3395 Krok-1 Pharmacology icon

3395 Krok-1 Pharmacology




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9. ACE inhibitors are associated with a high incidence of which of the following adverse reactions?

A. Hirsutism.

B. Hypokalaemia.

C. Agranulocytosis.

D. Hepatitis.

*E. Proteinuria.

10. Significant relaxation of smooth muscle of both venules and arterioles is produced by which of the following drugs?

A. Nifedipine.

B. Minoxidil.

C. Diazoxide.

D. Hydralazine.

*E. Sodium nitroprusside.

11. A 50-year-old male with a two-year history of essential hypertension well controlled on dichlothiazide is found on a recent physical examination to have a blood pressure of 160/105 mm Hg. Dichlothiazide is substituted with another agent. Two weeks later, he returs for follow-up complaining of a taste loss. Select the drug which is most likely to have caused this adverse effect.

A. Propranolol.

B. Adenosine.

C. Furosemide.

D. Nifedipine.

*E. Captopril.

12. A 54-year-old female is treated for essential hypertension with an antihypertensive drug that controls her blood pressure. One day, she comes to the emergency department with chest pain, tachycardia, anxiety, and blood pressure of 240/140 mm Hg. She has not taken her medication for two days. Which antihypertensive drug can account for her findings?

A. Prazosin.

B. Propranolol.

C. Doxazosin.

D. Minoxidil.

*E. Clonidine.

13. A 48-year old salesman with known hypertension complains of a decreasing annual income, a loss of "drive", and a depressed outlook on life. His blood pressure is normal on medication. The antihypertensive drug is most likely to be the cause of his new complaints is:

A. Guanethidine.

B. Methyldopa.

C. Hydralazine.

D. Hydrochlorothiazide.

*E. Reserpine.

14. Clonidine hydrochloride lowers blood pressure by reducing sympathetic tone. It is believed to act by inhibiting sympathetic outflow from the vasomotor centre in the medulla. A potentially serious adverse reaction that has been reported is:

A. Systemic lupus erythematosus.

B. Anaphylaxis.

C. Irreversible nephrotoxicity.

D. Ventricular fibrillation.

*E. Withdrawal syndrome resembling hypertensive crisis.

15. Diuretic drug was prescribed to the patient with hypertension in the course of complex treatment. In a few days blood pressure decreased but signs of hypokalaemia developed. What drug could cause such complications?

A. Triamterene.

B. Clophelinum.

C. Spironolactone.

D. Enalapril.

*E. Lasix.

16. A patient with hypertensive disease with accompanying obstructive bronchitis receives propranolol in complex therapy. After a while, the attacks of asthma become more frequent. What is the cause of this side effect?

A. Stimulation of bronchial 1-adrenoceptors.

B. Blockade of bronchial 1-adrenoceptors.

C. Stimulation of bronchial 2-adrenoceptors.

D. Blockade of bronchial 2-adrenoceptors.

*E. Blockade of bronchial 2-adrenoceptors.

17. For the correction of arterial pressure in collaptoid state mesatonum has been injected to the patient. What is the mechanism of this drug action?

A. Stimulation of - and -adrenoceptors.

B. Stimulation of -adrenoceptors.

C. Blockade of -adrenoceptors.

D. Blockade of -adrenoceptors.

*E. Stimulation of ­1-adrenoceptors.

18. A patient suffers from hypertensive crisis. What is it necessary to prescribe to the patient for normalization of the arterial pressure?

A. Propranolol.

B. Reserpine.

C. Prazosin.

D. Atropine.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.

19. High renin level is developed in blood of 55-year-old patient with hypertensive disease. What hypotensive drug should be prescribed for the treatment of the patient?

A. Prazosin.

B. Clophelinum.

C. Magnesium sulfate.

D. Papaverine.

*E. Enalapril.

20. Antihypertensive agent has decreased the blood pressure during first several days of treatment owing to diminish of minute heart volume. In four weeks of using, minute heart volume restored to initial level but blood pressure had remained low. Indicate drug which is used in this case.

A. Losartan.

B. Prazosin.

C. Methyldopa.

D. Octadine.

*E. Anaprilinum.

21. A 65-year-old patient received the injection of drug A. for interruption of hypertensive crisis. It is known, that drug A. has anticonvulsive and analgesic actions; and in case of peroral administration it also shows the laxative and bile-expelling actions. Identify drug A.

A. Dibazole.

B. Sodium nitroprusside.

C. Clophelinum.

D. Pentaminum.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.

22. A patient with hypertensive crisis was admitted to the cardiological department. He was given an intravenous injection of an antihypertensive drug – alkali-earth metal salt. What drug was injected?

A. Potassium chloride.

B. Sodium hydrocarbonate.

C. Calcium lactate.

D. Benzohexonium.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.


^ Drugs Influencing Secretion of Gastrointestinal Tract


1. A 37-year-old man was admitted to the surgical department with symptoms of acute pancreatitis: vomiting, diarrhoea, bradycardia, hypotension, weakness, dehydration of the organism. What medicine should be used first of all?

A. No-spa.

B. Platyphylline.

C. Etaperazine.

D. Ephedrine.

*E. Contrical.

2. Cimetidine slows metabolism of many drugs because it inhibits the activity of:

A. Phase II glucuronidation reactions.

B. Monoamine oxidase (MAO).

C. Tyrosine kinase.

D. H+,K+-ATPase.

*E. Cytochrome P-450.

3. The absorption of phosphate reduces when large and prolonged doses of which of the following antacids are given?

A. Sucralfate.

B. Magnesium hydroxide.

C. Magnesium trisilicate.

D. Sodium bicarbonate.

*E. Calcium carbonate.

4. Omeprazole, an agent for the promotion of peptic ulcers tretment, has a mechanism of action that is based on:

A. Anticholinergic action.

B. Gastric secretion.

C. Pepsin secretion.

D. Prostaglandins.

*E. H+,K+-ATpase.

5. The approved indication for misoprostol is:

A. Pathologic hypersecretory conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

B. Regional ileitis.

C. Ulcerative colitis.

D. Reflux esophagitis.

*E. Prevention of gastric ulceration in patients using large doses of aspirin-like drugs.

6. Bismuth salts are thought to be effective in peptic ulcer disease because they have bactericidal properties against:

A. Staphylococcus aureus.

B. Bacteroides fragilis.

C. Clostridium difficile.

D. Escherichia coli.

*E. Helicobacter pylori.

7. Misoprostol has a cytoprotective action on the gastrointestinal mucosa because it:

A. Coats the mucosa.

B. Neutralizes acid secretion.

C. Antagonizes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

D. Relieves ulcer symptoms.

*E. Enhances secretion of mucus and bicarbonate ion.

8. The primary pharmacological action of omeprazole is the reduction of:

A. Secretion of intrinsic factor.

B. Gastric motility.

C. Secretion of pepsin.

D. Volume of gastric juice.

*E. Secretion of hydrochloric acid.

9. Which of the following is not associated with sucralfate?

A. It reacts little with mucin.

B. It maintains gel-like qualities even at acid pH.

C. It binds to ulcer craters more than to normal mucosa.

D. It contains polyaluminum hydroxide.

*E. It has moderate acid-neutralizing properties.

10. Preferred drug therapy for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is:

A. Metronidazole.

B. Sucralfate.

C. Misoprostol.

D. Ranitidine.

*E. Omeprazole.

11. A 36-year-old woman with severe erosive esophagitis is prescribed pantoprazole. Which of the following side effects of such therapy is one of the most common?

A. Paresthesias.

B. Constipation.

C. Vomiting.

D. Heartburn.

*E. Headache.

12. While taking NSAID for arthritis, a 65-year-old man developed gastric ulcer. He was prescribed ranitidine for 8 weeks. This drug binds a receptor located in the:

A. Cell wall.

B. Nucleolus.

C. Cytoplasm.

D. Nucleus.

*E. Cell membrane.

13. Gastric acid secretion is stimulated by the presence of:

A. Acetylcholine and pepsin.

B. Histamine and motilin.

C. Norepinephrine and gastrin.

D. Norepinephrine and histamine.

*E. Gastrin and acetylcholine.

14. A physician must always be aware of possible drug interactions. Aluminum hydroxide antacids tend to interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of:

A. Cephalexin.

B. Penicillin G.

C. Erythromycin.

D. Chloramphenicol.

*E. Tetracycline.

15. One mechanism to reduce gastric acid secretion is by blocking the H+,Na+-TPase pump in the parietal cell. One drug that has this pharmacologic action is:

A. Isoniazid.

B. Pirenzepine.

C. Misoprostol.

D. Serotonin.

*E. Omeprazole.

16. Concomitant administration of calcium and/or magnesium antacids to patients receiving one of the tetracycline drugs may have the following effects upon the action of the tetracycline:

A. Suppresses hypersensitivity reactions.

B. Causes no significant change.

C. Enhances the action.

D. Increases toxicity.

*E. Decreases the action.

17. Famotidine is prescribed to a patient with gastric ulcer. The acidity of gastric juice has considerably decreased. What mechanism underlies the action of the drug?

A. Blockade of N-cholinoceptors.

B. Blockade of H1-histaminic receptors.

C. Blockade of M1-cholinoceptors.

D. Suppression of Na,K-ATPase activity.

*E. Blockade of H2-histaminic receptors.

18. A 40-year-old patient suffers from gastric ulcer at the stage of exacerbation accompanied by a substantial increase of the acidity of gastric juice, pain, and dyspeptic syndrome. Choose the drug for treatment of this patient:

A. Festal.

B. Allocholum.

C. Papaverine hydrochloride.

D. No-spa.

*E. Famotidine.

19. A patient complains of stomachache and heartburn. Tests revealed the increase of gastric juice acidity. What drug should be prescribed to the patient for neutralization of the excessive acidity of gastric juice?

A. Benzohexonium.

B. Atropine.

C. Papaverine hydrochloride.

D. Ranitidine.

*E. Almagel.

20. In a patient with stomach ulcer Helicobacter pylori were detected. What drug, which influences Helicobacter pylori, should be prescribed in this case?

A. Maalox.

B. Almagel.

C. Famotidine.

D. Atropine sulfate.

*A. Metronidazole.

21. To a patient with ulcer disease of stomach was prescribed drug, the mechanism of which action is based on the blockade of
H2-hystamine receptors. Call this drug.

A. Dithylinum.

B. Bisacodyl.

C. Omeprazol.

D. Atropine sulfate.

*E. Famotidine.

22. A patient suffering from chronic hyperacidic gastritis takes an antacid drug for heartburn elimination. After its ingestion the patient feels better but at the same time he has a sensation of stomach swelling. Which of the following drugs might be the cause of such side effect?

A. Aluminium hydrooxide.

B. Pepsin.

C. Magnesium oxide.

D. Magnesium trisilicate.

*E. Sodium hydrocarbonate.


^ Drugs Influencing Motility of

Gastrointestinal Tract


1. Metoclopramide has antiemetic properties because it:

A. Decreases gastric secretion.

B. Lowers esophageal sphincter pressure.

C. Accelerates gastric emptying time.

D. Has sedative properties.

*E. Is a central nervous system dopamine-receptor antagonist.

2. Steatorrhoea of pancreatic insufficiency can best be treated by:

A. Secretin.

B. Misoprostol.

C. Bile salts.

D. Cimetidine.

*E. Pancrelipase.

3. A 20-year-old woman goes to the emergency department, stating that within the past hour she ingested “a handful of sleeping pills”. She is still awake. Which of the following drugs can be given to induce vomiting?

A. Ondansetron.

B. Metoclopramide.

C. Morphine.

D. Promethazine.

*E. Apomorphine hydrochloride.

4. A 62-year-old woman on haemodialysis is scheduled for a screening colonoscopy. Which drug should be prescribed for her colonic preparation?

A. Cholosasum.

B. Omeprasole.

C. Magnesium oxyde.

D. Ranitidine.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.

5. A 37-year-old man was admitted to the surgical department with symptoms of acute pancreatitis: vomiting, diarrhoea, bradycardia, hypotension, weakness, dehydration of the organism. What medicine should be used first of all?

A. No-spa.

B. Platyphylline.

C. Etaperazine.

D. Ephedrine.

*E. Contrical.

6. A 48-year-old woman receives epidural anaesthesia for vaginal hysterectomy. In recovery room, a fentanyl infusion was begun epidurally for relief of postoperative pain. About six hours later, she began to complain of nausea and had two episodes of vomiting. How could nausea and vomiting best be relieved?

A. Administer apomorphine.

B. Sedate the patient with midazolam (versed).

C. Withhold oral administration of fluids.

D. Discontinue the fentanyl (sublimaze) infusion.

*E. Administer ondansetron.

7. A 28 year-old woman at full-term pregnancy became a candidate for cesarean section because of dystocia caused by fetal malposition. According to clinical standards, she was about 50 pounds overweight. General anaesthesia was chosen for the surgical procedure. (Dystocia: difficult labor caused by the contraction of an area of circular muscle fibers, which may occur in various levels of the parturient uterus). What would be the best drug to be given as pre-anaesthetic medication to promote gastric emptying?

A. Anaprilinum.

B. Ipratropium (atrovent).

C. Atropine.

D. Glycopyrrolate (robinul).

*E. Metoclopramide (reglan).

8. In esophagitis, elevation of the head of the bed, abstinence from ethanol and tobacco, and small frequent meals are all useful adjunctive therapeutic measures. Other useful therapy may include all of the following except:

A. Omeprazole.

B. Metoclopramide.

C. Bethanechol.

D. Cimetidine.

*E. Amitriptyline.

9. An ambulance took a patient to a hospital in serious condition (nausea, vomiting). It is established that the day before he celebrated a wedding with the family. The initial diagnosis is food toxicoinfection. What drug is it necessary to use first of all?

A. Adrenaline hydrochloride.

B. Butamide.

C. Clophelinum.

D. Dimedrol.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.

10. Intestine colic has developed in hypertensive patient. Choose the drugs group which is most rational for interruption of colic in this patient.

A. Adrenomimetics.

B. Cholinesterase inhibitors.

C. Sympathomimetics.

D. M-cholinoblockers.

*E. Miotropic spasmolytics.

11. Laxative drug having osmotic activity was prescribed to patient. What is this drug?

A. Sustac.

B. Bisacodyl.

C. Vaseline.

D. Isaphenine.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.

12. Laxative drug was prescribed to patient with brain oedema. Indicate this drug.

A. Liquid paraffin.

B. Cortex of buckthorn.

C. Bisacodyl.

D. Castor oil.

*E. Magnesium sulfate.


^ Diuretic Drugs. Drugs Influencing Uterus. Drugs for Treatment of Goat


1. The brain oedema was developed in patient with brain trauma in postoperative period. What drug should be prescribed to this patient?

A. Urea.

B. Spironolactone.

C. Amiloride.

D. Dichlothiazidum.

*E. Furosemide.

2. Brain oedema was developed in patient with brain trauma in postoperative period. What drug should be prescribed to this patient?

A. Urea.

B. Spironolactone.

C. Amiloride.

D. Dichlothiazidum.

*E. Mannitol.

3. A 46-year-old patient with ciliary arrhythmia had pulmonary oedema. What diuretic is it necessary to use for the treatment of this patient?

A. Dichlothiazidum.

B. Triamterene.

C. Spironolactone.

D. Amiloride.

*E. Furocemide.

4. The alternate usage of dichlotiazidum, etacrin acid and lasix did not cause marked diuretic effect in the patient with marked peri-pheral oedema. The aldosterone level in the blood is increased. Indicate which drug should be prescribed:

A. Clopamide.

B. Amiloride.

C. Mannitol.

D. Urea.

*E. Spironolactone.

5. Diuretic drug was prescribed to the patient with hypertension in the course of complex treatment. In a few days blood pressure decreased but signs of hypokalaemia developed. What drug could cause such complications?

A. Triamterene.

B. Clophelinum.

C. Spironolactone.

D. Enalapril.

*E. Lasix.

6. A 42-year-old man suffering from gout has increased level of urinary acid in the blood. Allopurinol was prescribed to decrease the level of urinary acid. Competitive inhibitor of what enzyme is allopurinol?

A. Adeninephosphoribosiltransferase.

B. Hypoxantinphosphoribosil-transferase.

C. Guaninedeaminase.

D. Adenosinedeaminase.

*E. Xanthinoxidase.

7. A doctor administered allopurinol to a 26-year-old man with symptoms of gout. What pharmacological action of allopurinol ensures therapeutic effect?

A. General analgesic effect.

B. General anti-inflammatory effect.

C. Inhibiting leucocyte migration into the joint.

D. Increasing uric acid excretion.

*E. Inhibiting uric acid synthesis.

8. Of the following agents, which is best avoided in a patient with a history of chronic congestive heart failure?

A. Spironolactone.

B. Amilorode.

C. Hydrochlorthiazide.

D. Ethacrinic acid.

*E. Mannitol.

9. Furosemide inhibits the sodium-potassium dichloride (Na+, K+, 2Cl-) co-transporters that are located in the:

A. Distal convoluted tubule.

B. Collecting duct.

C. Descending limb of Henle’s loop.

D. Proximal tubule.

*E. Ascending limb of Henle’s loop.

10. Hyperkalemia is a contraindication to the use of which of the following drugs?

A. Hydrochlorothiazide.

B. Ethacrynic acid.

C. Chlorthalidone.

D. Furosemide.

*E. Spironolactone.

11. A reduction in insulin release from the pancreas may be caused by which of the following diuretics?

A. Amiloride.

B. Triamterene.

C. Spironolactone.

D. Ethacrynic acid.

*E. Hydrochlorthiazide.

12. Acute uric acid nephropathy, which is characterized by the acute overproduction of uric acid and by extreme hyperuricemia, can best be prevented with which of the following?

A. Sodium chloride.

B. Aethamidum.

C. Antidiuretic hormone.

D. Amiloride.

*E. Allopurinol.
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