*E. Intravenous propranolol.

7. A 12-year-old girl with a childhood history of asthma complained of cough, dyspnoea, and wheezing after visiting a riding stable. Her symptoms became so severe that her parent brought her to the emergency room. Physical examination revealed diaphoresis, dyspnoea, tachycardia, and tachypnoea. Her respiratory rate was 42/min, pulse rate was 110 beats per minute, and blood pressure was 132/65 mm Hg. The most appropriate drug to rapidly reverse bronchoconstriction is:

A. Intravenous propranolol.

B. Inhaled beclomethasone.

C. Inhaled ipratropium.

D. Inhaled cromolin sodium.

*E. Inhaled albuterol.

8. A 12-year-old girl with a childhood history of asthma complained of cough, dyspnoea, and wheezing after visiting a riding stable. Her symptoms became so severe that her parent brought her to the emergency room. Physical examination revealed diaphoresis, dyspnoea, tachycardia, and tachypnoea. Her respiratory rate was 42/min, pulse rate was 110 beats per minute, and blood pressure was 132/65 mm Hg. Indicate the drug, which is likely to be ineffective in this patient.

A. Intravenously prednisolone.

B. Inhaled beclomethasone.

C. Inhaled ipratropium.

D. Inhaled albuterol.

*E. Inhaled cromolin sodium.

9. Ethyl alcohol was introduced to patient with acute pulmonary oedema. What action of ethyl alcohol was used in this case?

A. Ethyl alcohol decreases the permeability of lung’s vessels.

B. Hypnotic action.

C. Analgesic action.

D. Ethyl alcohol increases the rate of metabolism into the body.

*E. Ethyl alcohol decreases the superficial tension of foam and transforms it to the fluid.

10. A patient with bronchial asthma attack has a concomitant disease – angina pectoris. What bronchodilator should be prescribed in this case?

A. Noradrenaline hydrotartrate.

B. Adrenaline.

C. Isadrinum.

D. Atropine sulfate.

*E. Salbutamol.

11. Chronic bronchitis is diagnosed. A patient is treated with mucolytic – a drug, which stimulates formation of surfactant, improves rheological properties of sputum, reduces its viscosity. What is this drug?

A. Panadol.

B. Papaverine hydrochloride.

C. Libexinum (prenoxdiazine).

D. Codeine.

*E. Ambroxol.

12. Bronchospasm has developed in patient using -adre-noblockers during long time. Choose the most rational drug group for interruption of bronchospasm in this patient.

A. Cholinesterase inhibitors.

B. -Adrenomimetics.

C. Adrenomimetics with indirect action.

D. M-cholinomimetics.

*E. Miotropic spasmolytics.

13. A patient with asthmatic status is delivered to urgent unit. The patient has been suffering from bronchial asthma for 12 years. Earlier attacks were reduced by salbutamol but now this drug is ineffective. What drug should be administered to patient first of all?

A. Bisacodyl.

B. Acyclovir.

C. Oxytocin.

D. Famotidine.

*E. Prednisolone.

14. A patient with purulent bronchitis is delivered to the pulmonary department. For depression of sputum and simplification of its release the doctor prescribes to him drug A. Indicate this drug.

A. Morphine.

B. Tincture of valerian.

C. Cholosasum.

D. Prednisolone.

*E. Acetylcysteine.

15. A patient with acute laryngotracheitis suffers from dry cough. Prescribe antitussive drug for this patient.

A. Morphine.

B. Ambroxol.

C. Acetylcysteine.

D. Mucaltinum.

*E. Glaucine.

16. A patient suffering from chronic bronchitis takes synthetic mucolytic drug that facilitates the sputum thinning. What drug is it?

A. Furosemide.

B. Enalapril.

C. Heparin.

D. Diazepam.

*E. Acetylcysteine.


^ Cardiotonic Drugs


1. A patient with chronic heart failure being treated by digitalis drugs developed the symptoms, which confirmed the beginning of cardiac glycosides toxic activity. What drug should be administered to reduce the negative effect of cardiac glycosides?

A. Atropine sulfate.

B. Sodium chloride.

C. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

D. Dipiroxime.

*E. Potassium chloride.

2. Patient complains of weakness, dyspnoea, and low extrenities oedema. Diagnosis: chronic cardiac insufficiency. What medicine should be prescribed first of all?

A. Papaverine.

B. Raunatin.

C. Propranolol.

D. Caffeine.

*E. Digoxin.

3. Which of the following most directly describes the mechanism of digitalis action?

A. Decreases the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

B. Decreases intracellular sodium concentration.

C. Increases intracellular level of ATP.

D. Stimulates production of cAMP.

*E. Inhibits sodium-potassium ATPase.

4. All of the following are useful in the treatment of digitalis overdose, except:

A. Anti-digoxin FAB fragments.

B. Dietary potassium supplements for patients being treated concomitantly with diuretics.

C. Lidocaine.

D. Phenytoin (dipheninum).

*E. Quinidine.

5. Which of the following aggravates a digitalis-induced arrhythmia?

A. Decreased serum angiotensin II.

B. Decreased serum sodium.

C. Decreasing heart rate with propranolol (anaprilinum).

D. Decreased serum calcium.

*E. Decreased serum potassium.

6. A patient with chronic cardiovascular insufficiency during digitalization demonstrated the following symptoms: headache, fatigue, nausea, colour vision impairment (surrounding objects are perceived in green colour). On ECG the sinus bradycardia and signs of impairment of atrioventricular conductivity were detected. What drug can be prescribed to relieve the symptoms of intoxication?

A. Atropine.

B. Naloxone.

C. Bemegride.

D. Dipiroxime.

*E. Unithiole.

7. A patient complains of oedemas, rapid pulse, short breath, cyanosis of mucous tunics. The diagnosis is chronic cardiac insufficiency. What drug should be prescribed for this patient?

A. Nitroglycerin.

B. Papaverine.

C. Mesatonum.

D. Cordiaminum.

*E. Digoxin.

8. A patient with signs of acute cardiac insufficiency is delivered to a hospital. What drug should be prescribed for urgent aid to this patient?

A. Digitoxin.

B. Aethymizole.

C. Dithylinum.

D. Pyridostigmine bromide.

*E. Corglycon.

9. A patient with cardiac insufficiency took a medicine. Consequently his heartbeats increased, pulse became stronger, oedema decreased, diuresis increased. What drug did the patient take?

A. Reserpine.

B. Propranolol.

C. Verapamil.

D. Diltiazem.

*E. Digoxin.

10. Acute cardiovascular insufficiency is accompanied by oedema of lungs. What cardiac glycoside should be prescribed to the patient?

A. Triamterene.

B. Spironolactone.

C. Dichlothiazidum.

D. Acetazolamide (Diacarbum).

*E. Corglycon.

11. A patient with cardiogenic shock, hypotension, asthma, and oedemas was prescribed a nonglycosidic cardiotonic. Which drug was injected to the patient?

A. Bemegride.

B. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

C. Cordiaminum.

D. Aethymizole.

*E. Dobutamine.

12. A 68-year-old patient with cardiac insufficiency, who had been taking digitalis medicines for a long time, had symptoms of intoxication, which were quickly eliminated by the application of the donator of sulfhydric groups – unithiole. What is the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of this drug?

A. Increase of energy supply to the myocardium.

B. Reduction of ionized calcium accumulation.

C. Inhibition of potassium release from cardiac hystiocytes.

D. Slowing-down of sodium coming into cardiac hystiocytes.

*E. Reactivation of Na,K-ATPese of cardiac hystiocyte’s membranes.

13. Cardiotonic drug was prescribed to a 50-year-old patient with chronic cardiac insufficiency and tachyarrhythmia. What drug was prescribed to patient?

A. Mildronate.

B. Dopamine.

C. Dobutamine.

D. Amiodarone.

*E. Digoxin.

14. A patient with complains of frequent pulse, dyspnoea, cyanosis of mucous tunics was hospitalized to a cardiological department. Examination revealed oedemas on the lower extrimites and ascites. Chronic cardiac insufficiency was diagnosed. What drugs should be prescribed to this patient?

A. Drotaverine hydrochloride.

B. Cordiaminum.

C. Adrenaline hydrochloride.

D. Digitoxin.

*E. Corglycon.

15. Extrasystoles, vomiting, disturbances of vision and sleep, alarm, decreasing of diuresis have developed in patient with heart insufficiency in the result of uncontrolled digitoxin using. What group of drugs should be administered to this patient?

A. Donators of NO.

B. Agonists of 1-adrenergic receptors.

C. Blockers of angiotensin II receptors.

D. Blockers of K+ channels.

*E. Donators of SH-group.

16. A 60-year-old female suffering from ischaemic heart disease during 20 years is delivered to cardiologic department. What drug should be administered to this female for interruption of ciliary arrhythmia attack?

A. Ascorbic acid.

B. Adrenaline.

C. Bicillin V.

D. Laevomycetine.

*E. Digoxin.

17. Acute heart insufficiency has developed in 60-year-old patient. What drug should be administered to patient?

A. Caffeine sodium benzoate.

B. Adrenaline hydrochloride.

C. Atropine sulfate.

D. Noradrenaline hydrotartrate.

*E. Corglycon.

18. A patient suffers from left ventricular insufficiency. Indicate the drug which should be prescribed to him.

A. Piracetam.

B. Bemegride.

C. Aethymizole.

D. Vinpocetine.

*E. Digoxin.


^ Drugs Used for Treatment of Ischaemic Heart Disease


1. Therapy with propranolol has positively affected the course of the disease of a 44-year-old woman with angina pectoris. What is the mechanism of antianginal action of this drug?

A. Decrease of the need for oxygen and increase of the coming of oxygen into the myocardium.

B. Decrease of the oxidative exchange in the myocardium due to the inhibition of Krebs cycle enzymes.

C. Decrease of myocardium energy consumption due to the decrease of load.

D. Increase of oxygen coming into the myocardium.

*E. Inhibition of 1-adrenoceptors and decrease of the myocardium need for oxygen.

2. Bronchlospasm was developed in patient with angina pectoris after taking of antianginal drug. What drug could provoke this effect?

A. Nifedipine.

B. Nitroglycerin.

C. Sustac-forte.

D. Dipyridamole.

*E. Propranolol.

3. Anaprilinum therapy caused positive effect in the dynamics of the disease of 44-year-old woman suffering from stenocardia. What is the main mechanism of this drug effect?

A. Decrease of oxidative exchange in myocardium due to enzyme blockade of Krebs cycle.

B. Increased oxygen supply to the myocardium.

C. Decreased power inputs of myocardium due to reduced loading.

D. Decreased need in increasing of oxygen supply to the myocardium.

*E. Blockade of -adrenoceptors and decrease of myocardial requirements to the oxygen.
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